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Full text of "Carpenter"

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CARP€NT€R 



1939 CALENDAR ] 


JANUARY 


JULY 


8 M T W T F S 


S M T W T F S 


1 2 3 4 S 6 7 
S 9 10 U 12 13 14 
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 
22 23 24 25 2627 28 
29 3031 




2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
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23 24 25 26 27 28 29 
3031 


FEBRUARY 


AUGUST 


S M T W T F 8 


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12 3 4 

S 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
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26 27 28 


""12345 
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 
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MARCH 


SEPTEMBER 


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3 4 S 6 7 8 9 

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APRIL 


OCTOBER 


6 M T W T F S 


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IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 
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29 3031 


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MAY 


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14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 
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JUNE 


DECEMBER 


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ma 



BBEM 




mnaa/u/ 



/939 




May the 
New Year bring 
peace, prosper- 
ity, health and 
happiness to all. 



U 



IMPORTANT 

The Federal Postoffice Department now requires 
extra postal charges when they notify International 
Headquarters of any change in address of members 
on The Carpenter mailing list. 

These changes are literally coming in by the hun- 
dreds and the expense is a considerable item. This 
expense can be avoided if all members use the form 
below, to notify us of change of address. Just fill out 
the form and drop it in the mail addressed to Editor, 
The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 
Ind. 

This is an important matter and it is requested 
that all members notify International Headquarters 
of change of address IMMEDIATELY. 



(Date) 19 

Editor, The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Please change my address on Journal file. 

From Street 

City State 

To Street 

City State 

Name in full 

L. U. No , City State 



It is suggested that you cut out blank If you have changed your 
address and paste it on a one cent postcard to save postage. 

Members are not entitled to the Journal if they or their Local 
are in arrears. Honorary members required to pay one dollar yearly 
subscription rate. 



EnteredJuly 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24, 191 2 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, act of 
October 3, 1917. authorized on July 8, 1918 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Sawmill and Timber Worliers, Furniture Workers, Stair 

Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, Millwrights, Shipwrights and 

Boat Builders, Piledrivers and Kindred Industries. Owned and Published by 

the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, at 
Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 
Advertising Department, Rm. 250, Bible House, New York, N. Y. c^^>51 



Established In 1881 
Vol, LIX.— No. 1 



INDIANAPOLIS, JANUARY, 1939 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, In their judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated as 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 











Going Up! 




Construction this year may 
reach or pass the $4,000,000,000 
mark, the highest point since 
IQ28, it is estimated by the F. W. 
Dodge Corporation. The figure 
does not include maintenance or 
repair work. 









THE CARPENTER 



B 



New U. S. Actions Affect all Building 

UILDING, a national monthly publication devoted to news of the 
building industry, clarifies and summarizes recent developments 
in Washington as they affect the building industry. The article 
following is reprinted from Building. 



Never before the present time has what the government does to and for 
the building industry been greater in quantity or of greater potential effect on 
the industry. What the national government decides to do about housing, whether 
it currently runs hot or cold toward cooperation with the private utilities, in what 
manner it prosecutes pump-priming plans, all these have their repercussions on 
the building industry, on individual building men. 

That the government should do all these things to and for building should 
shower it with more diverse favors and restrictions than many another great in- 
dustry, is not hard to understand. Building is an industry that lends itself well to 
pump-priming. It is an industry that during the years from 1933 to 1937 did 
not share in prosperity as did other capital goods industries. And it is one that 
lends itself well to utilization by government in the furthering of policies of social 
reform — housing, for example. 

Public Works Administration 

Highlighting government activity in the building business is activity of the 
Public Works Administration. That organizatioji: 

1. Called to Washington its seven regional directors and their staffs for a 
"chalk-talk" on the best methods of getting every last one of the 6,3 61 approved 
non-federal PWA projects under way by January 1, 1939, the legal deadline. 

2. Proclaimed that 2,46 6 non-federal projects with an estimated construction 
cost of $648,000,000 (40 per cent of the entire non-federal program) were already 
under way (Nov. 6); that 1,058 federal projects were under way (Nov. 1); that 
15 non-federal projects with an estimated value of $872,972 had already been 
completed (Nov. 1). 

3. Continued to make allocations for construction projects, bringing the total 
of approved projects to 7,413, to cost an estimated $1,641,066,263. That amount 
is a mere $226,000,000 short of the total value of construction on which PWA is 
authorized to loan or grant money. 

4. Cooperated with other government agencies in rehabilitation of property in 
storm-stricken eastern states by alloting $8,750,000 for replacement or repair of 
storm-damaged structures. 

U. S. Housing Authority 

Celebrating the first anniversary of the United States Housing Authority, 
Administrator Straus took time out last October to review the first year's work. 
For a yearling, the record seemed impressive: A year ago there existed 46 local 
housing authorities (agencies for putting into effect locally the provisions of the 
United States Housing Act); last year there were 215. Funds have been set 
aside for slum-clearance projects for 142 local housing authorities. In 1937 no 
allocations had been made. Represented among the 142 are authorities in 2 7 
states, D. C, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. 

Shelter rentals have been placed in the reach of the lowest income groups, 
ranging from $21 per month in New York City to $8 per month in the Southwest. 
Cost limitations established by law have been met on projects on the way and 
under way. Most important, Administrator Straus was cheered by the fact that 
slum-clearance and rehousing have, during the last year, been accepted as perma- 
nent rather than emergency measures in the nation's economy. 

Other events in USHA'S record recently include: 

1. Presidential appro-val of loan contracts committing USHA to loans of 
$62,000,000 for housing projects in 19 cities. Projects planned will provide over 



THE CARPENTER 3 

12,000 dwelling units. To date loan contracts for a total of §265,000,000 have 
been approved. 

2. Awarding- of construction contracts on the third, fourth, and fifth USHA 
housing projects — a $12,000,000 project for New York City, "Queensbridge"; a 
?714,000 project for Austin, Tex.; and a $1,140,000 project for Jacksonville, 
Fla. Now under way are the first two projects in USHA's program, "Red Hook" 
in New York City, and "Lakeview" in Buffalo, N. Y. Construction costs on the 
three projects made the Administrator proud as a peacock, were far below the 
maximum allowed by law. 

3. Announced a definite "land policy" in regard to cost of land for USHA 
housing projects: "The USHA will lend up to $1.50 per square foot for low-rental 
housing projects. . . . and in cases where the local authority believes that it is 
wise and sound policy to pay higher prices for land, the USHA will bear part of 
the excess cost." Tentative plan is that USHA will bear one-third of the excess 
cost above $1.50 per square foot, the locality two-thirds. 

Federal Home Loans 

In a survej^ of residential building over the past few years, the Federal Home 
Loan Bank Board pointed first to the rising tide of home building, then to the 
fact that demand for new construction has not yet been met. That generalization 
Avas the sounding board for a lecture to the building industry on the cost ques- 
tion, one which the Board was unwilling to admit had been adequately attacked. 

Alleging that high building costs were not due exclusively to prices of ma- 
terials and labor, the Board lumped as obstacles in the path of progress "excessive 
waste, faulty construction, poor methods of distribution, the present small-scale 
operations of the building industry, lack of standardization, and frequently ex- 
travagant profits of contractors and sales agents." 

Legal impediments which increase the cost of home ownership also came in 
for their share of blame. Among these impediments were listed inadequate or in- 
efficient real estate laws and antiquated, cumbersome foreclosure laws. 

Federal Housing Administration 

Federal Housing Administration business transacted diiring October, although 
it represented in several cases a decline from September levels, was interpreted 
by FHA officials as improving the outlook for continued residential construction 
activity during the winter and early spring where weather conditions permit. 
FHA business was as follows: 

Small home mortgages selected for appraisal during October amounted to 
$97,467,205, a slight decline from September of but one per cent, but an increase 
of 117 per cent over October, 1937. 

Small home mortgages accepted for insurance totaled $64,627,149, a 5.4 per 
cent decline from September but an 82 per cent increase over October last year. 

Premium paying mortgages (those on which insurance premiums started 
flowing to FHA) totaled $58,418,999, a new high, and an increase of 19 per cent 
over September and an increase of 4 7 per over October last year. 

Large scale rental projects on which FHA had insured mortgages in operation 
or under construction on October 31 were valued at $71,600,000, an increase of 6.9 
per cent over the comparative September figure. 

Property improvement loans reported to FHA during October numbered 53,- 
594 for a total value of $22,367,119, the largest volume rep6rted for any one 
month since the amended National Housing Act became effective. 

Government and Utilities 

Talk of rapprochement between government and private utility interests is 
no new thing as every watcher of business scene knows. Nor could watchers be 
excused some measure of skepticism when talk last October of cooperation be- 
tween the administration and utilities was again spotlighted in Washington news. 
More than once has there been a harmonious meeting between government offi- 
cials and power executives without noticeable good result. 



4 THE CARPENTER 

Occasion for news of cooperation was a large-scale utility construction program 
sponsored by the National Power Defense Program. Ostensibly the program was 
drawn up because of the current keen attention the Administration is paying to 
measures of defense, yet the talk of expansion plans gave rise to hopes that real 
and general cooperation would result. 

According to latest reports, utilities have made definite commitments to place 
orders for equipment totaling 1,000,000 kilowatts of generating capacity, a pro- 
gram that, according to Floyd L. Carlisle, of the Consolidated Edison Co., of New 
York, might together with other utility expansion, bring to a billion dollars per 
year utility construction for the next two years. 

New Housing Plan 

The Home Owners' Loan Corporation refinanced a million homes for owners 
in the depth of the depression. The Federal Housing Administration has been 
moderately successful in enticing private capital to enter the rental housing field 
with projects for families able to pay rentals of $10 per room per month or more. 
The United States Housing Authority has made a fair start toward rehousing at 
least some of those of the nation's slum dwellers whose incomes permit rentals 
of not more than $5 per room per month. The work of these governmental agen- 
cies the President last October inspected, found that there still remained a large 
group of families whose incomes limited monthly payments for rent or home pur- 
chase to from $5 to $10 per room. For these, not much was being done. 

And the President proposed to do something. He had conferred with govern- 
ment ofiicials as to the feasibility of a plan whereby small investors, the families 
with $50 to $5,000 seeking investment, would be induced to invest in housing if 
suitable machinery existed for such investment. Proceeds of the investments 
would be used for building homes to cost in the neighborhood of $3,000 for the 
income group able to afford $5 to $10 per room per month rentals. Interest at 3 
or 3 % per cent would offer a return greater than that offered on saving deposits. 

Quick to offer a solution to the President's problem was Morton Bodflsh, execu- 
tive vice-president of the United States Building and Loan League. No new ma- 
chinery is needed, said Mr. Bodfish, to get small investors to advance funds for 
low-cost home construction. It already exists in the form of building and loan 
associations, which pay a return of 3 i/4 to 3 V2 per cent on deposits ranging from 
$20 to $25 and up. He urged that in any plan such as the President had hinted at, 
the b. and l.'s be seriously considered. 

Also on the heels of the President's announcement of his embryo plan came 
neAvs that the Federal Housing Administration, through Gerard B. Lambert, 
prominent business man who some months ago became special adviser to the 
FHA, was working on a plan for supplying housing to persons in the lower in- 
come groups. The Lambert plan differed in several points from the President's, 
main difference being that it envisaged the investment of capital on the part of 
large investors instead of small, and the issuance of tax-exempt securities, a step 
the President's plan precluded. 

Impeachment of Labor Secretary Perkins Threatened 

Congressman J. Parnell Thomas (Rep., N. J.), declared recently he would 
sponsor impeachment proceedings against Secretary of Labor Francis Perkins 
unless she deports Harry Bridges, CIO west coast leader, as soon as the Supreme 
Court hands down a decision in a similar case. Thomas is a member of the Dies 
committee investigating un-American activities. 

A demand for impeachment was also voiced by Stephen F. Chadwick, national 
commander of the American Legion. 

Miss Perkins takes the position that it would be futile to attempt to dis- 
pose of the Bridges case until the Supreme Court decides the legal issues in dis- 
pute. 



Better little talent with much purpose, than much talent with little purpose. 



THECARPEXTER 5 

Building Gains Lead Business Upturn 

BUILDING activity continued to outpace general industrial activity 
during- October on the basis of a year to year comparison, rising to 
a level 8.6 per cent greater than that of October, 1937. Industrial 
activity, despite recent marked gains, was still about 8 per cent 
lower than in October, 1937. 

"For the immediate future building will continue to make an excellent 
showing," says Building, a national review of building news and trends. 

"Expenditures for building construction during last October totaled 
$197,814,000 an amount greater than that spent in any month but one of the 
entire recovery period which began in 1933. That month was July, 1937, 
when expenditures for building were $201,248,000. 

"Of the three types of building which make up total building volume, 
the alteration and repair classification was the only laggard, October vol- 
ume declining 1.6 per cent from the previous month, and 20.2 per cent 
from October, 1937. Both residential and non-residential activity made 
gains over September, but of the two, only residential volume was ahead 
of that for the same month of 1937; ahead by a goodly percentage too — 
35.4 per cent. 

"The increase in total building activity, October over September, oc- 
curred in all but two of the nine sections of the country. In Mid-Atlantic 
activity declined slightly, about 1.8 per cent; in West South Central the 
decline was negligible. In both of these sections, however, activity was 
from one-fourth to one-third greater than in the corresponding month of 

"It was in the East South Central and Pacific sections that building ac- 
tivity made the greatest gains over September, increasing 13.3 and 9.1 
per cent, respectively. 

"In all sections of the country but one the building of dwellings was 
putting more building mechanics to work and giving dealers and contrac- 
tors more business during October than in the same month of 1937. The 
section that had not yet overtaken 1937's level was New England. 

"Particularly in Mid-Atlantic, West South Central, Pacific, and West 
North Central was the improvement over 1937 a notable one. 

"Actually spent for residential building during October was $103,- 
136,000, an increase of 2.8 per cent over the previous month and 35.4 per 
cent over October, 1937. 

"The $103,136,000 spent during October brought residential expendi- 
tures for the first ten months of last year to $751,000,000, about ten per 
cent less than during the corresponding months of 1937. 

"An increase in activity over the October level was forecast for No- 
vember and December, 1938. Expenditures for residential building for the 
two months will be approximately $218,000,000, with the increase occur- 
ring principally in the Mid-Atlantic, East North Central, and West South 
Central sections of the country. 

"The greatest month-to-month gain last year for non-residential build- 
ing was recorded during October. Volume of a little over $60,000,000 
represented a 7.8 per cent increase over September. Compared with Octo- 
ber, 1937, however, volume was 4 per cent less. 

"For the November-December two-month period, activity will prob- 
ably decline somewhat from the October level. On the basis of permits 
issued for non-residential building during past months, it is estimated 
that expenditures during the two months will be $115,000,000. 



6 THE CARPENTER 

"Prospects are further brightened by recent talk of utility-government 
cooperation, concrete evidence of which is said to be indispensable if the 
private investor is to be convinced that new utility issues are good invest- 
ments. 

"Although alteration and repair work declined from September to 
October, the downward trend will be reversed the next two months. With 
rehabilitation getting under way in the storm-stricken area of New 
England, a good gain in repair expenditures for the two-month period is 
indicated for that section. Increasing expenditures there, together with 
increasing activity in the West South Central, South Atlantic, and Pacific 
sections, will bring expenditures for the two months, November and De- 
cember, 1938, to about $74,000,000. 

"Actual money spent for alteration and repair work during October 
was 34^ million dollars, a decline of 1.6 per cent from the September fig- 
ure, and a decline of 20.2 per cent from that of October i, 1937. Only in 
South Atlantic, East South Central, and Pacific was activity greater than 

during the previous month." 

© 

Textile Workers Leave CIO 

PRESIDENT Francis J. Gorman has notified the 700 local unions 
of the United Textile Workers that they no longer are members of 
the CIO. 

Gorman announced that a UTW convention would be called in 
Washington, D. C, soon, to decide the union's future affiliation. 

Gorman's announcement marked the second major defection from the 
CIO within slightly more than a month. President David Dubinsky's 
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union declined to join the CIO 
when John L. Lewis' organization was put on a permanent national basis 
in opposition to the A. F. of L. 

The United Textile Workers' organization was suspended from the 
A. F. of L. Gorman says that his own local union in Providence, R. I., has 
since received a charter as an A. F, of L. local, which makes him a member 
of the A. F. of L. 

This announcement by Gorman comes on the heels of an announce- 
ment by A. F. of L. officials that considerable progress is being made in 
bringing the textile workers into the ranks of the A. F. of L. 

The A. F. of L. recently issued a federal labor union charter to a textile 

workers union with 6,000 members in Providence, R. I., and A. F. of L. 

officials report that more than 40 former locals of the United Textile 

Workers have affiliated with the American Federation of Labor in the last 

18 months. 

• 

Industrialist tells Industry to Seek Social Ideals 

Industry should not live for profits alone, according to Edward R, Stettinus, 
Jr., chairman of the board of the United States Steel Corporation. 

"It must strive to adjust its operations to the highest purposes of life," he 
told a convention in New York recently. "In doing so, it may safely depend on 
the whole-hearted support, sympathy and understanding not only of employes and 
their families, but the public as well." 

Stettinus hailed security legislation as a great step in advance — "one deeply 
desired by the people deserving to be protected and by all who cherish the well- 
being of our social order." 



THE CARPENTER 7 

Labor and Profit-Sharing 

PRESIDENT William Green of the American Federation of Labor 
submitted the following statement to the sub-committee of the Sen- 
ate Finance Committee investigating- profit-sharing systems in in- 
dustry: 

Labor is not opposed to principles involved in profit-sharing, but it is 
opposed to the wa}- in which it has developed and operated. Profit-sharing 
as developed in the United States was imposed on all existing economic 
injustice and discouraging union activity to secure a fair basic wage. So- 
called profit-sharing plans were mainly developed by corporations that 
attempted to substitute for real collective bargaining an arrangement 
termed employe representation which for the most part was the form 
without the substance. The companies sought to oppose trade unionism 
by "refined" methods of the "employe representation" plan or company 
union, including the substitution of the term "industrial relations" for 
"labor relations," employe representation for union and collective bargain- 
ing, industrial relations problems for labor problems, et cetera. The pur- 
pose of these substitute terms was to obscure the real labor problems 
and to direct attention from the union's concentration on establishing 
workers' equities in their jobs and fair compensation for their participa- 
tion in joint work. This background militated against developing of 
profit-sharing on a sound basis. 

Labor believes all plans affecting labor must rest on collective bar- 
gaining. Beginning with the basic fact of our social organization that 
people must have incomes to buy the necessaries and comforts for living, 
Labor asserts the right of every person to opportunity to earn that in- 
come which includes the right to payment from work done. The right 
of Labor to the fruits of its toil has been obscured by the complexities 
flowing from the corporative form of financing, and mass production with 
its standardization of designs and machines and sub-division of work for 
repetitive processes. Corporation financing has altered and obscured the 
responsibility of investors in a business enterprise; mass production or 
large scale production has obscured the relation between the worker and 
his productiveness. What is needed in this situation is genuine organiza- 
tion of Avorkers in unions so that they may have an agency for collecting 
and collating the facts of the work relationships and of the results of 
joint and individual work, for the purpose of joint discussion with man- 
agement to define the principles and standards of compensation for work. 

This union function is indispensable to justice to workers, to balanced 
progress of the industry within the business structure and to social justice 
and peace in the community. Denial of this fundamental justice to those 
who carry on the production processes of industry or maintain our service 
institutions, or attempts to frustrate collective bargaining are what cause 
labor disputes and social discontent. Substitutes for justice may for a 
time prevent the outbreak of disputes but they increase and foster a spirit 
of unrest which sooner or later takes its toll. In recognition of these facts 
our nation has undertaken to assure to wage earners the right to organize 
in unions and to bargain collectively through representatives of their 
own choosing. This priceless foundation of economic liberty we intend to 
maintain against all invasions whether by emploAers or governmental 
administrators. It follows that we are equally unwilling to see the scope 
of collective bargaining narrowed so that profit-sharing on any other new 
provision affecting work relationships must mean an extension of collec- 



8 THE CARPENTER 

live bargaining- to the new field. All of the terms and conditions of pay- 
ment for work should be determined through joint conferences of repre- 
sentatives of management and workers concerned, carried to mutual 
agreement upon issues discussed. Should union and management con- 
sider a form of profit-sharing these would be elements in the considera- 
tion. Labor cannot be asked to accept blindly management's decision on 
what constitutes profits. All of the facts must be available. 

(i) Production and costs records must be equally available to 
union and management. 

(2) Sales policies must be considered by both parties and be 
mutually acceptable. All records must be equally available to both 
sides. 

(3) Salaries of executives and officers and returns to investors 
must be subject to the same conditions. 

(4) Financial policies and proposals must be subjected to the 
same review and decision. 

(5) The standard wages of producing workers, which are pro- 
duction charges should be fixed by collective bargaining at the 
highest level industry could reasonably be expected to pay and 
should provide for customary standards of living proportionate to 
productivity as human labor power is increased by mechanical 
power and machine tools, and reflecting lower unit production 
costs. The standard wage is the cost item which is the first charge 
in industry and which is necessary to the sustained consuming 
power upon which all business depends. 

(6) Profit-sharing or a partnership wage is the share which 
Labor would have in the net income of the enterprise. In reality 
Labor is a partner in production, not from the investment of capital, 
but from the investment of experience and work ability. As a part- 
ner Labor would have a voice in determining rates of profit sharing. 

Recognition of real partnership and frank acceptance of the privil- 
eges and rig-hts derived therefrom would be the greatest incentive to 
sustained efficiency in work that industry could devise. Nothing involved 
in the acceptance of this real partnership alters the functions of manage- 
ment and workers. Management would still write the work orders and 
the production staff would execute them. 

Investors have always claimed that profits belonged exclusively to 
tliem because they alone bore the risk of industr}^ But we well know the 
risk of business is borne by every person dependent upon it for jobs and 
income. The risk of wage-earners is no less frightening and hazardous 
than that of investors — food, clothing and shelter are at stake. 

The profit motive is a strong force. It gives an individual opportunity 
to benefit from resourcefulness and efficiency. It has been a most power- 
ful force in developing present day civilization and we do not wish to 
limit the scope of its operation. We, therefore, propose that collective 
bargaining be extended to the field of profit-sharing as rapidly as possible. 

Profit-sharing in the strict sense means a plan to share net profits with 
employes. Some have used the term in a broad sense making profit-shar- 
ing include types of bonus payments, insurance or savings plans, stock 
ownership, and production bonus, such as gift or merit bonus, per cent- 
on-wages bonus, cost-of-living bonus, and service bonus. The difficulty of 
including these plans in profit sharing is that they are a part of the wage 



THE CARPENTER 9 

structure and therefore are production charges and therefore must be 
charged off before profits can be determind and divided. 

A study by the British Ministry of Labor (1936) showed that out of 
532 bona fide profit-sharing plans in that country 330 or 62 per cent had 
been discontinued. The National Industrial Conference Board reviewed 
experience in this country in its 1937 study and found that 96 out of 161 
or 60 per cent had been abandoned. Dissatisfaction of employers or em- 
ployes was found to be the cause for discontinuance of 26 per cent of the 
British plans and 29 per cent of the American. Substitution of higher 
wages, shorter hours or other benefits replaced profit-sharing in 11 per 
cent of the British companies and in 14 per cent of the American. 

The American Federation of Labor is unalterably opposed to using the 
tax power of the Government to promote profit sharing plans. It is square- 
ly opposed to amending the Social Security Act to provide tax credits for 
funds allotted to profit sharing or any similar purpose, however worthy 
they may be in themselves. 

The Social Security Act is to provide some degree of security for the 
victims of industrial unemployment. It cannot be used to remedy the 
defects of industry without interfering with its prime function. 

The costs of administering social security are already too high — 
between $40,000,000 and $60,000,000. These high costs are due in part to 
our inexperience in the field and in part to the very complicated provi- 
sions in our laws. Merit rating provisions in the laws not yet in effect 
will definitely increase these costs. The Federation believes these provi- 
sions should be removed. Credit for profit-sharing would mutiply the 

difficulties and the costs. 

• 

Three Facts Give Food for Thought 

Many studies have shown how modern machines and production meth- 
ods cause unemployment, but one of the most remarkable reports on this 
subject was published recently by the National Bureau of Economics Re- 
search, an impartial investigating agency supported by universities and 
"foundations." 

The bureau found three main facts : 

I — Productive efiiciency increased so rapidly during the depression 
that it took only 336,000,000 "man-hours" of work to produce in 1935 the 
"volume of goods" which required 427,000,000 man-hours in 1929. In other 
words, four men produced what five produced before, and the fifth man 
lost his job. 

2 — If the workers had received the benefit of this increased efficiency, 
their pay would have been boosted 20 to 25 per cent. This added purchas- 
ing power, the report says, "would have meant a substantial gain in the 
national standard of living." 

3 — The 8.839,000 workers in the manufacturing industries in 1929 
worked an average of 48.3 hours a week. In 1935, the}'- could have pro- 
duced as much by working only 38 hours a week, a reduction of 10.3 hours, 
or 21 per cent. 

• 

Everyone must have felt that a cheerful friend is like a sunny day, which 
sheds its brightness on all around; and most of ms can, as we choose, make of this 
world either a palace or a prison. — Lubbock. 



10 THE CARPENTER 

Supreme Court Outlaws NLRB Order 

IN an outstanding decision holding that the National Labor Relations 
Board acted illegally in ordering the Consolidated Edison Company 
of New York City to abrogate its contracts with the International 
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, affiliated with the American 
Federation of Labor, the Supreme Court of the United States definitely 
ended the Board's practice of nullifying, at the behest of the CIO, agree- 
ments negotiated with employers by American Federation of Labor 
unions. 

The case came before the Labor Board in May, 1937, when the United 
Electric and Radio Workers of America, affiliated with the CIO, filed a 
charge that the Edison companies were resorting to unfair labor practices 
prohibited by the Labor Act. During the same month the Edison com- 
panies signed agreements with the International Brotherhood of Electri- 
cal Workers providing for the recognition of the Brotherhood as the 
collective bargaining agency for those employes who were members of 
the Brotherhood, with the usual stipulations as to hours, wages, working 
conditions, etc., and for the arbitration of disputes. 

The Labor Board ruled that the contracts with the Brotherhood were 
executed under such circumstances that they were invalid under the pro- 
visions of the Labor Relations Act and ordered the Edison companies to 
cease from giving them effect. 

The Edison companies and the Electrical Workers Brotherhood peti- 
tioned the United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit 
to set aside the Labor Board's order. The Labor Board, supported by the 
CIO union, asked the Appeals Court to enforce the order. The Circuit 
Court granted the Board's petition. The Edison companies and the Elec- 
trical Workers Brotherhood appealed the Circuit Court's decision to the 
Supreme Court. 

Chief Justice Hughes, who wrote the opinion of the court, handled 
without gloves the Labor Board's absurd argument that the Edison com- 
panies had illegally signed agreements with the Electrical Workers 
Brotherhood without giving employes opportunity to choose a collective 
bargaining agency. This contention, he said, was a conclusion "entirely 
too broad to be sustained." 

There were two minority opinions, each dissenting from different 
sections of the majority opinion, although agreeing otherwise with the 
majority, filed by Justice Hugo L. Black and Stanley F. Reed. The other 
dissent came from Justices Pierce, Butler and James C. McReynolds who 
held that the Labor Relations Board was altogether without jurisdiction 
over the labor affairs of the Edison Company because it was engaged 
"solely in intra-state activities." 

Pointing out that the membership of the Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers and its locals covered at least 30,000 of the 38,000 employes of 
the Edison companies, the Chief Justice said: 

"There is no basis for a finding that the contracts with the brother- 
hood and its locals were a consequence of the unfair labor practices found 
by the board or that these contracts in themselves thwart any policy of 
the act or that their cancellation would in any way make the order to 
cease the specified practices any more effective." 

He found that the 30,000 members of the Brotherhood, who consti- 
tuted 80 per cent of the Edison employes, had a right to make the con- 
tracts. 



THE CARPENTER 11 

"They had the right to choose the Brotherhood as their representative 
for collective bargaining and to have contracts made as a result of that 
bargaining,' he declared. "Nothing that the employers had done de- 
prived them of that right. Nor did the contracts make the Brotherhood 
and its locals exclusive representatives for collective bargaining. On that 
point the contracts speak for themselves. The}^ simply constitute the 
brotherhood the collective bargaining agency for those employes who are 
its own members. 

"The board by its order did not direct an election to ascertain w^ho 
should represent the employes for collective bargaining." 

The Chief Justice was equally emphatic in ruling that the Labor 
Board acted illegally in issuing the order requiring the Edison companies 
to abrogate their contracts with the Electrical Workers Brotherhood. 
In this connection he discussed the section of the National Labor Rela- 
tions Act authorizing the Board to take "affirmative action'' when it 
found an employer guilty of unfair labor practices. He added : 

"We think that this authority to order affirmative action does not go 
so far as to confer a punitive jurisdiction enabling the board to inflict 
upon the employer any penalty it may choose because he is engaged in 
unfair labor practices even though the board ma}"" be of the opinion that 
the policies of the act might be effectuated by such an order." 

Declaring that the Labor Board's contention that membership in the 
Electrical Workers Brotherhood was due to unfair labor practices applied 
by the Edison companies was not based on ascertained facts but on mere 
guesswork, the Chief Justice affirmed the right of the Brotherhood to 
form locals and solicit members and the right of the employes to join 
the Brotherhood. 

"These rights," he said, "cannot be brushed aside as immaterial for 
they are of the very essence of the rights which the Labor Relations Act 
was passed to protect and the board could not ignore or override them 
in professing to effectuate the policies of the act. 

"To say that of the 30.000 who did join there were not those who 
joined voluntarily or that the brotherhood did not have members whom it 
could properl}^ represent in making these contracts would be to indulge 
in extravagant and unwarranted assumption. The employers' practices, 
which were complained of, could be stopped without imperiling the inter- 
ests of those who, for all that appears, had exercised freely their right 
of choice. 

"We conclude that the board was without authority to require the peti- 
tioning companies to desist from giving eft"ect to the brotherhood con- 
tracts, as provided in subdivision (f), of paragraph one of the board's 
order." 

In another portion of the opinion the Supreme Court uphold the Labor 
Board's contention that although the Edison compan}'- is intra-state in 
character the Federal Government has jurisdiction because some of its 
power is applied to interstate activities. 

!}c 4; lie :(: i(c 

A few hours before press time the United States Supreme Court gave 
the pro-CIO National Labor Relations Board its second recent reversal. 

The stubborn determination of the National Labor Relations Board to 
lorce a steamship company to reinstate with back pay CIO seamen who 
were discharged following a sit-down strike in June. 1937, which pre- 



12 THE CARPENTER 

vented the masters of two vessels from exercising their legal control over 
the ships was halted by the high court. 

This outstanding position of the Supreme Court resulted from its re- 
fusal to grant a petition of the National Labor Relations Board for a re- 
view of the Board's case against the Peninsular and Occidental Steamship 
company charging violation of the National Labor Relations Act. The 
Supreme Court upheld the decision of the United States Circuit Court of 
Appeals for the Fifth Circuit which found the CIO sit-down strikers 
guilty of mutiny, condemned the National Labor Relations Board for dis- 
regarding proper evidence, and set aside as illegal the Board's order in 
its entirety. 

The action of the Supreme Court of the United States in refusing to 
review the decision of the Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit un- 
doubtedly placed a definite quietus on the pronounced sympathy for the 
sit-down strike frequently manifested by the National Labor Relations 
Board, and, at the same time, emphatically warned the CIO and its com- 
munistic affiliate, the CIO seamen's union, that the sit-down strike, con- 
demned by the American Federation of Labor, is illegal and will not be 

tolerated in the American Merchant Marine. 

• 

Woll Hails Court's Ruling In Edison Case 

ATISFACTION was expressed in American Federation of Labor 
circles over the decision of the United States Supreme Court that 
the National Labor Relations Board acted without legal authority 
in ordering- the Consolidated Edison Company of New York City to 
abrogate agreements of the company and its affiliates with the Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, an affiliate of the A. F. of L. 
The Board's action was taken under a complaint filed by the United Elec- 
trical and Radio Workers of America, affiliated with John L. Lewis's 
CIO. 

Matthew Woll, third vice president of the American Federation of 
Labor, said : 

"The decision of the Supreme Court denies the right of the National 
Labor Relations Board to invalidate contracts with bona fide unions like 
the International Brotherhood of Electric Workers or any other valid 
labor organizations. 

"This is a distinct setback to the CIO and to those in the National 
Labor Relations Board who have devoted themselves to promoting the 
interests of the CIO rather than applying themselves to the task of an 
impartial administration of the National Labor Relations 7\ct. 

"The decision leaves the judgment as to the validity of contracts 
where a bona fide union is concerned entirely in the hands of the courts, 
where it belongs and where all parties concerned may be expected to get 
an impartial hearing." 

9 

Nation's Income Jumps two and half Billions 

A rise in the national income in October to $5,622,000,000, the 1938 peak, 
is attributed almost entirely to increased industrial production in a report issued 
by the Alexander Hamilton Institute. This was a gain of nearly $2,500,000,000 
over April. ■ . 



To bear other peoples afflictions, every one has courage to spare. — Franklin. 



THE CARPENTER 13 

Ray of Hope for 'Torgotten'' Man 

DURING the next session of Congress a great deal will be heard 
about the "forgotten" men and women of industry — workers over 
40 years of age. 

The question is going to be raised by the new Senator from 
New York, James M. Mead, a member of the Switchmen's union, who dis- 
closed that he intends to advocate a comprehensive program embracing 
these major features: 

I — Making the Works Progress Administration a permanent agency 
of government, to provide jobs for middle-aged persons not wanted in 
industry. 

2 — Removing age limits in Civil Service regulations, to give men and 
women above 40 preference in awarding government jobs. 

At the last session, when Mead was a member of the House, he spon- 
sored a resolution calling for an appropriation of $50,000 to enable the 
Department of Labor to study discrimination against middle-aged work- 
ers, its findings to be used as a basis for legislation. 

The resolution did not get through, but the Department of Labor, 
appreciating the value of the proposal, set up an unofficial committee 
which has studied the matter and has a pretty fair grasp of what is needed. 

The problem is of such far-reaching and overshadowing importance, 
]\Iead declared, that it cannot with safety be disregarded much longer. 

He insists that every man and woman able and willing to work should 
be given a job. If industry cannot or will not provide work opportunities, 
he said, the government must do so. 

In addition to providing jobs. Mead contends, the Social Security Act 
must be broadened to cover millions of workers now excluded from its 
provisions, and also to increase the pensions paid to those who have 
reached the end of their working days. 

"In a nutshell," Mead says, "we must provide that men from 40 to 65 
years, or whatever retirement age is established in the pension act, shall 
be guaranteed government pay checks if they cannot connect with private 
jobs. 

"When they reach the retirement age, they should be assured of a pen- 
sion that will safeguard them during their last years from sulTering and 
want." 

This double-barrelled proposal uncjuestionably will receive a lot of 
sympathetic consideration in Congress, and increasingly so in future 
Congresses. It is safe to predict that within a very few years it is going 
to be one of the three or four paramount issues before the American 
people. 

It will have the support of Sheridan Downey, recently elected Sena- 
tor from California, who has advanced ideas on social security. 

Downey believes that sentiment for adequate retirement pensions for 
"senior citizens" is strong* and growing. He has approved various pro- 
posals, not because he has regarded thehi as panaceas, but because he felt 
they were leading in the direction the country must take. 

Personally, Downey wants a practical program that will be within 
the country's means and at the same time will be adequate to the needs of 
the aged. 

Another who will be fighting alongside Mead and Downey is Senator 
Claude Pepper of Florida, who, during his recently successful campaign 



14 THE CARPENTER 

for re-election, declared he would do everything possible to provide jobs 
for the aged and to obtain for them suitable pensions when their working- 
days are over. 

The position of these Senators emphasizes the wa}^ the country is 
thinking about pensions. It is significant that 40 Republicans elected to 
Congress a few weeks ago owed their success to their support of the 
Townsend plan. 

Recently Harry L. Hopkins, former W. P. A. administrator, was quot- 
ed as holding that unemplo3^ment is a permanent problem, because the ma- 
chine is destroying jobs faster than they can be created by industry or the 
government. 

Hopkins pointed out that skilled, middle-aged workers are mainly the 
victims of this ruthless process, and said that those who contend that age 
pensions will not increase from year to year is fooling himself. 

He predicted the time is coming when every American, on reaching a 
certain age, would receive a pension "as a matter of right." 

Recently the Census of Unemployment, taken by John D. Biggers, a 
big industrialist, printed its findings in four volumes. They show that, 
outside the farms, the ages most favorable for full-time employment are 
between 30 and 44. 

In November, 1937, when the census was taken, men who were totally 
unemployed or engaged in emergency relief work constituted 19 per cent 
of all available male workers. Between the ages of 40 and 44, 15 per cent 
were unemployed, while from 55 to 59 the rate jumped to 22 per cent. 

Commenting on these figures, Biggers said that it is obvious that every 
3''ear added to a worker's age after he passes 44 makes it increasingly diffi- 
cult for him to obtain a job. 

"Something must be done to correct this condition if our social system 
is to be successful," Mead declares. "It is a problem that' must not be 
overlooked or shuffled to the sidelines. The question has not developed 
suddenly; it has been before us for 15 3^ears, but nothing has been done 
about it. 

"What is more pathetic or distressing than the picture of a man, able 
and willing to work, who lost his job because of the depression and is 
refused re-employment because of his age? 

"It is horrifying to note that employers have asked the administrator 
of the Wage and Hour Act for exemption for all workers 40 years or 
over, on the ground they are handicapped. 

"It seems incredible that modern industry should find it necessary to 
view the working man or woman of 40 as a handicap to production. I do 
not believe it can be demonstrated that the worker in the older age 
brackets, with his added years of experience, suffers by comparison with 
those in the lower age groups. 

"If, however, our much boasted machine age has in fact relegated to 
the scrap heap a large number of our workers who have passed the 40- 
year mark, then I am convinced the government must step in and lend a 

helping hand." 

« ■ 

Food Costs Expected to take Jump Soon 

American families now have $75,000,000 a month to spend more than last 
summer, according to the Northwestern National Life Insurance Company. This 
was attributed to lower food costs, which show signs of going up, a report said. 



THE CARPENTER 15 

War Declared On Oregon Labor Haters 

THE American Federation of Labor has joined forces with the 
labor movement of Oregon in a court battle against a vicious anti- 
labor law enacted by the state's voters last November 8. 

Joseph A. Padway, A. F. of L. general counsel, has been as- 
signed by President William Green to assist the Oregon State Federation 
of Labor in a legal attack on the constitutionality of the measure. 

Padway explained that the first step will be to ask a declaratory judg- 
ment from the Oregon Supreme Court, setting aside the law as a violation 
of the state and national constitutions and in conflict with the National 
Labor Relations Act and the Norris-LaGuardia anti-injunction statute. 

.Oregon statutes make such a course possible, thus avoiding the long 
delay involved in carrying on a test case. Padway expressed confidence 
that, even if the entire law could not be knocked out, some of its worst 
features would be invalidated. 

Labor is determined to leave nothing undone to invalidate the law, 
because the labor hating interests back of it, if they get away with it in- 
Oregon, are expected to work to put over similar legislation in other 
states. 

By thrcnving- out the Oregon act, labor hopes to stop such a movement 
dead in its tracks. Similar laws were defeated b}" the voters in California 
and Washington. 

As in these two states, the miscalled "Associated Farmers" was behind 
the Oregon law. This organization was recently exposed by the National 
Labor Relations Board as a front for labor-hating employers, freely sub- 
sidized by them. Expense accounts filed with the Oregon secretary of 
state confirmed the board's analysis. These showed that the "Associated 
Farmers" received huge contributions from big industrialists while the 
"Farmers" were fighting to put over the anti-union laws. 

Among the sinister provisions of the Oregon measure is one which 
would outlaw strikes except when sanctioned by a majority of employes. 
Thus, a craft union in a plant could not strike in defense of its own in- 
terests unless employes in all departments also struck. 

Another clause would make Oregon a paradise for strikebreakers. It 
would forbid strikers, under penalty of a $500 fine, for interfering with 
any- "scab" going to work. 

A third part would practically outlaw picketing. Another provision 
would put a straightjacket on the right of unions to raise funds for self- 
defense. 

The "Capital Press," a daily newspaper of Salem, considered the issue 
so vital that it said: "Organized labor may as well fold up its tent and 

move out of Oregon, unless the law is thrown out bv the courts." 

• 

City and Privately Owned Utilities to Compete 

Public ownership and private enterprise are about to stage a battle royal in 
Memphis, Tenn. Memphis has contracted for TVA power and has offered to pay 
$17,385,000 for the gas and electric properties of the Memphis Power and Light 
Company. 

The utility says that is too low and, after much "buck passing" announces it 
is prepared to enter into competition with the city plant. 

The city has accepted the challenge and will begin construction of its own 
distributing system. The private plant's first step will be to cut rates, the city 
plant may follow suit and, in that event, consumers will be "sitting pretty." 



16 THE CARPENTER 

Truthful Shrinkage Labels On Cotton 

FOLLOWING many years of effort by organizations of consumers 
to require manufacturers to attach quality labels to cloth, this desir- 
able procedure is now applied to cotton goods under the new trade 
practice rules issued by the Federal Trade Commission. 

The Consumers Guide, published by the Consumers Council Division 

of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, reports that the new rules 

•require that labels on all cotton fabrics and manufactured cotton goods 

making claims about shrinkage must now specify what they mean when 

they say "shrunk" or "pre-shrunk." 

Issued after several years of controversy, the rules legally forbid any 
advertising, labels, or sales statements that deceive or mislead consumers 
reguarding the amount cotton goods will shrink. 

"Shrunk and pre-shrunk may be used to describe cotton goods if, when 
they are used, a statement guaranteeing maximum shrinkage accompanies 
them," writes the Guide. "Thus, a manufacturer may label a garment : 
.'These goods have been shrunk (or pre-shrunk) to the extent that resi- 
dual shrinkage will not exceed — per cent when tested in accordance with 
recognized and approved standards or tests.' Or the statement may simply 
say: 'Pre-shrunk — residual shrinkage i per cent; or 2 per cent.''. 

"Residual shrinkage simply means that while the garment has been 
shrunk, it may suffer additional shrinkage to the extent stated. 

"Such words as 'full shrunk,' 'shrink-proof,' 'non-shrinkable,' and simi- 
lar terms are banned if the goods so advertised, sold, or labeled contain 
any capacity to shrink. 

"Look at labels carefully when you buy cotton goods in the future. 
Those that contain shrinkage guarantees will be your most reliable pro- 
tection against shrinkage. Manufacturers who don't claim their goods 
are 'pre-shrunk' or 'shrunk' are not affected by the rules. 

"Cotton goods guaranteed not to shrink more than 2 per cent meet 
most consumer needs ; if the percentage is greater, buy larger sizes or 
more yard goods, 

"If the goods or garments don't live up to the label shrinkage guaran- 
tee, do this: Complain to the store where you made your purchase; then 

report the violation to the Federal Trade Commission for investigation." 

• • 

Lumber Sales Continue Rapid Climb 

Lumber sales throughout the United States showed a phenomenal in- 
crease during the closing week in November. 

The National Lumber Manufacturers' Association reported new orders 
during the week ended November 26 last were the heaviest in five weeks 
and 58 per cent above those booked in the corresponding week of 1937. 

During the week 550 reporting mills produced 162,238,000 feet of soft- 
woods and hardwoods combined, shipped 178,224,000 feet and booked 
orders of 224,813,000 feet. Revised figures for the preceding week were 
561 mills, 198,605,000 feet produced, 201,011,000 feet shipped and 224,250,- 
000 ordered. 

Despite the fact that building throughout the nation usually showed a 
slack period during the mid-winter months, all types of construction 
have continued to increase this year. 

Extreme optimism is felt everywhere insofar as the building- industry 
is concerned. All statistical services predict the heaviest wave of build- 
ing next spring that the United States has seen since early in the twenties. 



THE CAKPEXTER 17 

Church Leader Supports Green's Proposal 

PRAISE for the support of "some form of a partnership wage which 
shares excess income equitably between management, workers and 
investors," enunciated by President William Green of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor, in a statement to the sub-committee of the 
Senate Finance Committee investigating profit-sharing systems, comes 
from the Rev. Raymond McGowan, Assistant Director, National Catholic 
Welfare Conference, Department of Social Action, in a press release en- 
titled "Farewell to Revolution." 

"AVilliam Green, president of the American Federation of Labor, says 
before the Senate Committee on profit-sharing that recognition of real 
partnership between labor and capital 'would be the greatest incentive to 
sustained efficiency,' and he lays down statesmanlike conditions of such 
partnership," the Reverend McGowan said. "It is also the means of social 
justice, the way to end unemployment and poverty, the barrier to exces- 
sive government, the cure of the class struggle, the quietus of all resolu- 
tion, the veto of Nazism and Communism. 

"For it means joint action by organized investors and organized labor 
to make industry act for the general welfare. If we can get that, while 
we'll still need laws and governmental help, we'll not need so much. 

"Mr Green is speaking directly of profit-sharing — the 'partnership- 
wage,' a very center of the problem. That profit-sharing schemes have 
often been used, even if honestly, for wrong purposes, is notorious. So 
Mr. Green lays down in effect three rules to make them good : 

"i. Productivity wages, wages fixed as high as productive power 
seems to indicate, and then beyond that the profit-sharing, the partnership- 
wage, through which labor, like investors, will share in the net income. 

"2. Collective bargaining to establish both productivity wages and 
partnership wages. 

"3. Labor union knowledge of all costs and its partnership in decid- 
ing. sales policies, salaries of executives, return to investors and the finan- 
cial policies of the company. 

"Mr. Green is realistic. Profit-sharing cannot substitute for the best 
possible figuring of the wages that will bring full employment, full use 
of our resources and full sharing in our increasing wealth. Nor is it 
usually honest unless labor knows all the costs. Neither can either pro- 
ductivity wages or partnership wages be ordinarily handed down in kind- 
ness by the employer; for his interests distort his kindness and, anyway, 
in that event they would not be general. And since policies of sales, 
salaries, interest, profits and finance influence the partnership-wage, or- 
ganized labor must help decide the policies of sales, salaries, interest, 
profits and finance. 

"Take down your 'Organized Social Justice,' the program issued by 
the N.C.W.C. Social Action Department in 1935, signed by some 130 lead- 
ers of Catholic social teaching, as a deliberate attempt to apply Pius 
XI's Encyclical on Social Order to the conditions of the United States. 
The Green program analyzes the requirements a little better in some 
ways and the Social Action Department better in others. The Social Ac- 
tion Department outlines better the way to put it in effect — by making 
organized and inter-organized industries and professions the agency 
which, with governmental help, will put the proposal into effect. But 
fundamcntallv thev are twin brothers." 



18 THE CARPENTER 

Union Benefits Exceed 27 Millions 

STRONG commendation of the responsibility assumed by national 
and international unions in protecting their members against the 
hazards of industry and life was made by the recent annual con- 
vention of the American Federation of Labor at Houston, Texas. 
In commenting on the report of the A. F. of L. Executive Council 
that trade union benefits paid by unions during 1937 totaled %2'/,- 
111,225.46, which sum does not include many millions of dollars paid to 
affiliated members by organizations failing to report to the American 
Federation of Labor the amount of benefits paid and benefits paid by local 
unions, the convention said "this activity of organized labor is indeed an 
outstanding achievement and one which merits our highest commenda- 
tions." 

Pointing out that the $27,111,225.46 represented the sum paid to union 
members in out-of-work, disability, pension, death, sick, and miscel- 
laneous benefits, the Executive Council's report, which the convention 
approved, said: 

"This vast sum of benefits paid, however, does not cover the total 
amount paid by all national and international and local unions during the 
past year. It represents the amount paid by national and international 
organizations and other organized units which reported to the American 
Federation of Labor. Many local unions chartered by organizations affili- 
ated with the American Federation of Labor and federal labor unions 
chartered directl}^ by the American Federation of Labor have established 
funds out of which benefits were paid locally. In addition, strike benefits 
were paid by local organizations which do not appear in this report. 

"Thus, there should be added to the total amount set forth in this 
report of benefits paid to members of organized labor, many millions of 
dollars more paid by organizations not reporting and by local unions 
chartered by international unions which have established and maintained 
benefit funds for the protection of their membership." 

The amounts of the various benefits listed in the Council's report were 
as follows : 

Death Benefits $13,390,755.36 

Sicks Benefits 2,277,903.00 

Unemployment Benefits 1,671,139.36 

Old Age Benefits 4,600,056.04 

Disability Benefits 2,623,918.20 

Miscellaneous ; 2,547,453.50 

Total $27,111,225.46 

• 

Hosiery Mills Returning to Northern Plants 

The migration of liosiery mills to cheap labor has reversed itself. 

In the last few months, many companies have returned to the North because 
of the greater supply of skilled labor there, the American Federation of Hosiery 
Workers reports. 



Employes Loan Boss Money to Reopen Mill 

Reopening of the Whittall carpet mills of Worcester, Mass., closed since June, 
was made possible recently when employes offered to loan $35,000 from their 
wages to the plant's new owners. 



THE CARPENTER 



19 



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Editorial 




PRANK DUFFY, Editor 



HIGH COURT ON CONSOIin>ATED EDISON CASE 

THE Supreme Court's decision in the Consolidated Edison Company case is 
in every way a reasonable, just and liiglily commendable ruling. 

The American Federation of Labor is particularly interested in that- 
part of the decision which denies to the National Labor Relations Board the right 
to abrogate the company's contract with the International Brotherhood of Elec- 
trical Workers, an A. P. of L. afhliate. 

In so ruling, the Supreme Court has knocked the props out from under the 
board's arbitrary, prejudicial and grossly unfair position toward the A. F. of L. 
with regard to union contracts. 

The decision is so sweeping that in conformance with it, the Board will have 
to reverse itself in all such cases in which it has illegally abrogated contracts en- 
tered into between employers and A. F. of L. unions. 

The majority opinion, read by Chief Justice Hughes, declares that the National 
Labor Relations Act gives the Board "no express authority to invalidate contracts 
with independent labor organizations." Such authority, if it exists, the court 
held, can only be applied in the case of a company-controlled or company-domi- 
nated union. 

This is the position maintained by the American Federation of Labor all 
along. 

Furthermore, the court severely criticizes the Board in two other major re- 
spects which were complained of by the American Federation of Labor. The de- 
cision held that the Board should have given the I. B. E. W. due notice and an 
opportunity to be heard before attempting to abrogate its contract. It also held 
that this contract was of a high character, designed ta promote industrial peace 
and the welfare of "the workers affected and that by abrogating it the Board de- 
feated the very purposes of the National Labor Relations Act. 

This decision is not only a great victory for the American Federation of 
Labor; it is also a great boon to the nation. It serves notice on the National Labor 
Relations Board that law and justice will not sanction its policy of prejudice 
against the A. F. of L. and favoritism to the CIO. It clears the National Labor 
Relations Act of doubts and uncertainties created by the Board's rulings which 
have interfered with the negotiation of new union contracts, and it should re- 
store the Act in this important respect as a powerful instrumentality for collec- 
tive bargaining and industrial peace. 



BUILDING TRADES EMPLOYERS ASSOCIATION LAUDS A. F. OF L. ACTION 

EWS and Opinion is the voice of the Building Trades Employers Association 
of New York City. 

Naturally it reflects the attitude of employers in their relationship with 
labor just as our journal reflects labor's side in its dealings with industry. 

When News and Opinion reaches the editor's desk it is always welcome and 
carefully scanned. 

The action recently of the Building and Construction Trades Department of 
the American Federation of Labor in the annual Convention in Houston, Texas, 
in adopting five principles for recovery in the building industry brought forth 
words of praise from News and Opinion with a recommendation to the various 



THE CARPENTER 21 

state and local organizations of the Building Trades Employers of New York City 
that they each adopt a resolution supporting the A. P. of L. action and forward 
it to Senators and Representatives. 

The A. F. of L. convention action is additional proof that Building Labor is 
not unaware or chooses to ignore the present day problems of employers. It is 
anxious to give every aid to its employers because Labor realizes that its pros- 
perity depends upon a busy industry. 

Labor and industry working ill cooperation has ever been the goal of the 
American Federation of Labor. 

We are reprinting below the comment from News and Opinion regarding the 
action of the Building and Construction Department at the recent Houston Con- 
vention. 

Generally unnoted was the splendid action taken by the Building and Con- 
struction Trades Department of the A. F. of L., at Houston, October, last, in re- 
solving five fundamental principles of recovery for presentation to members of 
Congress. To our various local and state organizations News and Opinion vigor- 
ously recommends that they each adopt a resolution supporting the Department 
and forv/ard it, n5t alone to President Joseph A. Mclnerney, but to Senators and 
Representatives which represent them. 

The resolution pointed out reports had indicated a very definite hesitancy in 
the field of industrial and utility construction because of fear and uncertainty of 
the possible action of Congress upon taxes and other matters. It showed further 
how important such construction was in the sum total of all building undertaken 
in the U. S. during the past 11 years and it finally resolved — 

1. "That we appeal to Congress to first encourage private initiative in the 
construction industry. 

2. "Establish sound and stable public fiscal policy. 

3. "That it modify interfering and hampering legislation and executive 
action which is emanating from various bureaus and boards and cur- 
tail the activities of the same. 

4. "That we reiterate and renew our demands as made by the Tampa 
Convention that the construction industry be freed from those hamper- 
ing and retarding imposed taxes which retard instead of stimulate con- 
struction. 

5. "That any present or contemplated tax legislation which would act 
derogatory to the immediate stimulation of all major construction 
activities should be arrested and the immediate examination of any now 
existing taxes which hamper the construction industry as a whole, look- 
ing in the direction of their modification or repeal." 



SOME STATISTICS, SOME CONCLUSIONS, SOME COMMON SENSE 

■w-r j'HAT'S wrong with our economic machine, and how can it be repaired so it 
\/\/ will produce plenty for all? 

Three distinguished economists in the modern day role of "three wise 
men" did their best to answer those questions recently in the nation's capital 
before the O'Mahoney Monopoly Committee. The three were Isadore Lubin, 
Williard L. Thorp and Leon Henderson. Their positions in relation to economics 
will be reported along with their disclosures and conclusions regarding the ail- 
ment of our economic machine farther down. 

Emerging from the figures and statistics presented to the committee was a 
fact known to every wage earner in the nation: That the purchasing power of the 
masses must be elevated before this nation will enjoy continued prosperity. This 
opinion was voiced by Mr. Lubin. 

Mr. Lubin, who is chief of the Bureau of Labor Statistics which keeps com- 
plete facts and figures on the actual operation of the economic machine also dis- 
closed: 



22 THE CARPENTER 

That, since 1929, wage and salary earners have lost $120,000,000,000, farm- 
ers have lost $38,000,000,000, and stockholders have lost $20,000,000,000 because 
of the depression. In other vi^ords, they would have had a total of $178,000,000,- 
000 more income if the economic machine had continued to produce each year 
as much as it did in 1929. 

That there are 29,000,000 American families, of Avhich 16,000,000, or more 
than half, get less than $1,250 a year, while only 13 of each 100 get over $2,500, 
and less than three of each 100 get over $5,000. 

That the comparatively few high-income families can never provide a mass 
market for our mass production industry, but if only $2.25 a day were added 
to the. income of each "under $1,250" family, and still smaller additions were 
made to the income of the other families "under $2,500," mass purchasing power 
would be so increased that factory wheels would hum, farmers would prosper, 
and the depression would vanish overnight. 

Thorp is a $2 5,000-a-year economist for Dun & Bradstreet, a business ad- 
visory service, which loaned him to the Department of Commerce to serve the 
government during these hearings. Among other things, he said: 

That, of the entire $70,000,000,000 national income in 1937, about $44,000,- 
00 0,000, or 65 per cent, was corporation income. 

That less than 6 per cent of the corporations own 86 per cent of all corpora- 
tion assets. 

That less than 1 per cent of the corporations employ more than half of all 
the wage earners. 

That one company controls 100 per cent of the aluminum industry, three 
companies control 8 3 per cent of automobile manufacturing, and from two to 
five companies control up to 95 per cent of each of a score of other major indus- 
tries. 

The concentrated power of these big corporations may or may not be a cause 
of our troubles. Thorp said, but, whatever the cause is, the break-down in our 
economic machine "is not due to any lack of management ability, capital, labor or 
natural resources." 

Henderson was economist for the NRA and the WPA and now is chief of the 
Economic Committee's staff. 

He pointed out that Lubin's estimate of depression losses was "most conserva- 
tive," because it counted only the loss from the 19 29 income level, and did not 
consider the fact that the national income should have kept growing after 1929, 
to keep pace with growing population. 

This additional loss was included in an estimate made by L. H. Bean, a De- 
partment of Agriculture economist, who found that the depression has cost the 
country $293,000,000,000, Henderson said. 

On that basis, the depression loss has been $2,250 for every man, Avoman and 
child in the country, or $7,8 75 for the average family. 

The general question before the committee, Henderson said, is why we have 
suffered this loss. "Why have we not had full employment and full utilization of 
our magnificent resources?" 

One hundred and thirty million people have been asking this same question 
since 1929. 

o 

Average Wage of Building Trades $1.46 an Hour 

The average wage rate of all building trades journeymen on June 1, last, 
was $1,461/2 an hour, according to a report issued recently by the Department of 
Labor. 

Sixteen building trades unions, the report said, reported scales of $1.50 or 
more for over half of their membership. Less than 2 per cent of all skilled work- 
ers had agreements calling for a rate of less than $1 an hour. 

o 

Keep Your Dues Paid Up 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AIMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Generat, President 

WIM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-Presidekt 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind 



General Treasurer 

THOMAS NEALE 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Execj7tive Board 



First District, T. M. GUERIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
1231 N. Winnetka St., Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
200 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
6375 Chambord St., Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
4155 Lalseshore Blvd., Jacksonville, Fla. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



NOTICE TO RECORDING SECRETARIES 

The quarterly circular for the months of January, February and March, 
1030, containing the quarterly password, has been forwarded to all Local Unions of 
the United Brotherhood. Six blanks have been forwarded to the Financial Secre- 
tary, three of which are to be used for the reports to the General Office for the 
months of January, February and ]March. The extra ones are to be filled out 
in duplicate and kept on file foi' future i-eference. Enclosed also Avere si.\ blanlvs 
for the Treasurer to be used in transmitting- money to the General Office. Record- 
ing Secretaries not in receipt of this circular should immediately notify Franlc 
.Duffy, Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

® 



NON-UNION DETROIT MADE SHOW CASES 

For the past two years efforts have been made to secure an agreement with 
the Detroit Show Case Company, Detroit, Mich., but without success. This com- 
pany claims that it has been in business for the last thirty years without a label 
and without "bothering" with unions. Its offices are at 1652 West Fort Street, De- 
troit, Michigan, and 103 Park Avenue, New York City, N. Y. 

Its advertisement appearing in the classified section of the Detroit Telephone 
Directory advertises its products as the "Silent Salesman," and in addition to 
making fixture and show cases it also makes a complete line of store fronts 



24 



THE CARPENTER 



"Which are shipped to all parts of the United States and Canada. The trade name 
of this material is Desco. 

In view of the fact that many inquiries are made at the General Office from 
time to time asking for the names of manufacturers who carry the label of our 
organization, we know that many such inquiries must be made of local unions 
and district councils, and for that reason we are asked to acquaint all our mem- 
bers with the attitude of the above mentioned firm toward our organization and 
the use of our label. 



STAYAAVAY NOTICES 



A report is being circulated that there is a great deal of work in the Havana 
district of Local 19 72, Havana, 111. We wish to call attention to the fact that 
two-thirds of our Local members are idle. 

Dorsie Lind, Recording Secretary, 
Local 19 72, Havana, 111. 

:{: $ :if ^ :Jt 

Carpenters are advised to stay away from Meridian, Miss. We have about 
three times as many men idle as there is work for at pre'sent. 

C. V. Davis, Recording Secretary, 
Local 2313, Meridian, Miss. 



A report is being circulated to the effect that work is plentiful in Bloomington, 
111. Local 63 advises Brothers the report is erroneous and that there is not enough 
work for its present membership. 



NEW CHARTERS ISSUED 



1998 


Norfolk, Va. 


2150 


1181 


Winnfield, La. 


2677 


1999 


Stockton, Calif. 


2676 


2000 


Grand Haven, Mich. 


2185 


1218 


Winnfield, La. 


2186 


2007 


Orange, Tex. 


2187 


2026 


Coldwater, Mich. 


2189 


2031 


Klrkland Lake, Ont. 


2671 


2050 


Chinook, Mont. 


1281 


2052 


Wellsboro, Pa. 


2191 


2679 


Bovill, Ida. 


1239 


2678 


Longview, Wash. 


2192 


2056 


Clear Lake Park, Calif. 


2670 


2079 


Houston and Vic, Tex. 

— «s— 


2193 



Hastings, Nebr. 
McPhee, Nebr. 
Hope, Ark. 
Murfreesboro, Tenn. 
Palestine, Tex. 
Hamden, N. Y. 
Madera, Calif. 
Winnfield. La. 
Anchorage, Alaska 
Daytona Beach, Fla'. 
Hallam, Pa. 
Aransas Pass, Tex. 
North Bend, Wash. 
Smyrna, Ga; 



J. J. Hynes, Metal Workers President, Dies 

John Joseph Hynes, for the past 2 5 years president of the Sheet Metal Work- 
ers International Association, affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, 
died in Washington, D. C, November 30 of a heart attack. He was 66 years of 
age. 

Besides serving as president of the Sheet Metal Workers Union Mr. Hynes 
held vice presidencies in the Metal Trades Department, the Railroad Employes De- 
partment, and the Building and Construction Trades Department of the American 
Federation of Labor. 



THE CARPENTER 



25 



REPORT OF THE DELEGATES TO THE FIFTY- 
EIGHTH ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 

To the General Executive Board: 
Brothers — 

The Fifty-Eighth Annual Convention of the American Federation of Labor 
opened in the Sam Houston Coliseum, Houston, Texas, on IMonday October 3, 
1938, and lasted two weeks. 

Four hundred and seventy-seven delegates were present as shown in the fol- 
lowing statement: 



Number 

of 

Unions 



85 

4 

34 

106 

57 



289 



Name 



National and International 

Departments 

State Bodies 

Central Labor Unions 

Trade and Federal Labor Unions. 
Fraternal Organizations 



Number , 


Number 


of 1 


of 


Delegates | 


Votes 


274 1 


33,225 


4 1 


4 


34 ; 


34 


106 1 


106 


55 i 


160 


4 1 


3 



33,532 



The A. F. of L. consists of: 

102 National and International Unions, 
4 Departments, 
49 State Federations, 
79 2 City Central Bodies, 
S46 Local Department Councils, 
1,517 Local Trade and Federal Labor Unions, 
32,631 Local Unions, 
with a paid-up membership of 3,623,087 — a gain over last year of 762,154. 

During the past year the A. F. of L. issued charters to: 

National Unions 2 

International Unions 2 

Central Labor Unions 57 

Local Trade Unions 419 

Federal Labor Unions 148 

Total 62S 

The Executive Council in starting its report said: 

The past year has brought difficult problems and substantial progress to the 
American Federation of Labor. The sudden return of depression with a swift de- 
cline brought us again to serious unemployment with its attendant problems and 
hardships by the first of 1938. We have not only weathered the hardships of 
depression but the undermining tactics of an attempted dual movement, and 
emerge with better organized ranks, greater numerical strength, and greater 
prestige throughout the length and breadth of the land. 

It then deals with many important matters, such as: 
Organizing "Work and Organizing Cam- Unemployment, 

paign. Shorter Work Day and Work Week, 

Secession and Dualism, National Labor Relations Board, 

Trade Union Benelits, Social Security, 

Jurisdictional Matters, National Health Conference, 



26 THECAKPENTER 

Housing, Apprentice Training, 

Labor Standards Under Government Cliild Labor, 

Contracts, Internatinoal Labor Organization, 

National Legislation, International Federation of Trade 

V/orkmens Compensation, Unions, 

Immigration, Pan American Federation of Labor, 

Credit Unions, Relations between nations and many 

Consumers Cooperation, other similar matters. 

Vocational Education, 

This will give you some idea of the work of the Convention. 

In reporting on the "Lumber Workers" the Executive Council said: 
The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America have carried 
forward a most intensive campaign among the lumber, logging and sawmill work- 
ers of the Northwest. This became necessary because of the dual, seceding CIO 
movement which raided this field where the workers had been organized into unions 
afiiliated with the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. The 
fight Avhich grew out of this attempt of the CIO to raid organized lumber, logging 
and sawmill workers became intense in many communities. The United Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of America have been winning their fight. Lumber, 
logging and sawmill workers who had been persuaded to leave the United Broth- 
erhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America and become associated with the 
CIO have learned through bitter experience of the* serious mistake they made. 
Many thousands of them have left the CIO and returned to the United Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners. In all this bitter contest the American Federation 
of Labor has given to the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of Amer- 
ica a full and complete measure of support. We were glad to do so because the 
fight involved the question as to whether we would permit the dual, secession 
movement to raid local unions which had been formed and established by an inter- 
national union affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. We know it is the 
determination of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America 
to carry on the fight in the Northwest against the raiding tactics and policies of 
the CIO, no matter how long the contest may last, until the CIO is driven out 
and the lumber, logging and sawmill workers are united in a harmonious organi- 
zation affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. 

This was referred to the Committee on Organization and was reported on as 
follows: 

Your Committee is gratified to learn that with the assistance and cooperation 
of the American Federation of Labor the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America, has been so successful in opposing and repelling the CIO in 
their efforts to take over the Timber, Lumber and Sawmill Workers from the 
Brotherhood of Carpenters. 

We commend the Executive Council for the firm and unyielding stand they 
took against the CIO in the lumber industry in the North West. We therefore 
approve of this part of the Executive Council's Report and recommend that the 
Executive Council continue to assist the Brotherhood of Carpenters in this fight 
until the CIO is driven out of that territory. 

The report of the committee was unanimously adopted. 

The Executive Council submitted the report of its sub-committee to the Con- 
vention dealing with the Conferences held beginning October 25, 19 37 with a 
Committee from the CIO to bring about unity, harmony and solidarity in the 
labor movement. It is as follows: 

To the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor, Greetings: 

Your Committee, authorized and empowered to negotiate a settlement with 
the CIO desires to submit its report of the recent conferences with representatives 
of the CIO. 

Your Committee, pursuant to arrangements previously made by the Conven- 
tion of the American Federation of Labor and representatives of the CIO, met 



TIIECARPEXTER 27 

in conference with ten representatives of the CIO in Washington, D. C, October 
25, 1937, and continued witli intermittent conferences until December 21, 1937. 
During these conferences your Committee advised the representatives of the 
CIO that it had full and complete authority to negotiate a settlement of the 
controversy and we were assured by the CIO representatives that they too had 
similar authority. How true their statement was will be disclosed by facts re- 
ferred to later in this report. 

At the first conference, the representatives of the CIO proposed: 

1. That the American Federation of Labor establish a separate 
department within the A. F. of L. to be known as the CIO Depart- 
ment and that this department be granted complete autonomy over 
all matters affecting the organizations of that department, with the 
agreement that the A. F. of L. could not and would not pass upon 
any matter affecting those organizations. 

2. That all CIO organizations be chartered and admitted to the 
A. F. of L. and given membership in the CIO Department. 

3. That all CIO organizations when chartered and admitted to 
the A. F. of L. would be entitled to and enjoj^ the same rights and 
privileges as all other affiliated organizations. 

4. That the A. F. of L. agree to the industrial form of organiza- 
tion for certain specified industries. 

5. That the A. F. of L. agree to amend its constiution so as to 
prohibit the A. F. of L. Executive Council from exercising the power 
and authority to suspend affiliated International and National 
Unions, except on authority and by direction of a convention of the 
American Federation of Labor. In response to these proposals your 
committee suggested that the A. F. of L. would admit all previously 
affiliated unions and all those unions suspended as well as those 
unions that withdrew from the A. F. of L. That after these unions 
were reaffiliated any and all other questions could and would be 
taken up in conference and adjusted under the laws of the A. F. of 
L. This counter-proposal by your committee was rejected by the 
representatives of the CIO. 

The balance of our conferences were then occupied by a general discussion 
in an effort to develop a basis for agreement. After much discussion we reached 
the following basis of agreement: 

That there were no major difficulties only minor jurisdictional questions af- 
fecting the twelve original A. F. of L. unions that had been suspended and with- 
drew from the A. F. of L. and therefore there were no obstacles to their return to 
the A. F. of L. but since the CIO had established twenty additional unions in the 
same fields occupied by the A. F. of L. unions it would be necessary to consider 
each of these twenty new CIO unions separately in an effort to remove the con- 
flict with the A. F. of L. unions. In order to progress with this phase of the 
matter it was agreed that: 

a. The twelve original A. F. of L. unions would not apply nor 
be admitted to the A. F. of L. until all matters affecting the twenty 
new CIO unions were adjusted so that the interests of all would be 
cared for concurrently. 

b. That a joint conference committee equally representative of 
the A. F. of L. and the CIO unions would be established for each of 
these twenty new CIO and dual or conflicting unions to resolve the 
conflict or to work out a mutually acceptable understanding. 

e. That when these conflicts (b) were adjusted, then the mem- 
bership of the CIO unions would be admitted into the A. F. of L. 
concurrently with the original A. F. of L. unions. 

d. That if all other matters were adjusted the A. F. of L. Com- 
mittee would consider recommending the amending of the Consti- 



28 THE CARPENTER 

tution of the A. F. of L. to provide that the Executive Council of 
the A. F. of L. could only suspend an affiliated International or Na- 
tional union or revoke its charter on direct authority of a conven- 
tion of the A. F. of L. 

e. That a special convention of the A. F. of L. would he held 
within a reasonable time (sixty to ninety days) after all matters 
were adjusted and all affiliated organizations would be entitled to 
representation with all rights and privileges of other A. F. of L. 
unions. 

f. That we would agree to specify certain industries where the 
industrial form of organization would apply. 

As stated above, this basis for agreement was accepted by the CIO Commit- 
tee. It was further agreed to advise the Press of the agreement. At the request 
of Charles P. Howard, acting CIO chairman, it was decided out of courtesy to 
Mr. Philip Murray, who was absent from the conference at the time this under- 
standing was reached, to delay the public announcement until he could be ad- 
vised of the understanding. When Mr. Murray was informed of the understand- 
ing he requested that the conference recess until another day so that he could 
consult with this principals in the CIO. 

When the conference reconvened at a later date Mr. Murray refused to carry 
out the understanding reached and proposed that the entire controversy be referred 
to a subcommittee. While your committee insisted that the understanding be 
carried out, we did agree to confer through a sub-committee. Accordingly a sub- 
committee of John L. Lewis, Philip Murray, William Green and George M. Har- 
rison was appointed. 

This sub-committee met promptly. At this meeting your representatives 
urged Mr. Lewis to accept the understanding reached with the representatives of 
the CIO. This he declined to do. He vetoed what they had agreed to. 

Mr. Lewis then proposed that the A. F. of L. charter and admit ALL CIO 
unions (32) to the A. F. of L. with all rights and privileges and after they were 
in the A. F. of L. matters of conflict be taken up in conference but with the under- 
standing that when these unions were admitted to the A. F. of L. they could not 
later be suspended if the points of conflict were not adjusted. 

Your representatives pointed out that the proposal was impractical because 
it would establish dual unionism within the A. F. of L. It would settle nothing. 

Since Mr. Lewis would not yield In his position, the negotiations of the sub- 
committee were adjourned. Subsequently a report was made to the joint CIO- 
A. F. of L. Conference Committee. At this, the final meeting of the joint CIO- 
A. F. of L. Conference, Mr. Murray advised your Committee that unless we were 
willing to accept the Lewis proposal there was no good to be accomplished in 
continuing further meetings. Faced with this situation, the conference terminated. 

Respectfully submitted: 

(Sgd.) GEORGE M. HARRISON, 
G. M. BUGNIAZET, 
MATTHEW WOLL, 

A. F. of L. Conference Committee. 

It is made clear in the report of the committee representing the Executive 
Council that an agreement which provided for a termination of the secession 
movement launched by the CIO was reached and was accepted by both the CIO 
committee and the American Federation of Labor committee. The negotiations 
had proceeded to the point where it was understood that the agreement reached 
would be publicly announced immediately following the extension of certain 
courtesies to the dominant representatives of the Committee for Industrial Organi- 
zation. Instead of this course being followed, to the surprise of the representatives 
of the American Federation of Labor Committee, they were informed, and the 
public as well, that the agreement reached had been vetoed by ranking officers 
of the Committee for Industrial Organization. This fact was subsequently con- 



THE CARPENTER 29 

firmed by members of the committee representing the CIO who publicly announced 
that an agreement had been reached between the duly constituted committees but 
had been overturned and set aside by Chairman John L. Lewis of the Committee 
for Industrial Organization. 

The Executive Council and the committee representing Executive Council 
worked faithfully and most diligently in an effort to negotiate an agreement pro- 
viding for a settlement of the differences existing between the Committee for In- 
dustrial Organization and the American Federation of Labor. The Executive 
Council expresses its appreciation for the patient, constructive and exalted service 
which was rendered by the representatives of the American Federation of Labor 
who served upon the negotiating committee. 

The Executive Council places the blame for failure to consumate an agree- 
ment ending the differences which were caused by withdrawal of the CIO organ- 
izations from affiliation with the American Federation of Labor, squarely and 
directly upon the dominant officers of the Committee for Industrial Organiza- 
tion. They repudiated the work of their own committee. They vetoed an agree- 
ment which had been honorably negotiated. They are responsible for the division, 
discord and the dualism which continues to exist within the organized labor 
movement of the country. The record makes this clear. No truthful answer can 
be oi¥ered and no justifiable defense can be made by the dominant controlling 
officerp of the Committee for Industrial Organization. 

The Committee for Industrial Organization proposed the conference. The 
American Federation of Labor accepted the offer. We fought for the creation 
of practical, workable committees. The three members of the committee repre- 
senting the American Federation of Labor met with a committee of ten which the 
CIO insisted should represent them; they submitted proposals and considered 
counter-proposals; they negotiated an agreement with the committee of ten (of 
which the late Charles P. Howard, President of the International Typographical 
Union was a mem.ber), accepted it, approved it, and agreed that at a stated hour 
it Avould be signed, sealed and publicly announced. It seems inconceivable that 
one man, the Chairman of the Committee for Industrial Organization, could veto 
an agreement thus entered into and by doing so, accept responsibility for a con- 
tinuation of division, discord, hate, enmity and dualism in the organized labor 
movement of the nation. 

It seems quite appropriate to here point out that the Committee for Industrial 
Organization is a secession movement. It was formed by organizations which 
withdrew from affiliation with the American Federation of Labor; it was not 
made up of unions organized outside the American Federation of Labor, inde- 
pendent in character and free from a contractual relationship vrith the American 
Federation of Labor. Thus, the division which exists within the ranks of labor 
is directly traceable to the formation of this secession, dual, rival movement. 
Those who support it have placed their seal of approval upon secession and dual- 
ism. How can they preach unity and solidarity in the labor movement Avhen 
they support secession and dualism? If they support it, promote it and advocate 
it in the American Federation of Labor they cannot consistently oppose it within 
their own organized units. They virtually say, through support of the CIO and 
secession, that they favor secession, they believe in dualism, they justify it and 
in doing so they favor division, discord, hatred and enmity within the labor move- 
ment, all of which grow out of secession and dualism. 

The Committee for Industrial Organization continues its activities as a seces- 
sion movement. It has raided the jurisdiction of national and international unions 
affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. This is contradictory to thoir 
avowed purpose and declaration that the Committee for Industrial Organization 
was formed for the purpose of organizing the unorganized. 

The Executive Council has resisted every attempt of the Committee for In- 
dustrial Organization to invade the jurisdiction of affiliated unions. The Council 
will continue that policy. Furthermore, we shall continue the fight of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor to maintain its superiority and standing as the bona 
fide, recognized labor movement of the North American Continent. 



30 THECARPENTEIl 

The progress of the American Federation of Labor in the period during wliich 
it was compelled to deal with the CIO, is reflected in its numerical growth, its 
standing, strength and influence in the economic, industrial and political life of 
the Nation. The loss of membership included in the ten national unions which 
formed the CIO, amounting to approximately 982,343 has been overcome. We 
have organized and added to the membership of the American Federation of Labor 
a new membership in excess of the number lost when the CIO was formed. The 
growth of our membership continues steady and substantial. It is a dues-paying 
membership, as is clearly set forth in the financial report of the Secretary- 
Treasurer of the American Federation of Labor. Furthermore, the American Fed- 
eration of Labor is a part of the institutional life of the Nation. Public opinion, 
which is, after all, the most powerful force in determining the policies of govern- 
ment, is giving wholehearted support to the Am.erican Federation of Labor. The 
Executive Council points to the contrast which exists between a united, harmoni- 
ous, cooperative American Federation of Labor, governed and administered in 
accordance with democratic rules and procedure, and the division, discord and 
disillusionm_ent which exists within the CIO where autocracy and dictatorship 
have clearly supplanted the control of the workers over the administration of their 
own economic and organizational affairs. 

This part of the Executive Council's Report was referred to the Committee on 
Resolutions and was reported on as follows: 

Your committee, having before it the report of the Executive Council on the 
negotiations between representatives of the American Federation of Labor and 
the Committee for Industrial Organization, initiated during our convention a year 
ago in Denver, pages 8 6-9 3 of the Executive Council's Report and resolutions 
numbered 20 and 21 appearing on page 20 of the first day's proceedings, presents 
the following for your consideration and approval in lieu of resolutions presented 
and in support of the approval of the Executive Council's Report on this subject. 

Resolutions No. 20 and 21 were designed to further the ends of peace within 
the labor movement. The introducers of Resolution No. 20 have resquested that 
their resolution be expunged from the records of this convention. The introducers 
of Resolution No. 21 report it was introduced in this convention by error as it 
was defeated instead of approved by their convention. They, too, request that 
this resolution be expunged from the record. Your committee recommends that 
these requests be complied with. 

The Executive Council in dealing in its report with the subject of Secession 
and Dualism and the failure to bring about peace and unity in the House of 
Labor, makes definite and clear the true realities of the situation and leaves no 
room for doubt as to where blame may justly be placed. This report of the Ex- 
ecutive Council on this subject should be carefully read by all who would have a 
true understanding of issues involved and of the dictatorial mind that has made 
impossible the re-establishment of a peaceful, unified and cooperative relationship 
between all groups of workers under the banner of the American Federation of 
Labor. 

The negotiations recorded in detail and with complete accuracy by the Execu- 
tive Council, proceeded to a point where they broke down. They broke down for 
one reason and one only. It was not possible to satisfy the ambitions of the one 
man who dominates and dictates to the CIO. 

As for the negotiations, we may add this to the report of the council: There 
were no insurmountable difficulties, if we leave ambition out of the discussion. 
There was no question of form of organization. It was agreed that the ten sus- 
pended organizations should return as they were, thus proving that form of 
organization was not the issue. 

There was no question of any or all of the ten trade unions originally making 
up the CIO deserting any of the trade unions thereafter associated with the CIO. 
It was agreed none should re-enter the fold of the American Federation of Labor 
until all would be included. 

It was proposed by the American Federation of Labor representatives that 
there be negotiations as to the newly formed organizations. But here again the 



THE CARPENTER 31 

question was not as to form of organization. There were other questions, includ- 
ing overlapping jurisdiction, but the jurisdictional questions were no greater than 
we deal with continuously within the A. F. of L., and not nearly as complicated as 
some with which we have dealt successfully in the past. There were questions 
arising out of benefit systems, treasuries and kindred matters. But these were 
not beyond solution. 

There was no question regarding the constituted authority followed or to be 
followed within the American Federation of Labor. It was agreed certain amend- 
ments should be considered when agreement was reached on all other points 
involved. Every question raised was fairly met and squarely agreed to. 

The one question that finally confronted our representatives at every turn was 
the paramount question of the power and the arrogance and the overweening- 
pride of one man. Confronted with such an issue there is no solution, until the 
adherents of that man deprive him of his authority or he voluntarily steps aside. 
He seems not likely to step aside, but there are signs that the other possibility may 
materialize. People do grow ti-red of carrying the burden for self-aggrandizement; 
they do grow tired of paying the price of dictatorship. 

The negotiations which we have just described did not constitute the only 
effort toward peace. There have been other efforts. They too have failed because 
of the will and dictum of one man. Our door has been kept open, but that cannot 
be said of the dual movement. And only last week President Roosevelt in con- 
nection with his letter of greeting to us, urged a united labor movement and an 
effort to seek peace. Before our convention had even had time to consider the 
president's appeal, the door was closed from the side of the dual movement by 
the autocrat who has constituted himself dictator of the CIO. 

While we always have been and are now ready to enter into negotiations to- 
wards peace we have seen how, fulminating as usual, the autocrat of the CIO has 
ruthlessly rejected every suggestion of peace, including that just put forth by 
President Roosevelt. 

It is said that President Roosevelt and the CIO autocrat are close to each 
other in political endeavor, and it is clear that the President has more than once 
lent his support to Mr. Lewis, but the moment the President pleads for a course 
that would threaten the autocracy of CIO and end dualism, Caesar steps forth to 
roar disdainful defiance. 

Woodrow Wilson appealed to the people of Central Europe over the heads of 
their Emperors. The democi*acies of Europe and our own President have done 
likewise within recent weeks. As we see it today, only the patriotic and emphatic 
action of the membership of the exploited and dominated unions in the CIO can 
restore labor unity and harmony. 

Our task now is to build the American Federation of Labor while the incubus 
of autocracy destroys the CIO. 

Let us see what is the condition, pursuant to the break-down of the negotia- 
tions begun a year ago. Let us see, first, what has happened within the unions 
comprising the CIO under the domination of its fulminating Caesar, with the 
doubtful and perhaps doubting help of his Prime Minister Machiavelli. 

First let us take the United Mine Workers of America, the sacrifice brigade of 
the CIO forces. From the members of this organization, by autocratic fiat, huge 
sums of money — totalling into the millions — have been taken to bolster the am- 
bitions of the one man at the top. These funds have been used in amazing politi- 
cal adventures and in fore-doomed adventures on the economic field. 

Insofar as the political results are concerned, it must be clear even to the 
most blinded followers of the ambitious spendthrift of the CIO that the expendi- 
ture of millions of the workers' dollars for political advantage has resulted in 
almost total loss. Almost uniformly the CIO has been rejected by the electors at 
the polls. Wise candidates today hope to avoid the calamity of a CIO endorse- 
ment. The money, used without any authority from the rank and file, has gone 
into waste; it has been flung to the winds to feed an ambition and the people have 
repudiated Caesar at the polls by defeating those whom he has designated for 



32 THE CARPENTER 

support. We feel sure that in due time the CIO rank and file will take command 
of its own destiny and register its refusal to be further mulcted at the whim of 
an autocrat. Indeed, we are informed, there is already a wide-spread dissatisfac- 
tion, even to the point of revolt, within the ranks of the United Mine Workers, 
while there is reason to believe that even some of the high ofiicials of that organi- 
zation, long known as wheel horses in the movement, are in extreme disagree- 
ment with the dictator and distrustful of the whole mad scheme of dualism. 

Next in line we find the Amalgamated Clothing Workers, born in secession, 
temporarily cleansed by a brief tenure within the American Federation of Labor, 
but quickly led out again in a gamble on the turn of the wheel of rebellion. With- 
in the ranks of this union, composed of splendid men and women, there is wide- 
spread disaffection and distrust of dictatorship. Developing the dream of empire 
this organization seized the United Textile Workers, choked the wind from it in 
one spasmodic grasp and sought to absorb its membership along with the un- 
organized in the textile field. Again there is rebellion, dissension, mistrust, with 
a growing sense that something fundamental is. wrong. The so-called textile 
organizing campaign of the fantastic Textile Workers' Organizing Committee in 
the South is a bluff and bluster and thinly veiled at that. The president of the 
absorbed United Textile Workers has resigned from the CIO. This has added 
fuel to the fire already at work and has enlarged the division in the ranks. But 
the greatest division of all is the division which has started great numbers of 
the workers themselves into the American Federation of Labor and legitimate 
trade unionism. The initial act of taking over the United Textile Workers was 
more than anything else like Hitler's march into Austria — not yet explained in 
full to the public or to the membership; a truly astounding chapter in labor 
history. 

Then observe the United Automobile Workers. This union, formed by the 
American Federation of Labor also was led into secession and disaster. Its dues- 
paying ranks are growing thinner. It is shot full of dissension. Even while our 
convention has been in session in Houston it has felt the iron hand of dictator- 
ship. It is no longer a free, autonomous self-governing organization. It has 
become a servant body in the House of Caesar. Four officers, suspended, charged 
by their president with communist affiliations, have been ordered by John L. 
Lewis restored to their offices, while the President of that union is forced to ac- 
cept this over-riding of his judgment and of the lawfully expressed judgment of 
his union. As we observe this development we may well wonder whether we are 
not witnessing the treachery of a Judas Iscariot selling a brithright for 30 pieces 
of silver, as well as the ruthlessness of a Caesar cloaked by the machinations of a 
Machiavelli. 

With the United Rubber Workers there is a similar story. Here also member- 
ship is falling. The industry itself has spread from its former center, presenting 
an unprepared union with a problem which it had no strategy to meet and in con- 
nection with which it got no help from its overlord. All along the line, the 
story is one of tragedy, the price of dictatorship, the price of ambitious rulership, 
the price always paid all through history, just as it is paid today in Germany, in 
Italy, in Russia. Dictatorship is not changed in character by reason of geography. 

The Oil Field Workers seemed to be proud of their desertion to the ranks of 
the dictatorship. At that moment they were moving forward with rapid strides 
and we were all proud of their progress. But they went into the land of Caesar 
and they, too, have been subject to Caesar's will. They, too, have suffered in de- 
creasing unity, in loss of membership, in loss of that spirit that marks free move- 
ments apart from those around whose necks there hangs the chain of bondage 
under alien rulership. 

There is not a union in the outlaw movement that has not suffered in loss of 
prestige and place. And as a whole that movement has become so tainted and tar- 
nished and saturated with the virus of Communism that its kiss is called the kiss 
of death, its approval a warrant of death. 

This is the terrible condition foisted upon a rank and file that must, whether it 
likes it or not, pay the price as long as the dictatorship exists. 



THE CARPENTER 33 

There is, in this sorrowful category, one sliining example in exception. The 
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union has refused to submit to dictation. 
It has fulfilled the promises it made to the CIO when it entered that movement. 
That promise was to help organize the unorganized. However, it has refused to 
go a single step further. It has remained true to its original position, even though 
we were forced to include it in suspension when secession forced us to act. We 
feel certain it will continue to refuse to wear the hollow emblems bestowed for 
pleasing the dictator. We feel confident it will decline to join the new movement 
to form a dual federation of labor. 

Now, as to the present status of the CIO, we are informed that the leadership 
has been forced to capitulate to a demand that a convention be held, a new kind 
of existence developed. Will this convention when it is held, adopt a constitution, 
liberal in form and responsive to the will of the membership? 

Will there be an accounting of the huge sums of money thus far spent? 

Will unions have a full measure of autonomy, by which to control their own 
affairs? 

Will there be a repudiation of the Communist leadership with which the seces- 
sion movement is honeycombed? 

Will there be an elimination as well as a repudiation of the Communist leader- 
ship? 

If there is such repudiation and elimination, how Avill the movement be 
cleansed? 

Will there be, on the other hand, a closer partnership with Communism and a 
poltical party expression created for furthering Communist ends? 

Will there be a condemnation of the sit-down strike and of contract-breaking, 
abhorrent to all American principles and destructive to the foundations of our 
economic and political order? 

If there is such a condemnation, how will it be given effect? How will it be 
enforced, in the face of the fact that CIO leadership as well Communist leader- 
ship within the CIO have led and encouraged the sit-down strike and the disre- 
gard of contracts entered into? 

Will dictatorship give up its powers and its ambitions? 

We await such a convention. If one is held and dictatorship is not abandoned, 
then we shall have merely a strengthened dictatorship, the next long step in a 
program that must lead toward internal revolution. Such movements cannot 
stand still, except at the cost of disintegration. Witness the German Nazi move- 
ment! It must go forward, or fall back. 

If dictatorship is actually abandoned and Communism repudiated and ex- 
pelled, then the way to unity is made possible, providing the rank and file of the 
secession movement make known their demand for unity. 

We can only recommend that we wait and watch. We are confident that our 
Federation will never stand aloof on any pedestal of false pride, for ours is the 
democratic movement of the workers. When workers want to come into our 
family living under the law of that family, there is and always will be a welcome 
for them. But we cannot and will not make terms with dictatorship, or Commun- 
ist leadership. 

During the year that has passed and while there have been, in the house of 
secession, the events which we have just reported, the American Federation of 
Labor has grown in stature, in numbers, in moral strength, in influence, in the 
confidence of the people of our country. 

We shall not here recount, in detail, the gains we have made, because they are 
fully i-eported elsewhere. But they have been great and they have been sound and 
lasting. 

We have pointed the way to industrial stability. We have pointed the way to 
industrial peace. The workers enrolled in the membership of our unions are im- 
measurably better protected and on higher levels than the membership mistaken- 
ly led into outlawry and into bondage under dictatorship. 



34 THE CARPENTER 

Employers generally have come to know tlie great value of sound, self-dis- 
ciplined trade unionism. Tliey have shown a rapidly increasing desire to develop 
cooperation with our movement — not the cooperation of a powerful industrial 
overlordship with a sycophant unionism, but practical, intelligent cooperation 
between equals, between groups alike devoted to American democracy, to the 
saving and bettering of the American system. 

The examples of the benefits of this cooperation are written large in benefits 
for workers and in stability for employers, they are exemplified, too, in a united 
understanding that both industry and labor must resist, in common interest, the 
onslaughts of political adventurers and schemers who coiQe at times with hob- 
bies and at times with vicious destructiveness out of which they hope to make 
political capital for themselves. 

We hope that, in time, even government itself may see the value of this co- 
operation and ask the counsels of the lawful trade union movement. 

No matter what may have been the fate in the past year of efforts to heal 
the breach in the ranks of labor until there is peace or a genuine indication that 
the road to peace has been found, we must press forward in defense of true trade 
unionism and of the bona fide movement of labor." Our movement must press 
forward with full energy and it must give battle to every force that seeks in- 
vasion. It must be more vigorous than ever before. But we must never foreclose 
an honorable peace designed to result in a united trade union movement under 
the banner of the American Federation of Labor. We feel certain that this con- 
vention and its officers share that point of view. 

We therefore recommend that this convention authorize the Executive Council 
to continue to carry on the battle and at the same time stand ready to respond 
to any genuine appeal for peace or any honorable and sincere opportunity to re- 
unite the labor movement. 

Fundamentally and finally, our appeal is to the rank and file of the workers, 
whether they are in the CIO or unorganized. That is our only appeal. Our 
movement was formed for them, it is made by their law, it speaks with their 
voice, it serves them and it serves none else. 

Our appeal is simple, but in its simple words there is all of the bond that 
draws the members of a family together anywhere. It is: Come into the House of 
Labor. Help in its guidance. Enjoy its benefits. Be where you belong. Workers 
in America, come into your home, for it is YOUR home. In a home the individuals 
are equal. In a home there are members. In an autocracy, under dictatorship, 
there is one ruler, while all the rests are subjects. In a home, in a family there 
is trust, there is good faith, there is honorable conduct and there is forbearance 
for those who err. In a dictatorship there is, of necessity, intrigue, suspicion, jeal- 
ousy, punishment; and brother dare not trust brother for fear of betrayal to the 
all-highest. Workers of America, come into 3^our home, into the House of Labor. 
In that House, help us build a better, stronger, safer, freer America! 

After a lengthy and animated debate the Report of the Committee was adopted 
— one delegate voting against the Report. Later he withdrew his vote making 
the Report of the Committee adopted unanimous. 

CAXADA 

The Fraternal Delegate from the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress in his 
address to the Convention said: 

There were 46 resolutions in the Niagara convention dealing with keeping the 
position we have maintained in the last two years in the Canadian Trades and 
Labor Congress, that is the status quo. 

It was for this reason that our Convention went on record by an overwhelm- 
ing vote, when it passed the following resolution as the resolved opinion of the 
International Trade Union movement in Canada, as representative of the rank and 
file of its membership: 

"Therefore be it resolved, that this convention concurs in the desires expressed 
for the avoidance of division of our movement in Canada, as set forth in the 46 



THE CARPENTER 35 

resolutions covering this question; and be it further resolved, that the Executive 
of the Congress be instructed to continue its efforts to maintain harmony with the 
international trade union movement in Canada in compliance with the decision 
of the Ottawa convention — 'that action taken shall be on terms acceptable to 
international trade unions and thus avoiding any disregard for or defiance of 
their laws and policies'; and be it further resolved, that we call on our executive 
to exert every effort to the end that we may again have a unified labor movement 
on the North American Continent; to explore every possible avenue and lend 
their fullest support to all moves in this direction." 

It was in no spirit of defiance of the A. F. of L. or its leadership that we in 
Canada passed that resolution, but due to our proximity to the basic problems of 
industry, for it must be remembered that the majority of the delegates to our 
convention in Canada are workers from the mills, mines and factories, and in the 
final analysis it is they, the workers in a given industry who will decide what 
form of organization is best adapted to their particular needs. 

We in Canada do not desire a cession movement in the ranks of the Inter- 
national Trade Union movement of America, of which we are a part. We desire 
to progress economically with the workers in the United States of America. As 
trade unionists in Canada we maintain that the Trades and Labor Congress of 
Canada is supreme as the legislative mouthpiece of organized labor and we would 
regret it if anything was done to weaken that structure by our International 
Headquarters in the U. S. A. We appreciate the fact that the majority must rule 
in every Democratic country. But it is an axiom of government that majority rule 
by its appointed leaders must be based on the public opinion of its membership 
and therefore, in conclusion, it is my fervent hope that at this 58th Annual Con- 
vention of the American Federation of Labor, that wise council will prevail; so 
that organized labor in America and Canada, unitedly joined together in the 
bonds of brotherhood, of justice, of freedom, security and peace, can leave an 
heritage to our descendants. 

As we move upAvard to higher levels, a wider vision of service and responsi- 
bility will unfold itself. Let us keep the faith. There is no other way. It is with 
this in mind, that I have addressed you this afternoon. It is because we in Canada 
desire to keep the faith, because we believe in voluntarism and not compulsion, 
because we believe in the rights of minorities, and that more can be gained by 
compromise than the use of force. 

President Green made the following reply: 

In season and out of season, the members of our International Trade Unions 
have been making their financial, moral and economic contribution toward the 
welfare of the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress. We were in at the begin- 
ning. We have steadfastly helped to maintain it; it is the international organiza- 
tion started by the American Federation of Labor that contributed financial sup- 
port to the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress through the maintenance of the 
affiliation of their Canadian membership with the Canadian Trades and Labor 
Congress. 

We regret indeed more than words can express the division which was created 
within the ranks of labor, but we disavow responsibility Avith it. We pleaded with 
those who led the secession movement to desist, to change their attitude, to come 
into the congress of labor and in democratic fashion decide all questions presented 
by majority vote. We pleaded for majority rule, for democracy, for free speech, 
for the perpetuation here in America of a strong, harmonious, solid labor move- 
ment. But they would not. They spurned our plea. 

In the convention of the American Federation of Labor at Atlantic City they 
lost, upon fair vote, where the issues were presented and decided by the sover- 
eign delegates in attendance at that convention. Ever since they have been at- 
tempting to compel the majority to accept the will and expression of the minority. 
We cannot yield to minority control. We have asked them to come back, we 
have pleaded Avith them, Ave negotiated an agreement Avith them Avhich Avas 
spurned and turned aside. What can Ave do? What shall Ave do? Shall Ave march 
out of the ranks of labor, abandon our home and surrender to a minority? There 



36 THE CARPENTER 

is no red blooded man associated with the American Federation of Labor that 
would even consider for a brief moment such action or such a proposal. 

Now, because of that situation here in the United States we have purged our 
State Federations of Labor and our Central Bodies; we have made them all 
American Federation of Labor units; they are firmly established, every one in 
the 48 states and in the thousand cities of our country, upon a sound, solid and 
enduring basis — an American Federation of Labor basis. 

They are not made up of contending factions. Harmony, cooperation and a 
singleness of purpose inspire the deliberations of these chartered American Fed- 
eration of Labor units. We are going to have peace and, harmony in the house of 
labor. That being the case, we firmly expect that the Canadian Trades and Labor 
Congress will do the same thing. It cannot be for the American Federation of 
Labor and against it; it must, if we are to continue our affiliation with it, be 
placed upon a sound and enduring American Federation of Labor basis. 

And we ask you to convey to your representatives in Canada this message: That 
we are going to have a united movement within the house of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor. We are waiting patiently for the expressed will of the majority, 
as set forth in the Atlantic City convention of the American Federation of Labor, 
to be accepted. When it is accepted, the unity for which we plead will rule. And 
is it unfair to ask that a decision rendered deliberately by a majority of the dele- 
gates in a convention shall be the law of the American Federation of Labor? My 
good friend, the fraternal delegate from Canada, supported that sort of a political 
economy when he quoted from the address of Abraham Lincoln. We cannot have 
two governments in America, we cannot have two governments in a state, we 
cannot have two governments in a city, we cannot have two governments in the 
house of labor. 

I am inspired to make these remarks because we want our friends in Canada 
to know just where the officers and members of the American Federation of Labor 
stand upon the question of solidarity and unity and supremacy of the American 
Federation of Labor. 

Protesting Issuance of Charters by Canadian Trades and Labor Congress to 
Provincial and Local Central Labor Unions 

Resolution No. 101 — By Delegate John F. Cauley, Hamilton, Ont., Trades and 
Labor Council. 

WHEREAS, Section 3 of the report of the Special Comrqittee on relations of 
Organizations in Canada and the United States, at the A. F. of L. Convention of 
1910, gave to the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress the sole right to issue 
charters, certificates of affiliation to Provincial or Local Central Bodies in Canada; 
and 

WHEREAS, The action of the officials of the Canadian Trades and Labor Con- 
gress in welcoming known Communists and the Communist-dominated CIO into 
the Trades and Labor Congress and its affiliated Provincial and Local Central 
Bodies has proven detrimental to bona fide International Unions, resulting jn 
loss of prestige in the eyes of the general public and the refusal of the Federal and 
Ontario Provincial Governments to act upon any of the legislative programs of 
the Canadian Congress; therefore be it 

RESOLVED, That Section 3 of the report of the Special Committee on the 
Relations of Organizations in Canada and the United States, at the 1910 Conven- 
tion be repealed, and that the sole right of issuing charters to Provincial and 
Local Labor Central Bodies in Canada shall be in the hands of the Executive 
Council of the American Federation of Labor. 

Protesting Infringement Upon Jurisdiction of Affiliated International Unions by 
Trades and Labor Congress of Canada 

Resolution No. 102 — By Delegate John F. Cauley, Trades and Labor Council, 
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 

WHEREAS, the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada is maintained as a 
Canadian Legislative Mouthpiece for the American Federation of Labor, by the 
International Unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, and 



THE CARPENTER 37 

WHEREAS, the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada, through chartering of 
National Unions, is continually infringing upon the jurisdiction of International 
Unions; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That this Convention of the American Federation of Labor, in- 
struct its Executive Council to order the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada 
to refrain from issuing National Charters to any Groups where there is already an 
established International Union having jurisdiction over said Groups; and be it 
further 

RESOLVED, That the Officers of the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada, 
be ordered to turn over to the proper International Unions, all Members of its 
National Unions, whose type of work places them within the jurisdiction of Inter- 
national Unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. 

Referred to Committee on Resolutions and reported on as follows: 

The hearings before your committee indicate a most regretable condition 
within the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress, due to the infiltration of both 
the CIO and the Communist Party. The testimony given to your committee indi- 
cates that for over a year it had been practically impossible to secure considera- 
tion of labor legislation due to the attitude of the Provincial legislatures to give 
consideration to legislation which, in their opinion, was fostered and shaped by 
CIO and Communist sources. 

Further testimony indicates that the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress 
had issued the equivalent of national charters to groups of workmen in Canada in 
conflict with the jurisdiction of existing International Unions affiliated with the 
American Federation of Labor. 

It has also developed it was issuing charters to Central Labor Councils with- 
out consultation, advice or approval of the American Federation of Labor. This 
has raised the serious question of the control of such Central Labor Unions, as 
well as the National Unions chartered by the Canadian Trades and Labor Con- 
gress. 

Your committee is convinced that unless this condition is speedily remedied, 
vital injury will be done to the legitimate trade union movement in Canada and 
to the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress itself. 

Your committee believes that under existing conditions in Canada, the Execu- 
tive Council should issue instructions that every Central Labor Union composed 
of unions of affiliated organizations must hold a charter from the American Fedex*- 
ation of Labor in addition to such charters as it may hold from the Canadian 
Trades and Labor Congress. 

These instructions embrace likewise instructions to the Canadian Trades and 
Labor Congress that it cannot issue charters to any Local or Federal union, or 
charters of any kind, without such application for charter first having received 
the approval of the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor. 

And with the further understanding that all charters heretofore issued bj' the 
Canadian Trades and Labor Congress, or those hereafter to be issued, may be 
suspended or revoked at any time by the Executive Council of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor under conditions and circumstances which would justify such 
action. 

We submit these recommendations in lieu of the resolutions. 
The report of the committee was unanimously adopted. 

Delegate Jno. F. Cauley of the Trades and Labor Council of Hamilton, On- 
tario, Canada, introduced a resolution relative to adequate taxation against ship- 
ping companies to pay operating costs of canals and harbors in the Dominion of 
Canada and another resolution protesting tax exemption of iuterurban trucks and 
busses operating in Canada and they were referred to the Committee en Resolu- 
tions and reported on as follows: 

These resolutions, while dealing with separate subjects, relate to legislation de- 
sired by our Canadian membership. 



38 THE CARPENTER 

Your committee finds itself in accord with the legislation sought, but believes 
it inadvisable that a convention of the American Federation of Labor should make 
a specific declaration relative to Canadian legislation, feeling this is a subject 
properly within the jurisdiction of the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress. 

It is therefore recommended that these resolutions be referred to the Canadian 
Trades and Labor Congress, with the favorable comment made thereon by your 
committee. 

A motion was made and seconded to adopt the committee's report. 

Delegate Cauley, Hamilton, Ontario, Trades and Labor Council; Mr. Chairman, 
while I agree with the recommendation of the committee, inasmuch as it is a 
legislative matter and therefore under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Trades 
and Labor Congress, under the present set-up of that Congress the question can- 
not be handled to the satisfaction of the international unions in affiliation with the 
American Federation of Labor. Unless the Canadian Congress situation is cleaned 
up, and no doubt it will be, in view of the former resolution — nevertheless, we 
have to appear before the Ontario government this November, and rather than 
attempt to go to the Ontario government through the Trades and Labor Congress 
under the present set-up, we had far better stay home, because as you well know, 
the political battle in the last Ontario election was fought on one issue and one 
issue alone. That issue was to keep Lewis and CIO lawlessness out of the Prov- 
ince of Ontario. On that platform the present Ontario government received the 
largest majority that any government has ever received in the history of the 
Province of Ontario. 

In the supposedly CIO stronghold of Oshawa, the elected member was elected 
on that platform. Therefore, at the last presentation to the Ontario government 
last February 8, when President Draper, of the Canadian Trades and Labor Con- 
gress, surrounded himself with known members of the Communist Party, with 
officials of the CIO, not one piece of legislative matter presented to them was 
acted iipon. 

In that presentation the organization of Avhich I am a member had three 
points. Following President Draper's interview with the government, we v/ere 
requested to present our own legislative demands from our own organization, 
that of the Engineers, and they were acted upon and passed. These resolutions 
that are before the convention at the present time affect in the neighborhood of 
90,000 members of international trade unions in the Province of Ontario. 

To turn this matter over to the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress at the 
present time, in view of the fact that it is not likely to be cleaned up by November, 
will nullify our efforts to obtain this legislation for another year. The only reason 
we have brought resolutions to this convention is in view of the Canadian situa- 
tion, and we pnly ask from this convention that the convention endorse these re- 
quests in order that Avhen we appear before the Ontario government this coming 
November, I, as the spokesman for the legislative body from our central body, 
can say to the Ontario government that we are submitting this necessary legisla- 
tion and that we had it approved by the international unions in Ontario affiliated 
with the American Federation of Labor. 

Therefore, while I quite agree, as I said a while ago, with the committee's 
report, I would request in order that it go in the record that we be allowed to at 
least say to the Ontario government that the American Federation of Labor and 
the international unions in affiliation with it support us in this legislation, and 
we sincerely hope before another convention of this body rolls around that the 
Canadian situation will be straightened up. 

Other than that you will have to set up a new Congress the same as we had to 
set up a new central body in Hamilton, and I may say for the benefit of the dele- 
gates and the presidents of the various international unions, while it may be a 
little to the side of the mark, that there has not been one international union 
that stayed with the American Federation of Labor in the city of Hamilton since 
we took our stand that has not increased its membership, in many cases doubled 
its membership. We have once more regained public opinion, whereas in the 



TIIECARPEXTER 39 

case of the dual CIO central body, chartered by the Canadian Trades and Labor 
Congress, three of the international unions that went with them have practi- 
cally gone out of existence and the CIO in Hamilton is an absolutely dead issue. 
In my opinion there are not fifty paid-up members of the total CIO organizations 
in the city of Hamilton. 

With that, Mr. Chairman, I would like this convention to endorse our request. 

Secretary Frey: Mr. Chairman, the commttee endeavored to meet Delegate 
Cauley's problem and avoid a definite commitment by a convention meeting in 
the United States upon legislation being introduced into another country. I would 
like to re-read one portion of that report. This is what we say: 

"Your committee finds itself in accord with the legislation sought." 

If the convention adopts the committee's report, that is an endorsement of the 
legislation without committing this American Federation of Labor to specifically 
declare itself in connection with legislation in another country. The committee 
believes that its report grants exactly what Delegate Cauley requested. 

The report of the committee was unanimously adopted. 

The one cent assessment per member, per month was continued for one year. 

The present set of officers were re-elected and San Francisco, Calif., was se- 
lected in which to hold the convention in 19 39. 

Fraternally submitted, 

M. A. HUTCHESON, 
FRANK DUFFY, 
F. H. GARRETSON, 
JOHN O'DONNELL, 
VIC RIDGEWAY, 
HARRY BARBOUR, 
JOHN R. STEVENSON, 
WM. J. KELLY, 

Delegates. 



Louisville Broom Company Signs A. F. of L. Agreement 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

We are proud to announce that the May-Rose Broom Company of Louisville, 
Ky., is the pioneer broom company using the Union Label of the Broom and Whisk 
Makers International Union, affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. 

This firm, desiring to cooperate with the American Federation of Labor, has 
mutually negotiated and signed a closed shop agreement, and you will find the 
Union Label on each broom sold by this firm. This act of cooperation on the part 
of the company merits the commendation and support of the entire trade union 
movement in the area served by this company. 

We urge that you request the wives of the trade unionist and their friends 
to demand this brand in purchasing brooms and look for the Union Label thereon. 

Trusting that we may have your cooperation in this matter. 

Fraternally yours, 

J. T. Woodward, 
T. N. Taylor, 

Representatives of the American 
Federation of Labor. 
« 

Ambition is like a circle in the water, 
Which never ceases to enlarge iself, 

Till by broad spreading it disperses to nought. — Shakespeare. 
• ■ 

Deniand the Union Label 





jVot lost to those that love them, 
Not dead, just gone before; 



XfxxBtn 



They still live in our memory. 
And will forever more. 



Business Agent of Local at Granite City, 111., Dies 



Brother Howard Pinkerton, a; 
City, 111,, died September 12. 



?e 5 6, prominent member of Local 6 3 3, Granite 



Brother Pinkerton had served as Business Agent of Local 633 for twenty years. 

He also held the office of Secretary of 

the Tri-City Central Trades Council, 
Secretary of the Tri-County District 
Council of Carpenters and was Secre- 
tary of the Illinois State Council of Car- 
penters from 19 30 ur^til his death. 



Brother Pinkerton was held in high- 
est respect and esteem by all who knew 
him intimately and throughout the 
years of his membership from Novem- 
ber 9, 1911 to September 12, 1938 in 
the Brotherhood vv^as noted for his loy- 
alty and devotion to our cause. 

During all the years of his member- 
ship extending over a period of twenty- 
seven years, he distinguished himself 
by outstanding and active interest in 
the many problems that confronted 
our organization in its aims and objec- 
tives. 

The death of Brother Pinkerton is 
a keen loss to the Brotherhood. 




will also be inscribed on the permanent records of the Local. 

&~ 



A resolution in tribute to the mem- 
ory of Brother Pinkerton was passed 
by 633, ordering the charter to be 
draped for thirty days. The resolution 



Brother Peter E. Fortune, Local 33, Boston, Mass. 

With profound sorrow and regret, the members of Local 33 of Boston , report 
the death, on November 20, of our late Brother Peter E. Fortune. Brother 
Fortune was admitted to the Brotherhood in 188 6, fifty-three years ago. He was 
born in 1856, and was eighty-two years old at the time of his death. 

Brother Fortune was Business Agent for the Local in the years when it was 
not fashionable to be a "union man." He also held many other offices in the 
Local during his membersliip. Nov/ that he has gone to a well earned rest, we 
all say with the poet: 

Sleep sweetly, tender heart, in peace; 

Sleep, holy spirit, blessed soul. 
While the stars 'burn, the moons increase, 

And the great ages ouAvard roll. 



THECARPENTER 41 

Sleep till end, true soul and sweet; 

Nothing comes to thee new or strange, 
Sleep, full of rest from head to feet, 

Lie still dry dust secure of change. 

Lawrence Howard, President, 

C. J. Gallagher, Recording Secretary. 



BROTHER AVILLL-VM H. MURRAY of Local Union No. 49 3, Mt. Vernon, New 
York, was initiated into that local May 13, 1890; date of birth, April 6, 1864; 
classed as a beneficial member. He died on October 12, 1938 with more than 48 
years continuous membership in good standing to his credit. 

The members of Local Union 49 3 feel keenly the loss of this outstanding mem- 
ber. For many years he held the office of President of Local Union 49 3. In fact, 
he lacked only a few months of being a charter member of that union. He gave 
unselfish attention and devotion to the local trade union movement and thereby 
helped the labor movement in general. He at all times responded to any call for 
his services in the cause of the Carpenters. 

He applied for the pension on March 24, 19 30 and same was granted. Local 
Union 49 3 passed a set of resolutions to his memory, a copy of which was sent to 
the bereaved family and a copy to the General Office, and the charter was ordered 
draped for a period of thirty days. 

***** 

IJROTHER CHARLES L. KRUEGER, who died November 14, had held mem- 
bership in the Brotherhood for forty-seven years. He was a member of Local 119, 
Newark, New Jersey. Brother Krueger was 76 years old. He had seldom missed 
a meeting of Local 119 in forty-six years until illness prevented him from attend- 
ing a year ago. He took a keen interest in affairs of the Brotherhood and was a 
staunch supporter of organized labor in general and the Brotherhood in particular. 

Brother Krueger was initiated into the Brotherhood March 16, 18 91. 

* * * * * 

CHAU.\CEY .lEXKS, member of Local 62, Chicago. Died, November 25. 

MRS. AV. AV. FIXCH, member of Auxiliary ISO of Carpenters Local 665, of 
Amarillo, Texas, died October 28. She was a highly respected and faithful mem- 
ber of Auxiliary ISO. Even during her years of illness she took an interest in its 
activities. 

A resolution in her memory by her Auxiliary and Local 665, eulogized Sister 
Finch as a "devoted wife, and affectionate sister and a true friend." 

• 

Oregon Law May Backfire on Employers 

Oregon employers who financed the campaign to put over the state's anti- 
trust law may find the law a real boomerang. 

The Social Security Board ordered a hearing in Washington to determine 
whether the measure violates provisions of the Social Security Act. This act for- 
bids denial of benefits to jobless who refuse to take positions made vacant by 
strikes or other labor disputes. 

However, the Oregon law outlawed certain kinds of strikes and amended the 
state's unemployment compensation law so as to remove these strikes from the 
definition of labor disputes. 

If the board holds the Oregon law violates the Social Security Act, it Avill 
be bad news for the employers. They will then be required to pay a combination 
oi federal and state unemployment insurances taxes, totalling 5.7 per cent. At 
present, they pay only 3 per cent. 




rrQspondQncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



Canton Local 143 Observes Fiftieth Anniversary 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

Am enclosing copies of newspaper articles regarding the 50th Anniversary 
celebration of Local 143 of Canton, Ohio, held October 31. Also a photograph of 
the officers of Local 143 taken that evening. We received an editorial, as well as 




Officers of Local 143, first i*ow, left to right: Allen Dickerhoflf, warden; George 
Craft, business representative; Charles Klein, trustee; William Hair, vice-presi- 
dent; Charles S. Yomig, president. 

Second row: William Neiss, recording secretary; Howard Sell, trustee; Alonzo 
Hull, financial secretary; Lawrence Schaufle, trustee, and AVayne Shelt, treasurer. 
T. W. Smith, Conductor for Local 143 was not present when the above picture was 
taken. 

other news articles, in the Canton Repository regarding this affair which, I believe, 
speaks well for cooperation here in Canton. 

The date of the charter which is now held by Local 143 shows that it was 
granted November 11, 18 8 8. 

Fraternally yours, 

John M. Hayne, 

Manager Ohio State Employment Service. 

Reprinted below are, first, the account of the Golden Anniversary celebration 

of Local 143 as it appeared in the Canton Repository and, second, the editorial. 

Besides the picture of the the officers of the Local on Page one, the Canton paper 

also included a group picture of speakers, honored guests and veteran members. 

Craftsmen of the city affiliated Avith Local 143, United Brotherhood of 

Carpenters and Joiners of America observed its Local's 50th anniversary 

Monday night with their families and friends in Swiss Country club. 



TirE CARPEXTER 43 

Knives and forks supplanted the customary hammers and chisels as 
apprentice and journeyman partook of the golden anniversary dinner. It 
was a great night for veterans of the trade as they swapped yarns. The 
beginners were content to lean back on their chairs and listen while one 
member told of his vain attempts to weatherboard his bungalow in the 
dead of the winter of '9 7. Groups of three and four could be seen renewing 
acquaintances which had lapsed since the last job on which they were 
companions. 

The speaking session of the program was devoted to the history of 
labor unions and clarification of the ideals of the organization. O. G. 
Grubb of Youngstown, president of the Ohio State Council of Carpenters, 
predicted "there will be only a fe-w building tradesmen idle in the state of 
Ohio within the next six months." 

Other speakers were Thomas J. Donnelly, secretary-treasurer of the 
State Federation of Labor, Arnold Bill, secretary-treasurer of the Ohio 
State Council of Carpenters, J. W. Reinhardt of Canton, Roger Kelley of 
the Canton Development Corp., John Gerber, president of the Canton Fed- 
eration of Labor, George D. Craft, Dallas Hostetler and John Hayne. A 
telegram of congratulations was received from Michael Lyden of Youngs- 
town, president of the Ohio State Federation of Labor, who was unable to 
attend the event. 

Now in his 38tli year as a member of the Local, Frank Torongo, was 
the oldest person, in membership years, to attend the dinner. Several 
other workers have been members 30 years or more. 



Fiftieth Anniversary 

Celebration today of its 50th anniversary by Carpenters Local 143, 
amid the good wishes of other unions and its friends outside organized 
labor, serves as a reminder to all Cantonians of their debt to men who 
have mastered the art of sawing and hammering. 

It wouldn't be much of a world without carpenters. The masons and 
the steelworkers might be able to keep things going after a fashion, but 
they too would miss the skilled touch of one of the oldest occupations. 

Carpentry, like poetry and an ear for music, is something a man is 
born with or without. If he has the knack, there are purpose and order 
in his sawing and hammering, and eventually a result. If he lacks it, he 
has nothing but misfits and bruised fingers to show for his pains. 

While offering congratulations to the carpenters of Local 143, their 
Canton friends don't mind admitting they're envious. 
c 

Brother Harte Member More Than 50 Years 

Brother Louis H. Harte of Local Union No. 90, Evansville, Indiana, has a 
record in the Labor movement to be proud of. He joined that Local, October 19, 
1888; date of birth, May 8, 1863; classed as a beneficial member. He now has 
more than 50 years' continuous membership to his credit. In all that time he 
has always been in good standing and entitled to all the rights, privileges and 
benefits prescribed by our laws. 

In the course of his work he had to transfer to other cities but always returned 
by Clearance Card to Local Union 90 where he holds membership at the present 
time. 

At the Fifty-Third Anniversary of Local Union 90 held last I\Iarch he wa.-^ 
presented with a Brotherhood Gold Emblem Ring and an Honor Badge for his 
long and faithful service in the organization. He is now more than 75 years ot" 
age. 

Congratulations and good luck to you, Brother Harte. 



44 THECxlRPEJirTER 

Golden Jubilee Celebration 

Local Union 35 5 Avas chartered in the city of Buffalo, New York more than 
iifty years ago and was composed of German speaking members. Fifty years later, 
or to be exact on Wednesday, November 16, 1938, the members of that Local 
gathered together in Frohsinn Hall and celebrated the event in a manner that 
was enjoyed by not only the members, but by friends a:s well. It was a celebration 
that will be remembered. 

John Ryan, General Representative, was the speaker of the evening and in his 
talk stressed the necessity of loyalty, pointing out the "necessity of continued 
loyalty in the unions if the workingman is to continue to be properly represented 
in the future. 

"Unions" he said, "must continue to fight hand in hand if the best is to be 
achieved for the workingman. Conditions today are fine for union men and all 
we need is continued loyalty among local members." 

Other speakers congratulating Local 35 5 upon completing a half centui-y of 
organized effort were Norbert Berger, President of the Central Labor Council; 




Axuiivei'sary Conimittee Golden Jubilee Local 355 

Seated, (left to right) : John Meisl, Treasurer; Nicolas Lux, President; Fred 
Schneider, Vice-President and Chairman; 

Standing, (left to right) : William L. Klausnian; John O.' Kuebier, Henry Kiilm, 
Financial Secretary; Frederick C. Bossert, Recording Secretary and Robert Hyorth. 

George Sturges, Secretary of the Central Labor Council; Herman Bodewes, Busi- 
ness Agent for the District Council; Charles Fix, President of the District Council; 
John McMahon, delegate to the District Council; Walter Roble, delegate from 
Local 1401; John C. Berns, delegate from Local 440; Joseph Porter, Local 9; 
Fred Hagen, Local 440, and Vincent Donnelly and John C. Miller of Local 1345. 

Harold C. Hanover, Secretary-Treasurer of the District Council was Toast- 
master. The honored guest was Otto Richter who has been a member for forty- 
eight years and Michael Nosbisch a member for over forty years. 

Beautiful floral pieces were received from the Buffalo District Council, Local 
Union No. 9 and Local Union No. 440 as well as from Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Porter. 
Brother Porter is a member of the Local Union. 

John Meisl, the Treasurer, has held that position in the Local for the last five 
years and is also a delegate to the District Council and for many years was Chair- 
man of the Board of Trustees. The President of the Local, Nick Lux, has held 
office for the last ten years while Fred Schneider, the Vice-President, has also 
held office for the same length of time. One of the active younger members in 
the photograph is William Klausnian, delegate to the District Council and an- 
other of the younger members is John O. Kuebier, who before coming to this 
country was active in the affairs of organized labor in Germany, 



THECARPEXTER 45 

Henry Kuhn, the Financial Secretary, has served in that capacity for the last 
five years and has also served his Local as delegate to the District Council as well 
as the Central Labor Council and was honored by his Local Union by being elected 
as delegate to the Lakeland, Florida, 19 3 6 convention. 

The one member of the Local Union who carries off all honors for service 
stripes is the congenial Recording Secretary Fred Bossert who has held that office 
for the past thirty-two j'ears. Brother Bossert is one of the most active mem- 
bers of 355 

And last but not least we introduce the good looking young man standing on 
the extreme right of the picture, Robert Hyorth who represents his Local at the 
meetings of the Central Labor Council. 

We wish to take advantage of this opportunity to extend the congratulations 
of the General Officers to Local 355 on the celebration of its fiftieth anniversary. 

• 

Local 181, Chicago, Celebrates Golden Anniversary 

More than 600 members and guests of Local 181, Chicago, helped celebrate its 
fiftieth anniversary the evening of November 11, 1938. 

Business Representative Asgar Andrup was toastmaster and gave a hearty 
welcome to all present. He introduced President Phil Pfleger "who also was 
chairman of the festivities, who in turn presented the speakers for the occasion. 
The speakers were Reuben G. Soderstrom, President of the Illinois State Federa- 
tion of Labor; George C. Ottens, General Representative of the Brotherhood who 
also is President of the Illinois State Council of Carpenters; John R. Stevenson, 
President of the Carpenters District Council of Chicago and Charles H. Sand, 
Secretary-Treasurer of the Carpenters District Council of Chicago. 

Following the speaking, a buffet luncheon was served. 

Local Union No. 181 was organized May 13, 1886, as the Scandinavian Branch 
No. 7 of Local 21, and chartered as Local 181 November 1, 1888. 

While we have sustained a large numerical loss in members from 2,300 at the 
peak of the boom years, to a good standing membership at present of 1,022, and 
have suffered heavy financial losses in the form of bank failures and investment 
losses, we are proud always to have been in good standing at the General Office, 
and we can look back in our records and find a roster of officers whose highest 
ambition always was to fight for and uphold the principles of our organization, 
and whose honesty and integrity have never been challenged. 

We know that Local 181 is one of the oldest Locals in the Brotherhood. Our 
Pension Roll of 124 members, and one member Avho just recently entered our 
Home at Lakeland, Florida, stand as proof. Fifty years is a long span that ac- 
counts for the absence of all our charter members, who have all passed to the 
great beyond but we pledge ourselves to carry on the banner of the Brotherhood 
to greater success and better understanding among all mankind. 

Fraternally yours, 
Phil Pfleger, President; Edwin C. Hanson, Vice-Presi- 
dent; John Steffens, Recording Secretary; Einar Larson, 
Financial Secretary and Treasurer; John Paulsen. War- 
den; Andrew Westerberg, Conductor; T. Edw. Hanson, 
John Engren and Walter E. Dahlman, Trustees; Asgar 
Andrup, Business Representative. 
• 

Local 419, Chicago, Celebrates Its Golden Jubilee 

Fleiner's Hall, at 16 38 N. Halsted Street, was the scene of a gala event in 
the history of Local Union 119 of Chicago, as on Friday evenniug, November 25, it 
celebrated its Golden Jubilee. To symbolize the golden anniversary, each person 
in the hall was presented with a souvenir sprig of gold leaves. 

All members of the Chicago District Council of Carpenters and all oflicials and 
members of afliliate carpenter unions were present, and along with the member- 
ship the hall was filled to capacity. 



46 THE CARPENTER 

Charles Sand, Secretary of the District Council, gave a general history of the 
unions in the district, especially the growth and progress of Local 419 from year 
to year and complimented the officers. George Ottens, General Representative 
and Jack Stevenson, President of the District Council, also made instructive and 
informative talks. President Joe Lehnert's talk was well received and greatly 
appreciated. 

Following the talks many of the old timers held informal gatherings and 
greeted many old pals they had not seen for years. , The city of Chicago, they 
felt, would not be the thriving metropolis it is today were it not for the many 
nails driven by them during the past fifty years. 

Three charter members are on the roster of Local 419 at this time. One is 
the Vice-President of the Local, William Hagemann, now in his eighty-sixth year. 

Local 419 was organized by German speaking carpenters and for that reason 
many of the speeches were in the German language. 

The vast audience was entertained by The Hungry Five, a tumbling group of 
acrobats and the Altermener Choir who numbered among their selections many 
German folk songs. Others who gave of their talents were Jim Papa of the Wine 
Garten Restaurant, Anna Gamaut of the German Theatre. William Koehne was 
Master of Ceremonies. 

Follovang the speeches and entertainment all were invited to the lower hall 
to partake of lunch and (what do you think would be served with lunch at a 
German banquet?) 

We find that Local Union 419 has always taken an active part in the affairs 
of the organization, having sent a delegate to the first convention after being 
organized. Fred Buggert represented the Local at the 1890 convention held at 
Chicago. Since that date the following brothers have represented their Local at 
the general conventions: 

190 2, Atlanta, Ga., Louis Schalk. 

1904, Milv/aukee, Wis., Louis Schalk. 

1910, Des Moines, Iowa, Louis Schalk and Henry Pueschel. 

1912, Washington, D. C, Louis Schalk and Wm. H. Bruening. 

1916, Ft. Worth, Texas, Wm. H. Bruening. 

1924, Indianapolis, Ind., Nick Koenig and Henry Guerling. 

192 8, Lakeland, Florida, Nick Koenig, Geo. A. Kroon and Henry Goerling. 

We offer our congratulations to Local 419, and extend to them the wish for 
many more years of pro'sperity and growth. 

— : « 

Local 434, Chicago, Marks Fiftieth Anniversary 

Saturday, October 29, '1938, Local 434, Chicago celebrated its fiftieth anni- 
versary. Entertainment included six acts of vaudeville, dancing and refreshments. 

A large attendance of members, their families and friends enjoyed the program. 

Speakers of the evening were Brother George Ottens, General Representative 
of the Brotherhood. He gave an interesting talk on the history of Locals in the 
Brotherhood. 

William L. Hutcheson, General President of the Brotherhood, extended his 
best wishes and congratulations. 

John R. Stevenson, President of the Carpenters District Council of Chicago, 
spoke on matters pertaining to the workings of the Brotherhood throughout the 
Chicago district and extended congratulations from the District Council and affili- 
ated Locals. 

Charles H. Sand, secretary-treasurer of the Carpenters District Council of 
Chicago reviewed the complete history of Local 434. 

The committee on arrangements included Brothers J. Arthur Palingren, chair- 
man; George McPhail, Anthony Budd, Samuel Beech, Francis Beemster, A.' O. 
Remington, John Bots, V/illiam Dexter, Ferd Gagnon, Robert McElroy and 
Joseph Belanger, the oldest member of Local 434. 

All attending praised the committee highly for an enjoyable and successful 
program. 



THE CARPENTER 



47 



Local 515 Wins First Prize in Labor Day Parade 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

I am enclosing pictures of the float wliich our Union built for the local Labor 
Day Parade, which incidently, was awarded first prize. 

The parade, sponsored by the Colorado Springs Federated Trades Council, was 
the most colorful Labor Day parade ever viewed by the residents of Colorado 




Springs. There were thirty-three floats and many decorated cars in the proces- 
sion Avhich was more than a half mile long. Approximately a hundred carpenters 
marched in the parade. Due to the enthusiasm shown by the members of other 
organized crafts, we intend to have a larger and better parade this year. 

Fraternally yours, 

Francis H. Dunn, Recording Secretary, 
Local 515, Colorado Springs, Colo. 



Hoosier Brotherhood Member 37 Years 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

I see in the October Carpenter where Brother William M. Hill of Local Union 
952, Bristol, Conn., has been a continuous member since June 12, 1901. 

We also have a member, by name, John H. Strong, whose date of birth is 
April 18, 1855. He joined Local Union 48 7 on January 28, 1902 and has been a 
continuous member since that date. Brother Strong has always taken an active 
part in meetings and has served as President, Financial Secretary and Trustee. 

We are very proud of this Brother and hope he stays with us many more 
years. 

Fraternally yours, 

Ellet Wolford. 

Local 487, Linton, Indiana. 



48 



THE CARPENTER 



Local 246, New York City Again Honors War Veterans 

Carrying out a custom started in 1920, Local 246, of New York City, lionored 
its war veterans. This ceremony is observed annually the first meeting following 
Armistice Day by members of the Local. 

Each year since 1920 the World War honor roll of Local 246 is called. Of the 
original thirty-five members on the roll, thirteen still are active. 

Principal speakers on this year's program were thtee war veterans including 
Dominick Mandaglio, President of Brotherhood Local 38 5 who also is commander 
of Post 2160 Veterans of Foreign Wars: John McMahon, past County Commander 
of Bronx County Veterans of Foreign Wars and Major Gus Lamm, present Com- 
mander of Bronx County Veterans of Foreign Wars. 

The club rooms were decorated with American flags. 

Gus Darmstadt, at the request of Local President Sam Sutherland called the 
honor roll and recalled how the event was started. 

Of the original thirty-five names, sixteen have resigned and six have passed 
away. 

Three months' dues from the Contingent Fund were presented to the thirteen 
remaining members on the Honor Roll. They are: Otto Boruvka, Anthony Coste, 
Harry Goldenberg, Harvey Hirsch, George Plenjes, George Sobrofke, Harry Mul- 
nick, Fred Newel, Carl Nielsen, John Preli, Emil Pokorny, John Vobornlk and 
Harry Ziegler. 

The ceremonies were ended by Commander Dominick Mandaglio, who offered 
prayers for the departed heroes. 

e 



Congratulations, Charles Edwards! 

When a Local Union or a married couple celebrate their Golden An- 
niversary, that's pleasant news; more than that, it's something rarily 
achieved. 

Individuals, as well as Local Unions, encounter 
many obstacles over the long road of existence 
during a fifty year period. Only the unusual sur- 
vive the wear and tear, the knocks and bumps. 
When they do, they have every right and a just 
cause to celebrate. Therefore, it is with pride, 
that Local Union 12 44 of Montreal, Quebec wants 
the membership at large to know that one of their 
members, can truthfully boast of SIXTY-ONE 
YEARS of continuous membership. 

When H. R. Slater, the Recording Secretary of 
Local 1244, brought the matter to our attention, 
we were a little skeptical but our records soon revealed the fact that 
Charles Edwards was born on May 31, 18 52 and he became a member of 
the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters on December 1, 1877. When the 
Amalgamated Society became a part of the United Brotherhood of Car- 
penters and Joiners of America, Brother Edwards was transferred to 
Local Union 1244. 




1^ -^.^^- ^.^^ ^^..-^ ^^^^ ^.^-.^ ^^ -^ ^^^^.^ -^ 



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THE CARPENTER 49 

Canadian Locals Asked to Buy Eddy Matches 

We have been organized for more than a year, and feel this is an excellent 
opportunity to ask all Canadian Locals to buy "EDDYS" matches. We can safely 
say that we are the only match plant under charter to the A. F. of L. 

We have not won recognition in the plant as yet, but are all working towards 
that goal. 

So calling all Locals — "ASK, AND INSIST ON EDDYS MATCHES" made by 
Union workers. 

Fraternally yours, 

Huntley Munro, Financial Secretary, 
Local 1775, Pembroke, Ontario. 



Brother is Fancy Skater and Acrobat at 65 

Brother James W. (Master Jim) Campbell, sixty-five years young, is a mem- 
ber of Local 242 of Chicago. Brother Campbell has been a member of the Brother- 
hood for an aggregate of more than forty years, the last thirty or more consecu- 
tively in good standing. Sixty-five years old and his hobbies, believe it or not, 
are roller skating, tap dancing and acrobatic performances! Master Jim took to 
these hobbies when Avork was scarce and his ability in mastering these hobbies 
has kept the wolf from his door. 

"There is nothing like a spread eagle or a bit of Russian dancing on roller 
skates as a health measui'e when you're sixty-five" he says, "or a back bend or 
perhaps standing on your head will keep you from getting stiff." 




At his trade Master Jim can hold his own with men many years his junior, 
and there is nothing he likes better than to roller skate or tap dance for diversion 
after a day's work at the trade. 

Brother Campbell has appeared before numerous clubs and meetings in ex- 
hibitions and right now anticipates making a tour that will eventually take him 
to California. On his way he expects to visit many of our afliliated locals to en- 
tertain the brothers Avith an exhibtiou of fancy skating and dancing, the like of 
which has brought him many prizes in competitive meets. Incidentally Master 
Jim has a rare voice and his rendition of Irish and Scotch ballads is enough to 
thrill. 

"My ambition on this tour." he says, "is to appear before the old timers at 
our Home in Lakeland, and I am going to try and include Lakeland in my itin- 
erary." 



50 THE CARPENTER 

Local 132 Endorses President's Action 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

The following letter was sent to President Roosevelt, by Local 132 of the Car- 
penters and Joiners of America, District of Columbia. 
His Excellency, 
Franklin D. Roosevelt, 
President of the United States, 
White House, 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: 

Local Union 132, of the Carpenters and Joiners of America of 
the District of Columbia, at its regular membership meeting Tues- 
day, NoA^ember 29th, unanimously endorsed wholeheartily your 
condemnation of the atrocities now taking place in Germany, which 
as you stated, is unbelievable in this day and urge you take further 
steps in placing an embargo on all imports from Germany. 

This recommendation is in line with the proposal made by our 
General President William Green, to all State Federations and Cen- 
tral Labor Unions of the A .F. of L., and we are convinced that this 
is the opinion of the 1,200 members of our organization in the Dis- 
trict of Colunibia. 

Very truly yours, 

Thomas W. Woltz, 

Recording Secretai'y No. 132. 



Two Million Dollar Contract Let in Youngstown 

The contract for construction of the nation's first low-cost housing- 
project costing two million dollars under the Housing Authority Act, to 
be erected in Youngstown, Ohio, was let in December after approval by 
Nathan Straus, administrator of the U. S. Housing Authority. 

The contract was let to the Youngstown Builders' Syndicate, a Youngs- 
town concern consisting of the Heller Murray company, Felix Pesa and 
Sons company, and the Bucheit and Sons company. The contract in- 
cludes the entire construction of buildings, plumbing, heating, electrical 
work and landscaping. 

Work is to start at once and is expected to be completed and ready for 
occupancy before Christmas of 1939. The project provides for 618 apart- 
ments complete with ranges, refrigeration and other modern conveniences. 

Leaders of the trade union movement in Youngstown are elated at 
the fact that work is actually being started on this huge project. Andy 
Hubbard, president of the United Labor Congress and business agent of 
the Carpenters' Union, said that the project is an answer to the sincere 
cooperation between the leaders of organized labor and the housing au- 
thority officials. It will provide work for about 800 craftsmen, including 
carpenters, bricklaj'^ers, plumbers, painters and other technical workers. 

Paul Strait, director of the Youngstown housing authority, recently 
voiced his praise for the local labor officials. He pointed out that when 
the project was only a dream, labor leaders lent every assistance possible 
in securing legislation both at Washington and Columbus and in working 
out the various details necessary. They were ready at all times to co- 
operate and assist. 

e 

A Union Label broom will make a clean sweep. 




Tampa, Fla., Auxiliary Reorganizes 



Editor, The Carpenter: 

Ladies' Auxiliary No. 87 has resumed its meetings. On June 20, 1938, a 
meeting was held for the purpose of reorganization. The following officers were 
elected: Mrs. Eunice Sanders, President; Mrs. Delores Bass, Vice-President; Mrs. 
Izah Forbes, Recording Secretary; Mrs. Bertha Nixon, Financial Secretary and 
Treasurer; Mrs. Edna Walker, Warden. 

Several parties have been given to swell our funds and each month we have a 
family party. Calls from the needy have been generously responded to. We were 
joined by the carpenters for a Christmas tree and party for the children of 
Local 6 9 6. 

Izah Forbes, Recording Secretary, 



Auxiliary 311 of Anaconda, Montana 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

On April 2 2, 1938 we organized our Auxiliary with forty charter members. 
Our Auxiliary is No. 311 of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America Local Union 88. Officers elected were: President, Mrs. Arthur Swanson; 
Vice-President, Mrs. Roy Rosenleaf; Recording Secretary, Mrs. Gus Anderson; 
Financial Secretary and Treasurer, Mrs. Elmer Barnett; Conductress, Mrs. Martin 
Nelson and Warden, Miss Mabel McPhail. 

These officers were installed by Mrs. Joseph Richards and her staff from the 
Butte Auxiliary. After installation the Brother Carpenters were invited to join 
us, and a social evening was enjoyed with music and dancing. Several new 
members have been added to our roster since then. 

On October 29 we held a Halloween party in the form of a masquerade which 
netted the Auxiliary a sum for its treasury. 

With all our members donating cups and spoons, we have a cupboard full of 
dishes to use when we have socials. Our ladies are all good workers, so I think 
we are here to stay. 

Fraternally yours, 

Mrs. Gus. Anderson, Recording Secretary. 



Auxiliary 36, Birmingham, Ala. 



Ladies Auxiliary 36 of Birmingham, Ala., is still going strong. We meet the 
first and third Monday nights of each month. After each business session we 
have a social meeting and serve refreshments. At a recent strike in Birmingham, 
which lasted three weeks our Auxiliary, in cooperation with the Trades Council, 
served meals to the men on picket duty. Since the strike we have had two or 
more members to join us at each meeting of which we are greatly proud. 

We filled several Christmas baskets, which we distributed to all needy 
carpenters' families in the district. We are glad to report that Ave have two dele- 
gates to the Union Label League, who bring us important information. We 
would certainly enjoy hearing from any of the Auxiliaries. 

With best wishes to all. 

Mrs. S. R. Swindell, Recording Secretary. 



Craft P 




ms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 123 

In the last lesson we devoted one 
paragraph to putting on roll roofing 
and concealing the nailing, but we 
were dealing particularly with new 
roofs in that case. In this lesson we 
are showing how roll roofing can be 
put on over old roofing without the 
use of nails. This-, in our judgment, is 
the best way of applying roll roofing 
over an old roof. How this is done we 
are illustrating by Fig. 1. This figure 
gives a shed roof in part, where two 
strips of roofing, shown somewhat 
shaded, are in place, and a third one 
partly on. (The dotted lines indicate 
the joints of the old roofing.) 

There are two methods of applying 
roll roofing without nails. Either give 
the old roof a coat of asphalt paint and 




Fig, 1 



then put the new roofing over it, mak- 
ing the joints with the roofing cement 
that comes with the roofing, or else 
use this method: Paint a section of the 
old roof where you want to begin and 
then start to unroll the roofing, mak- 
ing the joints with the cement, as in 
the other case. This we are showing by 
the partly-applied strip of roofing in 
Fig. 1, where we point out with indica- 
tors the paint and the cement. The 
cement should be applied to the upper 
edge of the strip of roofing that is down, 
before the next strip is started. Then 
paint a patch of the old roofing and 
start to unroll the next strip, working 
from the point marked X on the illus- 
tration, and painting the old roofing as 



the new is unrolled. The edges of the 
roofing are held down by means of sand- 
bags, as we are showing. After the ce- 
ment has had time to set somewhat, 



5flArD> 




Pig. 2 



the joints should be pressed with the 
foot, so as to make them stick. When 
this is done, it will be noticed that at 
some places the joints will not stay 
tight, making it necessary to weight 
such places with sandbags. (Bricks also 
make good weights, but do not always 
give as good results as sandbags.) As 
the work proceeds, the workman should 
from time to time go over the joints 
and press them with the foot, weighting 
the unstuck parts with sandbags. Most 
joints will stick permanently in about 
thirty minutes, depending on weather 
conditions. The edges of the roof should 




Fig, 



be carefully done, in fact, they should 
be weighted down all over. 

A word about the sandbags. These 
should be about 3 inches in diameter 
and 2 feet long. The bags are not hard 
to make. Anyone who can operate a 



THE CARPEXTER 



53 



sewing machine can make them. They 
should be made of stout material, so 
they can be preserved and used again 
on other jobs. 

Figure 2 shows to the left a good 
way of finishing the edge, which, as we 
are showing, is weighted with a sand- 
bag. Here can be seen one of the ad- 
vantages of sandbags. The bag can be 
forced into the angle, holding it in 



when the roof is on, the whole surface 
should be painted with asphalt paint. 

Figure 6, at the top, shows a common 
fault of roll roofing — that is, a buckle. 
Before applying new roofing, such buc- 
kles should be cut as we are Indicating 
by the arrow and the words, "cut here." 




Fig. 4 

place until the cement sets enough to 
hold the joint. 

Another edge finish is shown by Fig. 
3, where the new roofing is bent over 
the edge and a little beyond the old 
edge finish, giving it a drip. A double 
sandbag is used to hold the joint until 
the cement is set. Sometimes the upper 
part of a double sandbag must be re- 
inforced with extra weight in order to 
keep it from' slipping off the roof. 

Figure 4 shows a lap joint that is 
nailless, which is held temporarily in 
place by a sandbag. To the right of the 
joint in Fig. 5 we are pointing out with 
an indicator a pocket of asphalt paint; 
Avhich when it gets hard will support 
the new roofing. It will be noticed in 
all of these illustrations that we are 




Fig. 5 

indicating the old roofing by heavy- 
shading, and the new by light shading. 

Figure 5 shows a butt-joint. This is 
perhaps the best joint, if carefully 
made, that is possible in cases where 
the old roofing is still rather good. A 
coating of fibered cement should be 
placed directly under the joint, and 



Fig. 6 



The results of such an operation are 
shown at the bottom. 

It should be remembered that roll 
roofing ought to be put on when the 
weather is rather warm. This is espec- 
ially true when the method we are 
dealing with here is used. The roofing 
should be warm enough so as to render 








Fig. 7 

it pliable. When it is put on in cold 
weather, it does not have enough flexi- 
bility to bend without breaking and it 
will not fit itself to the roofing support 
as it should, or into angles. 



54 



THE CAKPEXTER 



A word of caution. The nailless 
method of applying roll roofing over old 
roofing is recommended only when it is 
put on by careful workmen. 

Figure 7 gives a nest of illustrations 
that were taken from a manufacturer's 
instructions for applying roll roofing. 
Number 1 shows the ordinary applica- 
tion; number 2 shows flashing against 
a brick wall where the roofing is fas- 
tened to a 2x4; number 3 shows fiash- 
ing that is wedged into a mortar-joint, 
and number 4 shows how the flashing is 
cut for a chimney, such as is shown by 
number 6. Number 5 shows how gut- 
ters should be lined and number 7 
shows the use of a chicken ladder. 
These illustrations should be compared 
with the manufacturer's illustration 
given in the last lesson. 



Blue Print Reading 
And Estimating 

By L. Perth 

CHAPTER THIRTY-TWO 

NOT QUITE UNDERSTOOD 

The series of lessons which have been 
running in this journal for more than 
two years under the above caption have 
contributed considerably toward the 
dissemination of technical knowledge 
among the members of the Brotherhood 
in such a gratifying way that we get 
many letters of appreciation to that ef- 
fect. We are happy to know that those 
Avho study this material cannot help but 
profit in one or more ways. This holds 
good for the entire section of the Craft 
Problems Department. For all those 
who contribute to this Department are 
contributing something useful and in- 
structive. 

Speaking of the series on Plan Read- 
ing, we must admit that some of its 
sections are quite technical and many 
students may experience a difiiculty in 
understanding their contents in spite Of 
the fact that the lessons are written in 
the simplest language and no efforts 
were spared as to conveying the ideas 
to the minds of the readers in such a 
manner as to make them comprehen- 
sible. 

When such conditions arise we urge 
our readers to write to the Journal ex- 
plaining their diflficulties and we cer- 
tainly will do everything in our power 
to remedy the situation. 



A few communications of this nature 
were received during the last few 
months and it seems that the majority 
of them are centered on the principle 
of "Orthographic projection," funda- 
mentals of which were discussed in 
Chapter Four of the present series. 

It seems that some of our readers 
have difficulty visualizing in their minds 
the proper relationship between the 
principal views of an object which has 
been represented on a plane in accord- 
ance with the above principles. 

We grant the idea is somewhat ab- 
stract and it takes a well trained imagi- 
nation to co-ordinate the various views 
represented on "one plane" and create 
in one's mind a picture of the object as 
it will" appear after it has been com- 
pleted. 

The principle of Orthographic Pro- 
jection upon which the preparation of 
all engineering drawings is based has 
been a stumbling block not only for 
those who are connected with the build- 
ing and manufacturing industry in the 
capacity of operatives but also for many 
students of technical and vocational 
schools where the writer of these lines 
has been an instructor for many years. 

In these schools the principle of Or- 
thographic projection is being demon- 
strated in a very practical way combin- 
ing the mental process which takes 
place in the mind of the originator of 
an idea, and a visible way whereby the 
evidently abstract idea takes on a ma- 
terial appearance. 

We will use this method in illuminat- 
ing the subject to our readers who did 
not grasp the idea when it first was 
expounded in the beginning of these 
series. 

In the first place it should be dis- 
tinctly understood that the process tak- 
ing place in the mind of the architect 
or engineer is primarily mental. He 
has in mind an idea which he de- 
sires to express on paper in order that 
those who are qualified to make it may 
follow his instruction and make the 
idea a reality. 

The first step consists in placing the 
object under a transparent prism shown 
in Fig. 5. Bear in mind this prism is 
an "imaginary prism" and the object is 
an "imaginary object." It also should 
be remembered that the object and the 
prism remain stationary until the pro- 



THE CARPENTER 



55 



cess of making the drawing has been 
completed. The party who is making 
the various views is taking the various 
positions in order to obtain the required 
outlines. 

The second step consists in looking 
through the transparent sides of the 
box and trace on the respective planes 



contain vertical appearances only. This 
is the "FRONT ELEVATION." 

The third view is obtained by step- 
ping to the right of the box and look- 
ing at the plane, trace the outline of the 
object seen from this position and this 
view will represent the "RIGHT ELE- 
VATION." 





(5) T/?/7/VSP/7jR£Nr /^/?/SAf 






CT) PLA^ 






0) P/?/SM l^/VPOlDA/£//r 



r-.n /^S^/^ysiS /?oor 




Of^THOGFAPHIC PROJECTION 



the "outline" of that side of the object 
Avhich is visible. 

The first view to be drawn is the 
"PLAN." This view is obtained by look- 
ing straight down and we obtain hori- 
zontal features only. 

The second view requires the change 
of the position of the observer. He 
stands in front of the transparent prism 
and traces on the respective plane the 
outline of what he can see. This will 



If the left side of the object has such 
peculiarities which would be essential 
to its production this view may be ob- 
tained in the same manner as the right 
elevation. 

After all these views have been ob- 
tained the box is unfolded as shown m 
Fig. 4 and this becomes now "a plane" 
or a sheet representing our drawing. 

If the object to be represented should 
be a house the views will appear on the 



56 



THE CARPENTER 



drawing as shown in Fig. 1, 2 and 3 
and being respectively the: Plan, Front 
elevation and Right elevation. 

A careful study of the accompanying 
drawing will contribute considerably to 
the understanding of this principle 
which holds good in all instances of 
engineering drawing. 

The difference between engineering 
drawing and pictorial drawing is that in 
the latter the object is shown as a whole 
and in orthographic projection each side 
is represented separately and the indi- 
vidual who is reading the drawing must 
form in his imagination the final pic- 
ture of the object after it has been 
made. 

If there should arise any further 
questions pertaining to this or any other 
phase of the subject please communi- 
cate with the Editor and these will be 
elucidated. 



Martha Washington Table 

By Charles A. King 

One of the most popular and attrac- 
tive of the historical designs of our 
earlier cabinet makers which is always 
salable and may be made by either a 
professional craftsman or a fairly com- 
petent home worker is the table in the 
photo. It was made from an old time 
black walnut extension table which had 
been discarded for many years, yet it 
Avas made into this valuable piece, and 
if the maker desired he could easily 
sell it for a price that would make his 
work a profitable investment. 

The original table legs were 2%" 
square, turned, but when worked down 
to 1 % " square they were turned into 
legs of the design indicated and the 
shaft reeded on a high speed drill press 
with the aid of an index as shown. The 
construction was all planned to come 
within the range of light woodworking 
machinery of the better grade. Any 
well equipped mill or cabinet shop 
should be able to reed the shafts of the 
legs and to stick the hinge joints of the 
table top. 

First make the legs and reed them 
and get out the ends % " x 6 % " x 9 % " 
and the back the same, but 14i^" long; 
fit them to the legs with % " dowel 
joints and groove and rabbet them to 
receive the drawer frames. Note that 
the ends are flush with the insides of 
the legs and form the drawer runs and 



that the back sets in 1/4 " from the out- 
side of the back legs. Smooth all ex- 
posed surfaces, glue the ends together 
and continue the grooves and rabbets 
across the squares of the legs where 




necessary. Note the joints of the frames 
at A and make these accurately. 

Make the three drawer frames of Vs " 
X 21/4" pine or other easily worked 
wood, the front rails being either of 
black walnut or the face stripped with 
it. Note that the top frame has a middle 
ledge, the bottom frame a Vs " plywood 
panel while the middle frame is open. 




Dowel the frames together with % " 
dowels being sure the surfaces are 
straight and the frames of even thick- 
ness and square. Make joint A by 
bunching all the frames and making all 



THE CARPENTER 



the cuts at the same time. Assemble 
the body of the table with glue and 
brads blind driven slantingly through 
the frames and into the legs, ends and 
back. Make the two leaf slides or sup- 
ports 5/16" X 2" X 16 14", (verify) 
and fit them by cutting grooves in the 



photo and the edges as at D. If the 
worker decides to dispense with the 
hinge joint as shown, the top may be 
made 19" wide and both edges of the 
joints left square; the molded joint is 
a really necessary refinement if the best 
results are desired. 




>I^_fc 



1/6" PLYWOOD PANEL |f 



OETAILSj 
!?<il X ^^OF 0RAWER5 

16 r ' 



MARTHA WASHINGTON TABLE 



top of the case and of the top drawer 
frame as at B so the slides will move 
freely but not loosely; wax these well. 
Note that the groove for the left slide 
is set back of that of the right slide. 

Make the top of selected % " stock 
19%" wide and 14" long; round the 
corners slightly as suggested in the 



Put the hinges under the top to rest 
over the legs and fasten the entire top 
to the body by screws through the front 
drawer frame and driving others neatly 
and slantingly through the sides and 
back into the top as at C. One-half 
inch or % " angle irons may be used 
on the ends and back instead of screws 



58 



THE CARPENTER 



if the best results are wanted; they 
should be cut into the sides, or into 
both the sides and top. 



sandpaper or with 00 steel wool, the 
last coat with pumice stone and oil and 
finish with rotten stone. If a velvety 




Reeding Legs on Drill Press 



Make the dovetailed drawers with 
% " fronts, the back and sides of V2 " 
pine and the bottoms of i/4 " plywood. 
Make the drawers 2 14 " and 2 Vz " high 
respectively and fit them carefully to 
their openings before dovetailing for a 
close fitting drawer is an easy running 
drawer. Set the drawer bottoms up 
5/16" from the bottom edges of the 
sides and front and make the back 
% " narrower than the sides for it 
rests on the top of the bottom. Make 
beads %" x 7/16" to miter around the 
fronts of the drawers; cut a %" x %" 
(verify) rabbet around each front as at 
E, after the drawer has been assembled 
and fitted; miter them accurately and 
glue them into rabbets. Back stop the 
drawers by gluing block of correct 
thickness on the back of each drawer 
to stop against the back of the case. 
Fit wooden or brass knobs; the writer 
will give the address where correctly 
designed knobs may be purchased on re- 
ceipt of a stamped, self addressed en- 
velope. 

Finish by filling the wood with a 
dark filler and giving three coats of 
thin shellac; rub each coat with 6/0 



sheen is desired the 
polished with wax. 



surface may be 



Scribing Stringers 

In these days of improved machinery, 
there is little of the better class of stair 
work done on the job. Occasionally, 
though, the material for housed stairs 




Fig. 1 

is framed by the carpenter. The cheap- 
er class of stair work is usually done 
on the job, such as cellar and attic 
stairs. 



THE CAKPEXTEK 



59 



Figure 1 shows the rough work of a 
stair with the finished risers nailed to 
the horses. The stringer is shown a 
little to the right, which has been 
scribed to the risers (see dotted lines 




Fig 



on the risers of the stringer). The 
scribing is done with the stringer in 
approximately the permanent position. 
The risers of the stringer, after the 
scribing is done, are recut to the 
scribed lines, which are indicated on 
the drawing by dotted lines. The recut- 
ting done, the stringer is ready for nail- 
ing into place, and if the work was ac- 




curately done, the joints will fit. Fig. 
2 shows the stringer marked for the 
first cutting, after which it is scribed in 
the manner explained. The steel square 
is shown in the position for marking 
the stringer. Fig. 3 shows a pitch board 




Fig. 4 

used by many carpenters for marking 
stringers. The dotted lines shown at 
the ends of the stringer, Fig. 2, indi- 



cate how the stringer is to be cut to 
intersect with the base. 

Figure 4 shows the stringer in place 
with the base fitted to it. It will be seen 
by turning to this figure that the first 
three treads have been put into place. 
This was done after the stringers were 
nailed. The treads are cut square on 
either end and to a length so they 
will fit tightly between the stringers. 

If accurately done, this method of 
stair building gives excellent results, es- 
pecially for cheap stairs. — H. H. Siegele. 



Electricity For Builders 

By L. Perth 

A fool notion which many otherwise 
intelligent people entertain is that they 
do not need to know anything which 
does not have any direct bearing on 
their immediate occupation, profession 
or trade. 

The writer, an instructor for many 
years in vocational schools where the 
majority of students are members of 
the building trades has had numerous 
opportunities to diperse such unhealthy 
theories for the good of both student 
and industry. 

To illustrate: A student comes into 
the class and declares he wishes to 
study how to read "carpenters blue 
prints." A brief consultation with the 
teacher discloses the following facts: 

The student is a journeyman carpen- 
ter, a capable mechanic of experience 
but seems to stay in a rut with no hope 
for advancement. His ambition is to 
become a contractor, he is confident he 
can command the job as far as the 
practical end is concerned, the only ob- 
stacle in his way being his inability to 
lead blue prints. "However," he de- 
clares, "I do not want to waste my time 
on anything else but carpenters blue 
prints." 

There is no such a thing as "carpen- 
ters blue prints" and "bricklayers blue 
prints." There are "architects' draw- 
ings" Avhich contain every detail carpen- 
ters, bricklayers, plumbers, electricians 
and painters should know in order to 
complete the job in a satisfactory way. 

It is evident, therefore, that all trades 
on the construction job are intercon- 
nected, so to speak, and representatives 
of each particular trade should know 
something about the schedule of opera- 



60 



THE CARPENTER 



tions to be carried on by the operatives 
of the next trade. 

The electrical worker may say "I do 
not need to know anything about struc- 
tural steel drawings, I am an electri- 
cian." That is a wrong conception. An 
electrician should be able to read not 
only electrical layout drawings but also 
structural, reinforced concrete, plumb- 
ing, heating and ventilating and in fact 
all drawing contained in the architec- 
tural set. 

The electrician cannot run his con- 
duits, drill holes, locate his outlets 



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vv^oMS O ff r/f£C //PC{//T-^ 

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coMMOn fuse 



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fOSS 

L0CATIN6 A B LOW /V Fuse 



SLoyy/v FUSS 



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/// rM£SAM£ /^Af//V£/f AS £i.£CTf'C 




CSf/SPAi APRANG£M£fJT OF FUSES 



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wherever he wishes. The structural en- 
gineer provides all the necessary holes, 
connections, clearances, clips, and all 
other facilities for the installation of 
the entire electrical system. All these 
are shown on the "structural draw- 
ings," and if the electrician does not 
know how to read these drawings he 
may just as well quit his job for he 
will never be able to install the wiring 
in the building. This holds good for all 
trades. 

Now in our series of lessons on "Blue 
Print Reading and Estimating" which 



have been running in the columns of 
this Journal since 1936, we endeavored 
to carry out this idea as much as space 
and conditions permitted and we feel 
that from time to time these lessons 
should be supplemented with material 
of this nature in order to broaden the 
horizon of those perusing this subject. 

Electricity today has become a uni- 
versal commodity. People are freely us- 
ing electrical energy in their daily life 
in the shape of light, heat and power. 
They are familiar with the use and 
operation of the various electrical ap- 
pliances that have become a part of 
their household equipment, and yet 
there seems to exist in the public mind 
a general misconception as to the func- 
tion of fuses in electrical installations. 

Just what are fuses and why is their 
application so essential to an electrical 
installation? 

A fuse may be likened to the "safety 
valve" of a steam boiler. For, just as 
the safety valve opens automatically 
when the pressure inside the boiler has 
reached dangerous proportions, so does 
the fuse "blow" when abnormal condi- 
tions are menacing the safety of the 
circuit. 

The ordinary fuse illustrated in Fig- 
ure 1 consists of a piece of wire or 
strip made of fusible metal which melts 
as soon as the current develops a rate 
higher than the wires can carry, thus 
protecting the system from any possible 
danger. 

The fuse-link "d" is mounted inside a 
porcelain holder or plug "C" which is 
provided with a brass cover "A." This 
cover has a cut-out at the top usually 
filled with clear mica, thus forming a 
window "b" which makes it possible to 
see the interior of the fuse plug. Fig. 
1-, 2 and 3. 

Among the principal causes that in- 
terfere with the safe operation of elec- 
trical circuits are short circuits and 
overloading, and whenever these condi- 
tions occur the wires are certain to heat 
excessively, the insulation will become 
ignited and start a fire. As a protection 
against the disastrous effects of such 
conditions, fuses are installed which 
due to the fusible nature of the 
metal they are made of, will give way 
or "blow" as soon as the heat in the 
wires reaches dangerous proportions, 
thus preventing accident to the installa- 
tion and appliances as well. 



THE CARPENTER 



61 



It is evident therefore tliat the re- 
placing of a fuse by a copper penny or 
a similar non-fusible material is equiva- 
lent to the tying down of the safety 
valve of a boiler and thus subjecting it 
to the dangers of explosion. 

Therefore, when a fuse blows it is a 
symptom indicating trouble somewhere 
in the system and instead of rendering 
the fuse useless for the purpose it was 
intended the cause of the "blowing" 
should be located and removed. 

As was mentioned above, short cir- 
cuits and overloading are generally re- 
sponsible for the blowing of fuses. 

A short circuit is a condition when 
two bare wires touch each other which 
usually happens with cords of electrical 
appliances or lights where the insula- 
tion has been worn out from constant 
use. 

When the defective cord has been 
found its use should be discontinued 
until it is repaired or replaced. 

It also frequently happens that soc- 
kets, plugs or connections become loose, 
thus causing two wires to touch each 
other resulting in a short circuit. The 
trouble should be remedied before put- 
ting in a new fuse. 

Overloading occurs when too many 
appliances are being used at the same 
time on one circuit, thus consuming 
more energy than the wires can carry. 

This condition, just the same as the 
short circuit, will also cause fuses to 
blow. 

To avoid overloading it is well to 
remember that motors of household de- 
vices should not be started when a great 
deal of current is being used for other 
purposes on the same circuit. 

Motors should be kept properly oiled 
and greased and their interior should 
be protected from the accumulation of 
dirt. If these requirements are neglect- 
ed the motor will require more energy 
than it was designed for which natural- 
ly will result in overloading and blow- 
ing of fuses. 

Remem*I)er — when a fuse blows it 
should never be replaced by a new one 
until the trouble has been located and 
corrected. A new fuse will not remedy 
the condition as long as the cause of 
blowing has not been removed. 

The arrangement of a house circuit 
is shown in P^igure 6. 



Ancient Druse Chest 

This chest is one of those odd pieces 
occasionally brought into the shop of a 
restorer of old furniture for treatment. 
It originated among the Druses of the 
Anti-Lebanon mountains and has the 
ruggedness of design and the crude 
craftsmanship that is characteristic of 
the Syrians and of other races of Asia 
Minor. Always these peoples have con- 
sidered the working of wood a vastly 
inferior craft to the making of arms 
and of other metal products, hence they 
paid little attention to the development 
of fine craftmanship in wood. 

The old Levitical law which com- 
manded that no "graA'^en image or any 
likeness of anything that is in the 
heaven above, or that is in the earth 
beneath, or that is in the water under 
the earth" should be made dates back 
to the time of Moses. Also the Koran 
almost perfectly reproduces the same 
law which has guided the production of 
form and the design of surface decora- 
tions among Mohammedan peoples since 
the days of Mahomet. 

The peoples of Asia Minor belong to 
either some of the various Christian 
sects or to sects that have sprung from 
the teachings of Mahomet. The inhibi- 
tions of these opposed faiths of the 
people of Asia Minor regarding the de- 
signing of form have resulted in two 
distinct trends, the highest attainment 
of the Saracenic or the Arabesque de- 
sign being reached in the building and 
the decorating of the Alhamljra at 
Granada, Spain. 

The art of the Christian nations of 
Asia JNIinor developed along lines that 
found their roots in the Byzantine and 
the Romanesque motives brought to 
Asia I\linor by the Crusaders. It is to 
this period that we may trace the inter- 
lacing design of the carving of the 
chest. Certainly the shape of the chest 
itself is well within the inhibitions of 
the Levitical law for excepting in the 
carving it has no resemblance to any 
national or period furniture in Europe. 

Aside from a penned notation that 
the chest was "move than 100 years 
old," which considering the marks of 
age and of service it carries seems con- 
servative, there is no reason to doubt 
that the chest may have seen five cen- 
turies at least. The cedar of the chest 
has, through surface treatment of oils 



THE CARPENTER 



and pigments and from age become a 
deep Vandyke brown in tone; in re- 
storing the cbest this tone was retained 
and the bare wood resulting from re- 
pairs stained to match it. Originally 
the front of the chest was dovetailed to 
the ends and the top hung to the back 
by staple hinges, the points of which, 
coming through the surface made ugly 
breaks. These staple hinges were com- 
monly used by the craftsmen of all 
European nations prior to the fifteenth 
century and the craftsmen of Asia 
Minor and of all of the advanced na- 



putty. The boards were from 1-3/16" 
to 1 3/16" in thickness and were 
warped and twisted badly from season- 
ing making erratic and irregular curves 
at the front and back edges of the top 
and of the moldings. 

Some time in the past the front had 
been removed by sawing off the dove- 
tails of which traces may be seen in the 
photo and hung with very light hinges 
which were replaced with heavier ones. 
The top was nailed to the sides with 
heavy hand made nails, some of which 
came through and were indifferently 




tions of the East used the same type of 
hinge, for a better hinge was not al- 
ways easy to come by and the staples 
answered the purpose. In this particu- 
lar case the points of the staples were 
roughly pounded dov/n and the broken 
wood filled with putty. 

It seems that the boards of the chest 
were hewed out and pains taken to in- 
clude as many knots as possible. Marks 
of an axe, an adze and of a very crude 
single iron plane which tore the wood 
badly are very much in evidence and 
the craftsman paid little attention to 
them beyond filling the knot holes and 
the most unsightly grain lifts with 



pounded in and puttied. Evidently the 
edge strips of the top and front were 
roughly hewed with no attempt to 
straighten them and fitted and decorat- 
ed with rough scratches that suggested 
moldings. The saw cuts of the front 
ends of the bottom of the base were 
made at any angle with the sides of 
the base and with a rough cutting saw 
and every scratch of the saw is visible. 

The carved front is the striking fea- 
ture of the chest though the roughness 
and the careless spacing of the cuts are 
perfectly consistent with the rest of the 
chest. The Byzantine interlacing motive 
suggests a Crusader origin. The ten 



THE CARPENTER 



63 



small circles formed by the bands are 
fairly true in form while the three 
larger elongated circles of uniform size 
add little to the grace of the ensemble. 
The roughly cut flower forms are high- 
ly conventionalized which is the meth- 
od by which ancient craftsmen dodged 
the laws of their religious creeds and 
codes. The cuts are extremely sketchy 
and the background often roughly 
broken out and badly splintered with 
no attempt at tooling of any sort. How- 
ever, the coarseness of the details and 
the depth of the cuts give interesting 
reflected lights and emphasize the shad- 
ows. If seen from a distance the design 
has a boldness of treatment and an em- 
phasis of the leading motive of inter- 
lacing bands that in a measure compen- 
sate for the imperfections of the crafts- 
manship of the entire chest. 

The brass escutcheon, drop handle 
and key are excellent specimens of Sy- 
rian pierced metal work and defiantly 
bear out their relation to the metal 
work with which the ancient smiths of 
Damascus embellished their swords. — - 
C. A. King. 



Editor, The Carpenter: 

In the October issue of our Journal 
there was an article by Brother H. H. 
Siegele illustrating three methods of 
cutting out from the edge of a board 
what he says "we v.ill call a notch." 
(I wonder if we might call it a "reces- 
sion"?). He says the third method, 
shown as Fig. C in the above mentioned 
article, is "not commonly used." 

Now, I have often used that method 
in preference to any other but with the 
following variations: Slake the cut as 



described, "starting with the rip saw at 
point a, and guiding the saw in such 
a manner that it will be running 
straight by the time it reaches point b, 
but, instead of continuing to cut on 
that straight line to the end of the 
notch, cut only about the width of the 
saw, say to point c, then reverse the 
saw and cut back to the end of the 
notch, point d. This gives the saw cut 
from b to c as a guide for cutting in on 
the wedge point left at b, which is 
much easier than cutting in free hand. 



I have found this method easier, 
quicker and more accurate than any of 
those described in the article men- 
tioned. It saves the time of looking for 
a chisel and making the starting cut as 
described in the first sketch and the 
time and trouble of getting a bit to 
bore a hole and a compass to start the 
cut as shown in the second sketch. The 
cut from b to c is already a start to 
finish cutting out the rest of the notch. 

Yours fraternally. 

Frank Shiflersmith, Local 1367, 
Chicago, 4136 N. Sacramento Ave. 



Simplified 

We are fast getting away from the 
old-style window stool for brick walls. 
We can remember instances where the 
carpenter had to do considerable build- 
ing-up before a window opening was 




ready for the stool and the rest of the 
trim. The present tendency is much 
better, although it does eliminate a 
great deal of carpenter work. 



64 



THE CARPENTER 




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to be a — 



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Coupon Brings Books FREE for examination 



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Attach letter stating age, employer's name and address 
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Figure 1 of the accompanying draw- 
ings shows a design for a window stool 
made of brick. Such a stool can either 
be laid before the window frame is set, 
or afterward. Care should be taken in 
either case to get the stool in level, 
straight and at the proper elevation. 

A stone sill is shown on the outside 
on which the sill of the frame rests. 
This sill can also be built of brick, 
which makes a good sill, and rather in- 
expensive. 



Figure 2 shows another design in 
which the stool is omitted entirely. A 
little comparing of the two figures will 
bring out the difference. 

Many pleasing designs can be worked 
out simply, by making the nee- 




Fig. 2 



essary modifications of the drawings 
herewith given. Such designs should 
not only do away with the unsanitary 
out-of-date stool, but should be kept in 
harmony with the rest of the work. 
We are suggesting this, because fre- 
quently the carpenter is expected to do 
his own designing. — H. H. Siegele. 



18-Point Program Proposed for Illinois 
Labor 

An 18-point legislative program has 
been proposed for organized labor of 
Illinois by Reuben G. Soderstrom, presi- 
dent of the State Federation of Labor. 

A full crew law, a ban on labor spies, 
a state hours and wages act, and a five- 
day week were among the reforms de- 
manded. 



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7939 




February — The 
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U 




Here's how 

joints are 

CONCEALED 





in Sheetrock 
walls 

1. The recessed edge 
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joints— 

2. — which is filled with 
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3. P erf- A -Tape- 
strong, perforated 
fiber tape— is then 
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LET SHEETROCK 



THE HREPROOF WALLBOARD 



HELP YOU GET WINTER WORK 



Recessed Edge Sheetrock* and Perf-A-Tape* 
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THB^^^ 




EnteredJuly 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24, 1912 

Acceptance for mailing at special i-ate of postage provided for In Section 1103, act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Sawmill and Timber Workers. Furniture Worijers. Stair 

Builders, Machine Wood Workers. Planin.sr Mill Men, Millwrights. Shipwrights and 

Boat Builders. Pilodrivers and Kindred Industries. Owned and Published by 

the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, at 

Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Advertising Department, Rm. 250, Bible Honse, New York, N. Y. <i^^^51 



Established in IfiSl 
Vol. LIX.— No. 2 



INDIANAPOLIS, FEBRUARY, 1939 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated aa 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 



i 



''Above all, management is re- 
sponsible to the customers of its 
business. The most ruthless master 
of any business is that vast public 
which can destroy that business by 
withholding purchases if it finds 
that prices are too high, products 
are unsatisfactory or practices are 
unfair. . . .'' — Raymond Moley. 



THE CARPENTER 



Will Europe Call Hitler's Bluff In 1939? 

BY HERBERT R. HILL 



The nations of Europe are doing a tight-rope walking act these days 
over a dangerous abyss. A misstep may plunge Europe into a general 
Avar. The man on the street in this country is an interested oivlooker, fully 
aware of the fact that this nation has embarked on a vast defensive pro- 
gram. 

Fascist Franco has just aboiit subdued Spain; Hitler is mai'king time 
after two successful territorial ventures; France displays its sea power 
as a warning to Ambitious Mussolini; Great Britain is spending five mill- 
ions a day in readiness for Avar. All Europe is tense, Avaiting, Avondering if 
the ineA'itable Avar can be avoided. 

The Carpenter asked Herbert R. Hill, of The Indianapolis Ncavs, to ex- 
plain, in his opinion, Avhat could happen in Europe in the near future. 

Long associated Avith The Ncavs in an executive capacity, Mr. Hill has 
visited Europe and studied conditions there. He has interviCAved foreign 
correspondents, diplomats and others on the front line of European affairs. 

In the ensuing article, Mr. Hill AA^ants it understood that he is not pre- 
dicting anything. In the a^cav of past CA'ents he is merely calling attention 
to what COULD happen in Europe in the near future. 



1 



"^HE year 1938 was Adolf Hitler's year in the realm of world poli- 
tics. 1939 may well be his also, if his bluff, and adroitness, and 
his ruthless irresponsibilit}" hold out. 

Thus far Hitler has used the threat of his military power to 
browbeat other nations, and other Germans, into satisfying his demands. 
He has asked for, and received, economic and political control of Ger- 
many, subjugation of Austria, the dismemberment of Czecho-Slovakia, 
the ending of the Franco-Russian alliance, the co-operation of Italy, the 
overthrow of the Republican government in Spain, the linancial crippling 
of France and the unprecedented humiliation of Great Britain! 

But to continue this remarkable success, either at home or abroad, will 
be far more difficult than anything Hitler has yet attempted. As Musso- 
lini has found in Ethiopia, it is one thing to annex or subjugate a country; 
it is another thing to police that country, to develop it and to make it pay 
dividends of any sort whatsoever. 

By seizing his native Austria, Hitler obtained more gold than existed 
in the German national treasury. He obtained valuable iron from the 
Leoben district (over which he and Mussolini almost went to war in 
1934) and several million men were added to his potential cannon-fodder. 
But also he must feed the long-starved metropolis of Vienna. And he 
must expect, sooner or later, the opposition of the Italian people, who are 
now faced with Nazi uniforms at the Brenner Pass and at Tarviso. 

The Austrian Tyrol given to Italy in 1919 must sooner or later go to 
Germany, if the Pan-Germanic unification plan is to be entirely success- 
ful. Any one of several points of contention might cause a sudden split 
between Rome and Berlin. It might even come over the problem of what 
is to be done with Spain, after the Hitler-Mussolini-supported Franco 
finally subjugates the Spanish Loyalists. 

Although England suffered its worst diplomatic defeat in several 
centuries at Munich last autumn, the apparent Hitler victory had unex- 



THECARPENTER 3 

pected effects on the common people of England, Germany, France and 
Italy. According to most reports, the British reacted exactly as they did 
after the sinking of the Lusitania, and Paris flared up instead of cringing, 
just as was the case in the long-range world-war shelling of the French 
capital. Today the common people of England and France seem ev'en 
more eager to hasten sufficient armament than do the hesitant Chamberlain 
and Daladier governments. As for the German and Italian people, de- 
spite the most rigid of censorships and savage domestic spy S3'stems, they 
are beginning to see how they are merely pawns in the hands of their 
self-appointed leaders. 

Certainly England must do something to regain some of its prestige 
not only with Americans but with Canadians, Australians and other parts 
of its empire. And if France can re-adjust its internal economy, and poli- 
tical stability is effected (both these are tremendous tasks), then French 
re-armament may be expected to go forward speedily. 

But will Hitler wait? AMll Mussolini wait? Most guesses are that 
Mussolini will, in almost any event. Indeed, another year may find the 
long-expected weakening of the Berlin-Rome alliance, and the barkening 
b}^ Alussolini to the voice of London, if the voice is accompanied by some 
sort of prestige sop and by liberal financial credits. 

The Far East may hold the key to Hitler's future actions. If Japan 
fights Russia next spring, and Russia does not prove as strong as some of 
her friends believe she is, then Germany might consider next summer 
the opportune time to grab what else she wants in Europe — preferably 
the Ukraine and Rumania. Russia, of course, is far more vulnerable on 
the western front than in Siberia. If reason prevailed, one would not 
expect any Japanese army to attack Russia before Russia were engaged 
elsewhere. But the new Tokyo is more Fascist than any previous one; 
Japan obviously is preparing to stop any possible opposition from within 
to the impending operations of her army and navy. 

Thus while England and France, and Russia too, continue to play 
for time, America itself begins a tremendous preparedness program (esti- 
mated to cost a new record high of $1,326,000,000 in the 1940 fiscal year). 
The President explains that possible invasion of South America and 
Latin America by un-democratic powers warrants an immediate super- 
armament expenditure, and regardless of his sincerity, or the wisdom 
of his suggestions, it is known that German and Italian influence is al- 
read}' manifest in high places at several spots to the south of us. 

If the present Conservative government in England, and the centrist 
government in France, could be convinced that either Mussolini or Hitler 
would be followed by a moderate or conservative regime, then the props 
would probably be speedily pulled from under either or both those dic- 
tators. But the extreme Tories who have dominated London official policy 
the last several years, and the moderates who sit grimly in control in 
Paris, fear that the inevitable reaction to the extreme dominations of 
Hitler and Mussolini would be a sort of anarchy, or at the least a radical 
cycle. It is this constant reminder by the Nazis and Fascists, "If not us, 
something worse !" that keeps them in power. 

But if England and France, acting jointly, can not dare to resist 
either Hitler or Mussolini in a military way. how could they overthrow 
the dictators so easily? The answer is that London and Paris, in more or 
less direct ways, have been helping support both Germany and Italy finan- 
cially ever since 1919. And it is more gold, or more financial credits, 



4 THE CARPENTER 

that the dictators need most just now. They must feed or pay their 
armies or eventually they will revolt. So we have the paradox of the 
western democracies bolstering the dictators financially while they pre- 
pare to kill them off later by the more brutish force of arms. 

Unless there is some decided change, then, in either the governments 

of England or France, Hitler as yet has the whip-hand in Europe. It is 

exceedingly rash to predict anything about a puzzle in which a dictator is 

included, but this much one can hazard rather safely : 1939 depends on 

Hitler, just as did 1938. If he is too arrogant, if he becomes lax in holding 

in leash the leaders of the German army (most of whom hate him), if he 

and Goering do not quickly absorb what they have gained, then watch 

for another debacle in central Europe. 

o 

Fight Certain Over Labor Act Revisions 

IN the haze of uncertainty concerning what is likely to happen in the 
reconvened session of Congress, one fact stands out: There is going 
to be a terriffic battle over the National Labor Relations Act. 

That legislation, which, when enacted, was proclaimed labor's 
"Magna Charta," will be under fire from its friends and enemies. 

The American Federation of Labor insists that the' principle of the 
law is sound and must be preserved, but will demand changes that will 
safeguard craft unions and remove causes of deep dissatisfaction with 
its administration, thus making the act a more effective instrument in 
establishing enlightened labor relations. 

Labor-hating employers will strive to pull the law's teeth and reduce 
it to a pitiful gesture. 

It is unlikely, however, that the foes of labor will succeed, but anti- 
union propagandists have been busy all over the country. They have 
churned up sufficient sentiment against the law to cause Senator M. M. 
Logan (of Kentucky), who generally has his feet on the ground, to say 
that unless amendments are adopted the entire law may be wiped out. 

Senator Wagner, author of the law, will be on hand to look after his 
"baby." He has indicated that he will sponsor a number of amendments 
to correct abuses in administration and will fight all attempts to take the 
heart out of the act. 

Amendments to the Labor Act headed the list, indicating the impor- 
tance the labor movement attaches to the need of changes. 

Congress will be asked to take away from the Labor Board the power 
to discriminate against craft unions in determining bargaining units and 
also to forbid the board to annul bona fide contracts between established 
unions and employers. 

"We are determined to protect the fundamental provisions of the act 
and assure employes the right of self-determination, free from intimi- 
dation," Green explained at a press conference. "We will oppose any 
amendments sought by manufacturers to weaken the act. We are confi- 
dent Congress will turn down disruptive amendments." 

• ^ 

Half of Unemployment Insurance Goes for Food 

Jobless who draw unemployment insurance in Minnesota pay out nearly half 
their checks for food, a state survey shows. The remaining 50 per cent is doled 
out for clothing, shelter and other expenses. 



THE CARPENTER 5 

Planned Investment Could Increase Production 

THE immediate problem before the American people is this: How 
can we lift our industries to full production with the near future 
and put the unemployed to work? How can our economic system 
free itself to produce the living- standards possible under the 
power age? The American Federation of Labor Survey of November 
showed how far we are falling short of the production and living stand- 
ards possible. 

The Temporary National Economic Committee (TNEC) appointed 
by Congress is now studying economic maladjustments which check 
production, and it is likely that several bills for basic industrial better- 
m.ent will be introduced in Congress this year. It is urgent therefore for 
union officers and members to be well informed and to know what con- 
structive steps can be taken. 

Authorities who have studied industrial progress here and abroad 
in the last^ centuries point out that full production and employment in 
any country comes at times Avhen large amounts of money are invested 
in far reaching enterprises. Sometimes the investment has been made 
by private industry, sometimes by Government. During the last century 
and a half there have been three great waves of activity financed by pri- 
vate investment: First, the industrial revolution of Europe (1790-1815), 
when industry rebuilt its plant and equipment in a sweeping change from 
hand to machine methods, had its repercussions in this country. Also, 
the development of new land and new industries absorbed large invest- 
ments for productive use. Second, the period of railroad building (1840- 
1873) when a g-reat network of railroads was spread across the Ameri- 
can continent. Third, the growth to maturity of two great modern in- 
dustries — electric power and automobiles (1896-1929). Government spend- 
ing for wars and government investment for construction of roads, 
schools, public buildings also swelled the total of industrial activity in 
the last 150 years. 

Between these periods of great industrial activity were times of lesser 
activity, lower employment, relative industrial stagnation. And there 
were also minor industrial recessions and recoveries like those of 1937 
and 1938. All of the short periods of recession as well as the long periods 
of industrial stagnation have meant unemployment and wage cuts for 
workers, losses and business failure for employers. The problem of 
America today is to time our investments so that periods of depression 
will be lessened and periods of industrial growth and prosperity in- 
creased. 

This cannot be done without some form of national planning, and 
bills now being prepared for Congress will propose measures for a Na- 
tional Planning Board. As we look forward to National Planning, two 
points are of primary concern to Labor : 

I. That members of the National Planning Board shall be drawn 
from industry, labor, agriculture, consumers' groups, trade, finance; that 
the board shall be a group of representative men taken directly from pro- 
duction and service industries, not a group drawn from Government 
offices; that existing trade, labor and farm organizations be brought into 
cooperation with the work of the National Planning Board. If the 
board members choose their own technical advisors, this also will safe- 
guard against bureaucracv. 



6 THECARPEXTEK 

2. That planning for increased production in the United States shall 
be directed toward the goal of higher living standards for all, and not 
toward undue or unnecessary production for military purposes; that 
jobs shall be created in industries producing goods needed by the people 
rather than munitions, except for the munitions needed for national de- 
fense. If these two points are carefully safeguarded, we can have na- 
tional planning by democratic methods and avoid the pitfalls of Fascism. 

Once a National Planning Board is established, with authority to 
gather information, we shall have an agency which can collect the facts 
and suggest (a) An immediate program to lift industrial production as 
nearly as practicable to full capacity, and (b) a long term program to 
stabilize and increase production, to give greater job security and raise 
living standards. 

In planning to raise living standards we need to consider how the 
funds lying idle in our banks can best be invested. There is now more 
than 85,000.000,000 belonging to individuals and institutions which is 
seeking investment. In addition there are large idle balances in the 
hands of corporations v.'hich would create plant and equipment if war- 
ranted. Also the banks have excess reserves of $3,250,000,000 which 
could form a base for credit of over $20,000,000,000. By putting these 
funds to work we should increase the national income which would add 
still further to the funded capital available for investment. In fact our 
present investment in industry could be increased enormously without 
straining our credit structure. 

Investment in durable goods has alwa3-s been necessary to raise in- 
dustry to its highest levels. For when workers in industries producing 
machinery, buildings, automobiles, roads or materials for these are fully 
employed, they spend their incomes and automatically lift production 
in food, clothing and other non-durable good industries. So we are con- 
cerned with investments in durable goods. 

Authorities who have studied American investments in durable goods 
note the fact that American industry in the last two decades has not 
needed or used large amounts of new investment comparable to the huge 
sums which created equipment for the power age. Our industrial plant, 
once built, has been maintained or enlarged and its machinery modern- 
ized chiefl)" out of the profits which firms have ploughed back into their 
business. Nor has any new industry 3-et arisen to commandeer huge 
amounts of new capital for industrial equipment. 

On the other hand we find that in industrial countries over the entire 
world the great durable goods investments of the power age are being 
used for production of consumers' durable goods. Against the invest- 
ments in factories and machiner}-, mines, railroads and power lines which 
made mass production possible, we have today's investments in automo- 
biles, houses, schools, public parks and buildings for consumers' use. 
The network of roads thrown across the country after 1920 exceeds in 
mileage the railroads built after 1840. This expansion from producers' 
to consumers' capital is t3-pical of the power age, which is indeed the age 
of the consumer. 

In democratic countries, much of the investment which has created 
these durable consumers' goods was made through Government borrow- 
ing. The peoples of democratic countries are using their Governments to 
an increasing extent as the channel for investment in permanent improve- 
ments such as low rent housing, schools, recreation centers, roads, hos- 



THECARP ENTER 7 

pitals and other services. Increasing investment means increasing debt, 
for large scale investment, whether in Government work or private in- 
dustry, cannot be made without large scale borrowing. Increasing long 
term debt is healthy and normal in a growing industrial country, for in- 
dustrial progress is impossible without increasing investment. In the 
United States the total long term debt (or investment) of American 
people, both Government and private, increased from $38,000,000,000 in 
1913-14 to $75,000,000,000 in 1921 and $126,000,000,000 in 1929. Thus long 
term investment (or debt) increased by more than $6,000,000,000 per year 
in the 1920's. In the depression, from 1932 to 1937, our total long term 
debt increased by only $3,200,000,000 per year; the increase was almost 
entirely in Government, not private, debt. Thus it is clear that although 
we have added nearly $20,000,000,000 to our Federal debt from 1932 to 
date, our borrowing increased less than in the prosperous '20's. We did 
not, however, invest enough in permanent long term improvements to keep 
industry busy to capacity. 

The Government borrowing power can well be used for investments 
to raise the general living standard if its use is carefully planned so as 
to stimulate private industry and to produce improvements of real value 
to the American people. VVhat can be accomplished in a well-planned, 
long-term program differs greatly from temporary "pump-priming" which 
the New Deal has advocated and which has resulted in onl}'- sporadic 
periods of business upturns. Such a policy will never solve our present 
day problem. 

A challenging possibility is a program to rehouse our population 
living in slum areas. The United States Housing Authority has made a 
good beginning, and in 1940 it will build 90,000 low rent homes and give 
jobs to 213,000 persons producing materials and erecting the houses. But 
this is a very small beginning compared to the need. For over and above 
the United States Housing Authority program and the maximum private 
industry will build, there is need for 710,000 homes which have not been 
planned for. A large proportion of this need is in low rent homes which 
are not profitable for private industry. To build these homes would em- 
ploy 1,683,000 persons. In all, it has been estimated that we need to build 
1,300,000 new homes each year for the next ten years. This would create 
3,081,000 jobs yearly. 

A housing- program is only one of many measures which could be in- 
cluded in a national plan to increase industrial production and raise liv- 
ing standards. A relatively small amount of Federal investment rightly 
planned could stimulate important increases in private investment and in 
production by private industry. The first step is to create a representa- 
tive National Planning Board. 

• 

Wage-Hour Act Hikes Employer's Profits 

Higher wages and shorter hours for the workers bring greater profits for 
tlie boss. 

That's the lesson some employers have learned under the Wage-Hour Act, 
Elmer F. Andrews, administrator of the act, reports. 

As an example, he told of a Southern employer who had paid his employes 
$6 for a 72-hour work week. He threatened to close down when the act went 
into effect. 

However, he tried operating on a 25-cent hourly minimum and a 44-hour week. 
The result, Andrews said, has been that the employer found the increased pay and 
reduced hours had so improved the employes' efficiency that his profits were rising. 



8 THE CARPENTER 

1885 and 1939 Have Much In Common 

IN BURLINGTON, Iowa, in 1885 Henry George, one-time Labor can- 
didate for Mayor of New York City, made an address to the Knights 
of Labor. The Knights of Labor had thousands upon thousands of 
copies of his speech distributed. In it George said in part: 

"Today, while there is so much distress, so much want, what is the 
current explanation of hard times? 'Overproduction!' There are so many 
clothes that men must go ragged ; so much coal that in the bitter winter 
people have to shiver; such over-filled granaries that people actually die 
of starvation. Want due to over-production ! Was a greater absurdity 
ever uttered? How can there be overproduction until all have enough? 
It is not over-production; it is unjust distribution, and the dangerous 
man is not he who tries to excite discontent; the dangerous man is the 
one who says all is as it should be. 

"True, in a rude state of society there are seasons of want, seasons 
when people starve; but they are seasons when the earth has refused to 
yield her increase, when rain has not fallen from the heavens, or when 
the land has been swept by some woe, not when there is plenty — not when 
the granaries are filled to bursting with grain, and the warehouses with 
clothing, as today. 

"Poverty necessary! Why, think of the enormous powers that are 
latent in the human brain ! Think how invention enables us to do with 
the power of one man what long ago could not be done by the power of 
a thousand. 

"Look at one of those great ocean steamers plowing her way across the 
Atlantic, against wind, against wave, absolutely setting at defiance the 
utmost power of the elements. 

"If the gulls that hover over her were thinking things, could they 
imagine that the animal that could create such a structure as that could 
actually want for enough to eat in a land of too much food? Yet it is so. 

"Think of it, you who believe that there is only one life for man — 
what a fool at the very best man is to pass his life in this struggle to 
merel}^ live. And you who believe, as I believe, that this is not the last 
of man, that this life is a life that opens but another life, think now how 
99 per cent of all our vital powers are spent in a mere effort to get a liv- 
ing; or to heap together that which we cannot by any possibility take 
away. Take the life of the average workingman. Is that the life for 
which the human brain was intended and the human heart made? 

"I used to read the 'Scientific American,' and as invention after inven- 
tion was heralded in that paper I used to think to myself that when I 
became a man it would not be necessary to work so hard ; the machines 
would lighten my labor and worries. 

"But, on the contrary, the struggle for existence has become more and 
more intense. 

"Such a state of things can not continue ; such tendencies as we see 
at work here can not go on without bringing at last an over-whelming 
crash!" 

Henry George was known as "The Prophet of San Francisco." His 
work might just have come off the press, so up-to-date is it today. 

» 

Keep Your Dues Paul Up 



THECARPENTER 9 

18 More States Begin Jobless Payments 

THE rapid advancement of unemployment compensation in the 
United States is pictured in the announcement by the Social Se- 
curity Board that the "beginning- of unemployment benefit pay- 
ments in New Mexico and Oklahoma in December, and in twenty 
additional States in January, will bring the program of unemployment 
compensation established by the Social Security Act into full operation in 
every State but two, as well as in the District of Columbia, Hawaii and 
Alaska. Illinois and Montana will begin to pa)'- benefits in July, 1939, 
making the system effective throughout the nation.'' 

Emphasizing the economic and social importance of this achievement, 
the Board declared : 

"Some six million commercial and industrial workers in the twenty 
States soon to begin payments are estimated to have accjuired credits to- 
ward benefits under their unemployment compensation laws and will thus 
become potential claimants for benefits if they are laid off or lose their 
jobs. Approximately 147,000 employers are covered by these twenty 
State unemployment compensation laws. 

"The 18 jurisdictions where benefits will be paid after January i are: 
Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Kansas, 
Kentucky, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, North Dakota, Ohio, 
South Dakota, Washington, and W3'oming. 

"In the 29 States where benefits are already being ^aid, more than 
$340,000,000 has been distributed to insured unemplo3'ed workers during 
the ten months ending October 31. Approximately 3,500,000 of the 20,- 
000,000 workers estimated to be covered by unemployment compensation 
in these States have drawn compensation for varying periods of total or 
partial unemployment during this time. Currently, nearly a million indi- 
viduals are receiving weekly benefits averaging over $11 for total un- 
employment, $5.00 for partial unemployment. 

"All told, over 27,500,000 wage earners and 670,000 employers in the 
United States and its territories come under Federal-State unemployment 
compensation. This nation-wide program covers most types of industrial 
and commercial employment but excludes agricultural and domestic 
work, self-employment. Government service, work for nonprofit educa- 
tional and charitable institutions, and a few other kinds of employment." 

Pointing out that "the twenty States scheduled to begin benefit pay- 
ments within the next few weeks had a balance of approximately $281,- 
000,000 in the Unemployment Trust Fund of the United States Treasury 
as of October 31. all of which will be available solely for benefits," the 
Board made public the following figures giving the estimated number of 
workers with wage credits entitling them to unemployment compensation 
when they are thrown into the jobless army in these States: 

Alaska, 23,000; Arkansas, 155.000; Colorado. 200,000; Delaware, 63,000; 
Florida, 255.000; Georgia, 375,000; Hawaii, 119.000; Kansas. 255,000; Ken- 
tucky, 380,000; Missouri, 650.000; Nebraska. 120.000; Nevada. 30.000; New 
Jersey, i.ooo.ooo; New Mexico, 70,000; North Dakota. 44,000; Ohio, i,- 
720,000; Oklahoma, 324,000; South Dakota, 45,000; Washington, 300.000; 
W'yoming, 49,000. 

• 

He -who loses -vvealth loses much; he -who loses a friend loses more; but he 
that loses courage loses all. — Cervantes. 



10 THE CARPENTER 

Stage Set for Struggle Over Medical Treatment 

THE issue of how to provide medical care for all Americans at a 
cost that all Americans can meet took the spotlight with a venge- 
ance when the stage was set for a far-reaching legislative and 
judicial struggle between the government and the organized med- 
ical profession. 

The administration scored an initial victory when a Federal grand 
jury at Washington returned more than a score of indictments against 
the American Medical Association and several of its subsidiaries and a 
number of physicians who have vigorously opposed group medicine. 

Among the individuals under fire is Dr. Morris Fishbein, editor of the 
A. M. A. "Journal" and sparkplug of the campaign against the co-opera- 
tive movement. 

Simultaneously with the jury's findings, President Roosevelt disclosed 
his intention to submit to Congress a large-scale, government-supported 
health program, following in part recommendations of an inter-depart- 
mental committee submitted to a national health conference held in the 
nation's capital last July, with Josephine Roche presiding. 

The conference outlined measures calling for an ultimate expenditure 
of about $850,000,000 a year, but recommended that a modest start be made 
by limiting the first year's outlay to $65,000,000. 

After a conference with the President, Miss Roche said the plan to be 
suggested to Congress calls for an expenditure of about $50,000,000. 

"This will n^^an a lot to the 40,000,000 people who have inadequate or 
no medical care," Miss Roche said. 

The Federal grand jury's action was one of the most extraordinary of 
its kind ever taken. Justice Department officials pointed out that it is the 
first time in the history of America that anti-trust indictments have been 
returned against practicing physicians or any other group organized for 
mutual benefit and protection. 

The indictments contain five specific counts of "conspiracy and com- 
bination in restraint of trade," allegedly growing out of efljorts to throttle 
the Group Health Association of Washington, a co-operative of govern- 
ment employes. Conviction would carry penalties of one year's imprison- 
ment or $5,000 fine, or both. 

The indictment sets forth that many Americans in the low income 
group cannot afford and do not obtain adequate medical care because its 
cost is prohibitive. One way to meet this situation, the jury contended, 
is through health groups, but the medical profession is accused of hav- 
ing discouraged all efforts along that line by expelling and blacklisting 
physicians who serve the groups. 

The A.M. A., the indictment declared, has such a complete grip on 
hospital and other health facilities that an expelled doctor, in addition 
to suffering loss of prestige, is prevented from effectively practising his 
profession and is unable to give proper treatment to his patients. 

One count in the conspiracy charge is that the A.M.A., through coer- 
cion and intimidation forced Washington hospitals to deny treatment to 
members of the Group Health Association. 

A.M.A. officials and the doctors caught in the dragnet breathed defi- 
ance and declared they would fight the indictments to a finish. In Chi- 
cago, Dr. Fishbein said his organization had authorized a "militant de- 
fense." 

The A.M.A. is far from united on the group health issue. A large per- 
centage of doctors in the organization favor the group health idea. 



THE CARPENTER 11 

Only 40 Per Cent of Urban Homes in ''Good Condition'' 

COLONEL F. C. HARRINGTON, Works Progress Administrator, 
in Januar}" made public a comprehensive report disclosing that 
only 40 per cent of the 8,000,000 American homes covered in sur- 
veys of 203 urban communities were considered in "good condi- 
tion." 

The report is "Urban Housing: A Summar}'- of Real Property Inven- 
tories Conducted as Work Projects, 1934-1936." The inventories, covering 
approximately the number of homes sufficient to house 45 per cent of the 
urban families in 1930, w^ere begun as projects under the Civil Works 
Administration and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, and 
carried on by the WPA. 

More than 16 per cent of the homes covered by these studies, with the 
exception of residences in New York City, were rated "unfit for use" or in 
need of major repairs to make them habitable. More than 15 per cent had 
no private flush toilets, 20 per cent were without private bath or shower, 
and more than 40 per cent lacked central heating-. 

Most of these inventories , for the individual cities were set up in 
response to local demands and were designed to meet specific local needs 
through the determination of the residential housing situation in the 
areas surveyed. The results have been summarized in a report issued by 
the WPA Division of Social Research under the direction of Corrington 
Gill, Assistant Administrator in charge of Research and Statistics. 

"From these surveys has been assembled the most detailed body of 
statistical information now available on the physical characteristics of 
housing in the United States." he said in the letter of transmittal. "Such 
information provides the data essential for analysis of various problems 
connected with real estate and aids in the formation of sound programs 
throughout the country." 

W'hile sub-standard housing is not limited to certain sections of the 
country, Mr. Gill said, the extent and characteristics of such housing- 
vary from region to region. He called attention to the findings of the 
surveys that 32 per cent of all city dwelling units in the Southeast lacked 
private indoor flush toilets while 10 per cent in the Northwest and 12 
per cent in the Northeast were without that facility. Fifteen per cent of 
the urban dwelling units in the Southwest, seven per cent in the North- 
west and 3.5 per cent in the Northeast were without running water. 

Installed bathing facilities were found to be even less common than 
private flush toilets. More than 40 per cent of the dwelling units in 
Southeastern cities were without priA'ate bath tubs or showers; in the 
Northwest 21 per cent and in the Northeast 20 per cent were without these 
facilities. 

"It is generally agreed that the absence of sanitary facilities, unsafe 
condition of physical structure, overcrowding and the presence of extra 
families are all factors which render a dwelling unit sub-standard," Mr. 
Gill added. 

Findings presented by the report include: 

There was more than one person per room in 17 per cent of the dwell- 
ing units visited. 

Five per cent of the families covered lived in dwelling units already 
containing a "primary" family. 



12 THE CARPENTER 

Sing-le-family houses were the dominant type of residential structure, 
but one-half of the dwelling units were in buildings designed for more 
than V e family. 

Nearly two-fifths of the units were occupied by their owners. 

Most single family homes occupied by their owners were valued at 
less than $5,000 and about one-fifth at less than $2,000. 

In rented units, the average monthly rental was about $25, with a wide 
variation from city to city and section to section of the country. 

Electricity was the usual means of lighting, and either electricity or 
gas was the common fuel used for cooking. In the Southeast, however, 
25 per cent of the urban homes were without gas or electric lighting and 
nearly half were without gas or electric cooking equipment. More than 
half the structures inspected were built before 1915 and a c[uarter before 
1895. Wood was found to be the prevailing material for exteriors in all 
regions except New York City, the proportion ranging from 65 per cent 
in the Northeast to 82 per cent in the Southeast. 

The data on individual structures and dwelling units are confidential, 
but summary tabulations have been released for city blocks, housing dis- 
tricts, census tracts, and other tabulating units. Through these reports in- 
formation on the general housing situation for each city and for areas 
v/ithin the city may be secured. In most cases the complete local report is 
available in the community surveyed. The final city reports have been dis- 
tributed to Federal agencies concerned with housing. 

• 

James Hatch, Labor Leader, Dies at 69 

James H. Hatch, former international president of the Upholsterers Interna- 
tional Union, affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, and prominent in 
the American labor movement over a long period, died at his home in New York 
City December 21 after a long illness. He was 69 years old. 

Mr. Hatch was elected international president of the union in 1907 and was 
re-elected continuously until 1921, when he anounced his intention to retire. In 
19 31, however, he again was elected and served until 1937, when he finally re- 
tired. 

Born in Montreal, he came to this country as a youth. He was a custom up- 
holsterer by trade and while in Denver formed an organization of upholsterers 
there. He came to New York in 1897, becoming a citizen of the United States the 
same year. 

In New York he was one of the charter members of Upholsterers Union Local 
44 and later became the Local's president. He also served as president of the old 
New York Building Trades Council and the old Federated Labor party of New 
York. He had been editor of The Chronicle, organ of the Central Trades and 
Labor Council of New York City. 

Mr. Hatch was credited with being instrumental in building up the upholster- 
ers' union to an organization which functions on a national basis. He represented 
the union for years at the conventions of the Americali Federation of Labor, 

• 

Members of Union Compelled to Vote 

Every member must be a registered voter if he wants to stay in good standing 
in Local 89 of the Hod Carriers' and Laborers' Union, San Diego, Calif. 

Unanimously, the union recently amended its bylaws to require a registration 
certificate as a condition of membership. 

The scheme of turning unionists into active voters won immediate popularity, 
and three other local labor groups prepared to take similar action in time for 
the local primary election on March 28. 



THE CARPENTER 13 

Building Gains for Fifth Straight Year 

THE 3"ear 1938 was the fifth consecutive year of increased construc- 
tion volume, according to F. W. Dodge Corporation. Residential 
building had the largest dollar total since 1930, and total building 
and engineering- expenditures were practically equal to those of 
the year 1931 and greater than any year since 1931. 

AVhile public construction expenditures represented 52 per cent of 
last year's total volume, privately financed building and engineering work 
was greater than in any post-depression year except 1937. 

Private construction during 1938 ran 16 per cent behind 1937, but 10 
per cent greater in volume than in 1936. Significant increases in private 
construction contracts accompanied the mounting volume of public works 
projects in the closing months of 1938. 

The year's gains over 1937, as measured in dollar volume of contracts, 
were as follows: Heavy engineering public works, 40 per cent; public and 
institutional buildings, 28 per cent; residential building, 7 per cent, and 
public utility construction, 6 per cent. 

Lagging considerably behind, in close sympathy with the lack of con- 
fidence that characterized business and financial sentiment during most of 
the year, were commercial and industrial building. 

Commercial building expenditures dropped 28 per cent behind the 
preceding year, and industrial building dropped 61 per cent. The year 
closed with total construction expenditures 7 per cent greater than those 
of 1937. 

Contracts awarded from Jan. i through Dec. 21, 1938, in the ■^yj eastern 
states, amounted to $3,054,417,000, compared with $2,861,993,000 in the 
corresponding period of 1937. 

The gains of 1938 occurred in the later months of tlie year, and con- 
tinued without interruption through December. Carrying over into the 
new year the remaining projects of the current PWA program, almost the 
entire Federal program of public subsidized housing, the moderate up- 
ward trend in utility construction, and strong indications of large vol- 
umes of private residential building still to come. 

These indications have been shown in continued large weekly volumes 
of mortgages selected for appraisal by the Federal Housing- Administra- 
tion, and in large dollar totals of contemplated residential buildings re- 
ported by the Dodge corporation. These favorable indications have been 
general throughout the country. 

Sentiment in construction industry is reported as cjuite optimistic re- 
garding the first half of 1939, and generally hopeful but somewhat uncer- 
tain as to what may happen in the later months of the year. The one im- 
portant factor of uncertainty within the industry is the question of 
whether building costs will remain fairly stable. 

Other questions relate to whether general business activity and em- 
ployment will improve, and whether business will continue to grow with- 
out further shocks from political and international sources. 

For the year as a whole, the Dodge organization regards the outlook 
promising for increased volume of residential, commercial, industrial and 
public utility construction; on the assumption of reduced Federal aid to 
local public improvement i)rojects, decreased volumes of public and in- 
stitutional buildings and public engineering works arc considered likely, 
with a substantial net increase in total construction highly probable. 



14 THE CARPENTER 

Labor's Voice In Congress 

THE American Federation of Labor's continued and unswerving 
advocacy and application of its Non-Partisan Political Policy 
as the best way of effectively mobilizing the political strength of 
working men and women in the interests of labor legislation 
gives renewed importance to Federal statues benefiting workers secured 
by this method. 

The A. F. of L. Non-Partisan Political Policy declares it to be the 
duty of the organized wage earners to "stand faithfully by our friends 
and elect them" and "oppose our enemies and defeat them." 

Taking up the Seventy-Fourth Congress, which convened on January 
3, 1935, and closed on June 30, 1936, it is found that during that period 
the following Federal laws of interest to labor were enacted : 

The National Labor Relations Act guaranteeing the rights of 
the workers to organize in unions of their own choice and bargain 
collectively without interference from employers. 

Social Security Act, making provision for Federal old-age pen- 
sions, unemployment compensation, and Federal assistance to State 
pensions for the indigent aged. 

Appropriation of $4,880,000,000 for relief of unemployed. 

Prison labor law prohibiting transportation of prison made 
products into states having state use system. 

Providing that contractors on Government work shall pay the 
prevailing rates of wages, work employes 8 hours a day and 5 days 
a week with no child labor to be employed on all contracts entered 
into by an activity of the Government. 

Forbidding transportation in interstate comm.erce of profes- 
sional strike breakers. 

Investigation ordered by the United States Senate of spy sys- 
tems operated by detective agencies employed by firms and corpora- 
tions to prevent the organization of labor. 

Placing under state compensation safety laws all workers em- 
ployed on- public works. 

Providing that all passenger vessels having accommodations for 
50 or more passengers shall be equipped with automatic sprinkler 
systems for fire protection. 

Prevailing rate of wages to be paid on all relief work. 

Shipping corporations that receive subsidies from the Govern- 
ment must incorporate in their contracts minimum manning and 
wage scales and reasonable working conditions. 

Granting facilities of Public Health Service to all seamen on 
Government vessels not in military or naval establishments. 

Appropriated $12,000,000 for further development of vocational 
education. 

Appropriation of $1,425,000,000 for direct work relief on useful 
projects. 

Law to stabilize the coal industry. 

Air Mail Act providing rates of compensation and working 
conditions for all pilots. 

Repealed the last five per cent reduction made by the Economy 
Act. 



THE CARPENTER . 15 

Appropriated funds to send 30,000 Filipinos to their home lands. 

Placing employes in the airplane industry under the Railway 
Labor Board. 

Forbidding the employment of aliens illegally in the United 
States on relief work. 

Requiring all licensed officers on vessels of the United States to 
be citizens or completely naturalized. In three years 90 per cent 
of all other departments shall be citizens. 

Granted 26 days annual leave for Government employes which 
can be accumulated for succeeding years until it totals 90 days. 

Sick leave for Government employes of one and one-fourth days 
per month accumulative not to exceed 90 days. 

Five-day week with no reduction in pay for those employes of 
the Bureau of Engraving and Printing who were not included in 
the 1935 law. 

Five-day week for employes of mail equipment shops at the 
same wages for five and one-half days. 

Authorizing operation of stands in Federal buildings by blind 
persons to enlarge their economic opportunities. 

Forty-hour week for 121,069 postal emplo3^es with no reduction 
in wages. 

Railroad Retirement Act. 

Granted additional $50 a month to all Government employes for 
services of attendants to those who are blind or totally disabled. 

Limiting number of substitutes in Postal Service to one for each 
six regular employes. 

Raised vocational schools in the District of Columbia to rank 
of junior high schools. 

Retirement Act for railroad employes in Alaska. 

Repealing radio zone law for broadcasting stations which will 
benefit WCFL (owned and operated by the Chicago Federation of 
Labor). 

■ ♦ 

Two Veteran Laborites Are Dead in Europe 

As 193S drew to a close, dispatches from Europe reported the death of two 
men long conspicuous in the labor movement. 

Emile Vandervelde died in Brussels at 72. His parents were well-to-do, but he 
became a Marxian Socialist and helped organize the Belgian Labor Party. 

He was a famous orator, served as a member of the Belgian Chamber of 
Deputies, occupied a number of cabinet positions, and was one of the signers of 
the Versailles Treaty of Peace at the close of the World War. 

An entirely different type was "Jimmy" Sexton, long leader of the National 
Union of Dock Laborers and once president of the British Trade Union Congress, 
who died in London at 82. 

Sexton went to sea at 13, achieved distinction in the labor movement, and was 
knighted in 1931. 

"Cut out the Sir," he told newspaper men. "I am still 'Jimmy' Sexton, who 
worked as a dock laborer." 



$300,000 Spent to Put Over Anti-Labor Law 

Labor haters wasted at least $300,000 in their unsuccessful drive to put over 
an anti-union law in California at the last election. In reports tiled with the 
secretary of state, sponsors of the law admitted spending that sum. 

Another $300,000 was expended in fighting the "$30 Every Thursday" pension 
measure. Both the anti-labor and the pension propositions were defeated. 



16 THE CARPENTER 

How the Communists Work Within Unions 

tt'X' "T" T E'LL have our day and the time isn't very long off," is the gist 

\/\/ of the statement by a communistic member of an important 

▼ ▼ trade union, not regarded as a radical one, made recently before 
a group of his own officers and employers. The speaker was 
a typically loquacious Communist member of the union. 

His boast was a common one and would not be of sufficient weight 
to be quoted here, except for the fact he had already built up a following 
— not an important one to be sure, but a troublesome one. The A. F. of 
L. is aware of such influence and in 1935 took steps to prevent Commun- 
istic control of central bodies. 

As a part of article IV of the A. F. of L. Constitution is the clause 
adopted in 1936, which states : 

"No organization officered or controlled by communists, or any 
person espousing communism or ***** shall be allowed recognition 
or representation in anv Central body or State Federation of 
Labor." 

Since this clause did not prevent Red membership within the locals, 
several International Brotherhoods in the building trades went consider- 
ably further in adopting amendments to their constitutions which restrict 
or ban Communists as members. While the extent of their penetration is 
not known, the methods are, — the following excerpts from official sources 
indicating the instructions and philosophy of infiltration. 

The Red approach is one of suavity, the directions of Communist In- 
ternational of 1935, being "to work actively in the united trade unions, 
to consolidate them *** and at the same time exert every eft'ort to have 
these organizations actually defend the interests of the workers." It is 
further stated : 

"If the reformist leaders resort to the policy of expelling revolu- 
tionary workers, or entire branches from the trade unions or **** the 
Communists must rally the entire union membership **** at the same 
time establishing contact between the expelled member and the bulk of 
(other) members, and engaging in a joint struggle **** etc." 

More recently "The Labor Leader," organ of the Association of 
Catholic Trade Unionists, quotes a letter disclosing under-cover activities 
of Communists in the Australian Labor Party. "Without trade unionists 
in the vital branches, we are sunk," wrote an executive board member of 
the Labor Party, recently unmasked as a Red leader. He further stated 
"Being linked with our (the Communists) organization does not entail 
proclaiming yourselves from the house tops. We want political moles 
dug in so far they can't be dug out." (In his own case he had reached 
a high position in labor circles). 

"Your first job," he states to Com.munists, "is to turn yourselves into 
fortresses of political wisdom. The second is to make trade unions for- 
tresses of Bolshevism. The district council knows I am a Left, but they 
can't get the wood on me. Meanwhile I circulate amongst Labor Party 
workers like a fish in the sea and keep winning them to our cause." (They 
did get the wood on him, however). 

You will find there are also a number of us who make it their busi- 
ness to prevent the labor movement from moving." He then states how 
the Communists sabotaged the Labor Party citing among other things — 
"the Building Trades Strike." 



THE CARPENTER 17 

USHA'S Public Housing Program 

IF THE United States Housing Authority's slum clearance and low- 
rent rehousing program were extended to provide decent homes for 
the vast numbers now living in slum hovels and shacks, the resultant 
theoretical increase in local taxes would average about one-tenth of 
one per cent. 

On the other hand, the widespread social and economic benefits and the 
moral uplift resulting from such a "bold and comprehensive program" of 
slum eradication would inevitably bring about an actual decrease of the 
burden local taxpayers are now shouldering. 

The public rehousing program of the USHA and local housing author- 
ities offers no competition to the private building industry. In fact, the 
USHA program, now running in high gear as it enters its second year, 
has demonstrated clearly that ridding America of the blight of its slums 
will be a stimulant to the building industry and will give a tremendous 
lift to industrial activity throughout the country. 

Construction costs on low-rent housing projects now under way are 
establishing new all-time "lows," making possible a range of rentals not 
only far below the rentals charged for new housing erected by private 
builders but even below the rentals heretofore reached by public housing. 

These are but a few of the many high lights of the USHA war on slums 
and blighted areas as described in an official pamphlet entitled "What the 
Housing Act Can Do for Your City," put into circulation by USHA Ad- 
ministrator Nathan Straus. 

The pamphlet contains a comprehensive anal3^sis of slum conditions 
throughout the nation. It points out the appalling cost to communities of 
the blight of slums and explains how the USHA is waging warfare against 
the scourge. 

The results of recent surveys of 5.000,000 residential buildings 
and 8,000,000 households in 204 localities comprising more than half the 
urban families in the United States are summarized as follows: 

About 1,100,000 homes contained in 830,000 buildings' have such 
serious structural defects that they are unsafe or absolutely unfit 
for use. 

More than 1,661,000 homes, or about one-fifth of the total, have 
no private .bathing facilities, and 1.221,000 do not have private in- 
door water closets. 

About 850,000 families are "doubled up" — that is, are sharing 
their homes with other families. Over 1.300,000 homes are "crowd- 
ed" — that is, have more than one person per room. 

The acute housing shortage alrcatly gripping the nation at large is 
summarized in an up-to-the-minute review which indicates that "the in- 
crease in families and the wearing out of existing homes will necessitate 
another 10,000,000 dwellings by 1950." 

Under the United States H^ousing Act of 1937, the USHA makes long- 
term loans to local housing authorities .to defray up to 90 per cent of the 
total development cost of slum clearance and low-rent rehousing projects. 

Local communities provide the 10 per cent balance, which, if raised 
bv borrowing, is repaid with interest, as is the 90 per cent share of the 
USHA. 



18 THE CARPENTER 

According to the latest information, contracts for USHA loans of 
$291,656,000 to 67 communities have been approved b}^ the President and 
$355,919,000 has been earmarked for additional localities, making a total 
of $647,575,000 in USHA funds so far set aside for 155 communities to 
build slum clearance and low-rent projects. 

When the projects are tenanted by low^-income families, the USHA 
will contribbute an annual grant or subsidy to each project which will 
make it possible to charge rentals equivalent to those charged in the 
slums. The local communities will also make an annual grant to main- 
tain low rentals amounting to at least 20 per cent of the USHA share. 
The localities usually do this by agreeing to exempt the new projects 
from local taxation. 

Asserting that "public housing is a wise investment for the taxpayers," 
the pamphlet explains : 

"The cost to American cities of acquiring almost a billion dollars 
Avorth of decent low rent housing under the present USHA program will 
be very small indeed. All they need to do is to provide tax exemption or 
its equivalent for the projects to be built. 

"In calculating this cost, it is a serious mistake to assume that a fig- 
ure representing the normal tax rate on these new projects reflects the 
actual loss of revenue sustained by a city when it exempts them from 
taxation. Taxes, no matter how they may be levied or collected, are paid 
by people, not by buildings. In a public housing program, a certain 
number of families move out of slums into decent new homes. Either 
the slums they were living in or an equivalent number of substandard 
dwellings are demolished. From a local fiscal point of view, in order to 
determine the cost of the new housing to the city, the real question is: 
A'Vhat taxes were these families paying before, when they lived in the 
slums? 

"To take a concrete example, let us assume a $2,000,000 project to re- 
house 400 families in a city of 200,000 population. Full taxes on this project 
would amount to about $40,000 a year (at a conservative 2 per cent rate, 
with assessed valuation equal to 100 per cent of full valuation), or about 
$100 per family. 

"But a study of taxation in slum areas in cities of various sizes shows 
that taxes actually levied on the former slum homes of these 400 families 
probably did not exceed $40 per family per year, based upon an average 
assessment of $2,000 for slum homes, and a large proportion of even this 
amount was undoubtedly delinquent. 

"Thus the actual loss of revenue to the city when it exempts the new 
projects from taxation is not $40,000, but less than $16,000. 

"If the value of all property in the city is assumed to be about $400,- 
000,000 (at $2,000 per capita), the total property tax levy for the whole 
city would amount to $8,000,000 a year. Exemption of the 400 rehoused 
■families of very low incomes from taxation would thus deprive the city 
of only 0.002 of its annual tax returns. 

"Furthermore, even this small theoretical loss is offset by the saving 
in municipal services due to the elimination of several blocks of slum 
homes, and by the benefits derived from the investment of $2,000,000 in 
an enduring public improvement. * * * 

"In a number of cities in England, Holland, and the Scandinavian 
countries, more than one family in five is living in a housing project 
owned and operated by the municipality with government aid. If the 



THE CARPENTER 19 

American city of 200,000 people decides to undertake a similar program 
to rehouse 20 per cent of its population in 10 years, what will be the cost 
to the taxpayers of the city? 

"The benefits which Avould result from such a bold and comprehen- 
sive program are easier to forecast than those flowing from one small pro- 
ject for 400 families. These minimum benefits make the maximum esti- 
mates of cost to the cit}^ shrink into insignificance." 

Asserting that "practically every exercise of public responsibility 
for productive purposes draws heavily upon the services of private enter- 
prise and proves a stimulus to the profitable expansion of industry," the 
publication continues: 

"The public highway system eliminated private toll roads and toll 
bridges, wiped out miles of good farm land and expensive buildings, and 
cost the taxpayers millions and even billions of dollars. But where would 
the great automobile industry, the cement and rubber industries, and 
countless other contributions to our national prosperity have been with- 
out good roads? 

"Likewise, in a public housing program, many different kinds of pri- 
vate enterprise participate directly or indirectl}-. The various types of 
individual initiative should be examined one by one, in order to con- 
sider exactly what their particular stake may be and what they stand to 
gain or lose by a large scale public housing program. One thing which 
becomes evident immediately from such a survey is that only a very 
small part of the entire public housing program is actually 'public enter- 
prise.' 

"Manufacturers are outstanding representatives of the business com- 
munity. The participation of productive industry in the housing pro- 
gram is simple, direct, and entirely on the profit side of the ledger. Of 
the $889,000,000 which constitute the immediate public housing program 
($800,000,000 in USHA loans plus a minimum of $89,000,000 raised by 
the local authorities), about $338,000,000 will be spent direct!}'- for mate- 
rials and equipment. This means large individual purchases of standard 
first-grade goods, with no risks about the payment of bills. And these 
orders will displace no other orders, since the low-rent program will 
service families who would otherwise be entirely outside the market for 
new homes. 

"The contractor derives an even clearer benefit from the housing pro- 
gram. About $689,000,000 will be spent for construction alone in the first 
few years. This sum will be paid directly to private contractors, who will 
in turn use it for wages, materials, equipment, and their own profit and 
overhead. 

"The builder of homes for sale or rent is the man most often thought 
of when 'private enterprise' is mentioned in connex:tion with the hous- 
ing business. Will he be hurt by public housing? As long as the new 
dwellings are rented at levels far below anything he can reach, and as long 
as the tenants are drawn solely from income groups who cannot aspire 
to new homes privately built, the low-rent housing and slum clearance 
program ofifers no competition of any kind to the private builder 

"Far from being injured, the private builder is substantially helped 
by a public housing program. Last summer a partial survey was made by 
the Public Works Administration of the new building going on in the 
neighborhood of the P\VA housing projjects then under construction. 
It was reported that *a total of $3,000,000 worth of private real estate im- 



20 THE CARPENTER 

provements in the vicinity of the projects has been traced to the reviving 
effect of the housing- developments on their surroundings although in 
many instances the Federal improvements are not yet completed or oc- 
cupied.' One small project 'was built in an obsolescent neighborhood 
where the total value of improvements constructed in recent years would 
probably not amount to $i,ooo. Immediately after the project was started, 
'the neighborhood was benefited by the construction of 4 filling stations, 9 
store fronts, 15 stores, "j^ houses, and one swimming pool. In addition, 8 
stores and 15 houses have been remodeled.' The case was typical of many. 

"Another thing which public housing can do for the private builder 
is to raise the standard'^of demand. There are today thousands of middle 
income families living- in homes which, although decent by contrast 
with the slums, are inconvenient, inadequate, and out of date. As families 
living in the slums are gradually moved into modern dwellings these 
other families will look to private builders to build even better homes 
for them." 

In reviewing the unusual success achieved in driving down construc- 
tion costs the pamphlet points out typical examples of low costs as fol- 
lows : 

"In New York the net construction cost per home will be about $3,- 
350; and in Buffalo, about $3,500. These are both cities where building 
costs are usually relatively high. In Austin, Texas, the average net cost of 
constructing homes for low-income families will be only about $2,200 
per unit. 

"AVhy are the costs so low? For one thing, the agreements with the 
building trades unions remove many of the uncertainties and possible 
dela3^s in big housing jobs and have most assuredly played a part in the 
reasonable bids submitted. Also, these new projects will be built under 
normal, local building conditions, from local rather than Federal specifi- 
cations. This is only one of the many ways in v/hich the policy of decen- 
tralization is working out with great success. 

"And finally, a technique of designing community housing projects is 
now really being developed in the United States. For years there has 
been talk about the economies of large-scale operations, the importance of 
neighborhood site-planning, and the value of establishing certain simple 
minimum standards of design and equipment in terms of real economy 
rather than gadget salesmanship. Valuable experiments have been made, 
many of them by the Federal Government. But it is only now that the 
architects and technicians of the USHA and the local authorities are trans- 
forming this experience into a sound, scientific practice. 

"This is still only the beginning, however. Even greater improvements 
and economies may be expected in the future. Costs are low, but they 

must be be driven still lower." 

« 

Health Program Favored by Medical Students 

Physicians of the future are not scared out of their boots by the thought of a 
government health program. Delegates representing 3000 members of the Asso- 
ciation of Medical Students, at their annual convention voted, 2 to 1, for some 
form of state medicine. 

The stand was taken during voting on a resolution supporting the five-point 
program set up by President Roosevelt's National Health Conference. A propo- 
sition to "extend care to the medical needy," which was rejected by the American 
Medical Association, was upheld by the prospective doctors. 



THE CARPENTER 21 

Social Security Marches Forward 

THE recommendations of the Advisory Council on Social Security 
for enlarging- the scope of the old-age pension program of the 
Social Security Act include a number of provisions that are bound 
to meet general approval. 
One of the main criticisms of the original Act was the exclusion of 
large groups of our population who are just as much in need of guaranteed 
security in their declining years as are those included in the benefits set 
up under the Act. 

The Council proposes to remedy this defect by broadening of the 
Act to cover about 14,800,000 additional persons. Those whom the Coun- 
cil believed should be included at once are 2,000,000 employes of private 
non-profit religious, charitable and educational institutions, 400,000 sea- 
men and 400,000 emplo3'es of national and State banks. The Council also 
recommended that by 1940, approximately 6,000,000 farm employes and 
6,000,0000 domestic employes should be added. 

About 42,000,000 persons are now covered in the old-age pension sys- 
tem. The additions recommended by the Council will bring the total up 
to about 66,800,000. 

Other important and just recommendations are: Starting the payment 
of insurance benefits in 1940 instead of in 1942, as the present law pro- 
vides ; increasing the average benefits payable during the early years, 
thus recognizing the fact that the worker covered into the pension system 
late in his employable life has not been able to build up an adequate pen- 
sion credit, and providing for the payment of annuities to the widow and 
dependent children of insured workers who die before or after the age 
of 65 set up in the present Act as the age when pensions begin. 

Some of the recommendations of the Council are scheduled to develop 
controversy. The suggestion that the Federal Government pa}' one-third 
of the old-age pension tax, the employers one-third and the employes one- 
third, instead of the present scale by which the employers pay one per 
cent of the payroll and the employes one per cent of their wages, is likely 
to arouse opposition. The suggestion that the reserve fund, which under 
the present plan will amount to about $47,000,000,000 in 1980, be materially 
reduced, thus decreasing the tax necessary to support the system, will 
also probably develop controversy. 

But the constructive recommendations for extending the coverage of 
the Act to include nearly 15,000,000 additional persons, beginning the pen- 
sion payments in 1940, providing larger pensions during the first years 
of the system, and guaranteeing suitable pensions for widows and de- 
pendent children — these recommendations are clearly reasonable and just 

applications of the broad principle of social security. 

• 

Union Pact Protects Electricians Over 50 

Unique in union labor agreements is a contract negotiated recently by the 
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers with the Associated Electric 
Contractors of Cincinnati. 

It provides that every sixth man in a shop or on a job shall be not less than 
50 years old. Elmer T. Baur, chairman of the employers' labor committee, said 
the clause was "very commendable" and voiced hope it would succeed in practice. 



Demand the Union Label 



22 THE CARPENTER 

Trade Treaty Closes Everett Shingle Mill 

FIRST repercussion from the recently signed trade treaties between 
the United States and Canada and Great Britain occurred in Ever- 
ett,, Wash., when the huge Jamison mill closed its doors recently. 
P. H. Olwell, general manager, blamed the treaties for the sup- 
pression of operations. Under the old treaty with Canada, British Colum- 
bia shingles were given a semi-annual quota which amounted to approxi- 
matel}^ twenty-five per cent of the American market. By the new treaties, 
Canadian shingles can enter this country without any restrictions. 

The Jamison mill is one of the largest and most efficient in the north- 
west. Some 300 men have been employed at the plant which has been run- 
ning on a two-shift basis. 

Shingles have been particularly hard it by the new treaties. American 
shingle weavers are now compelled to compete with the low-wage Orien- 
tal labor which is employed in British Columbia. Most shingle manufac- 
turers appear to be extremely pessimistic regarding the future under the 
new pacts. 

Ironically the shingle industry had made the greatest comeback in 
the lumber industry. Since early last summer there had been a shortage of 
sawyers in the northwest. Most plants have been operating on two and 
even three shift schedules. What faces the shingle weavers now is prob- 
lematical. 

• 

A. F. of L. to Probe Employers Age Blacklist 

The Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor was in- 
structed by the recent A. F. of h. annual convention at Flouston, Texas, 
to continue its efforts to persuade Congress to investigate the widespread 
practice of applying age discrimination to workers in both private and 
public employment, including the use of pension, retirement, compensa- 
tion, and group insurance laws or private provisions covering these sub- 
jects in connection with the discrimination. 

On the subject of an investigation by the Government of age discrimi- 
nation the Executive Council reported to the convention that during the 
last session of Congress "H. J. Res. 453, proposed to determine the nature 
and effect of economic conditions or statutory provisions tending to pro- 
duce unfair discrimination on the basis of age in obtaining or retaining 
employment in public service and private industry, failed of passage. 

"It provided that the Secretary of Labor investigate and report to Con- 
gress upon the nature and effect of any economic conditions or statutory 
provisions which may tend to produce unfair or inequitable discrimina- 
tion on the basis of age in obtaining or retaining employment in public 
service or private industry; the extent to which age is a factor in deter- 
mining the efficiency of men and women and the effect of the pension 
systems and group and workmen's compensation insurance upon the em- 
ployment of the older worker. 

"The question of discharging workers after reaching a certain age or 
of refusing them employment because they had an objectionable age has 
been the cause of great concern for many years. 

"The Executive Council favors such an investigation and it is the 
intention to have the resolution reintroduced at the next session of Con- 
gress." 



THE CARPENTER 23 

New Trade Treaty Kills Conservation 

(From The Seattle Union Register) 

TEN years ago, the United States was the leading lumber export 
country of the world. Now it is fifth, exceeded by Sweden, Fin- 
land, Russia and Canada. The Pacific Northwest particularly 
needs its old offshore markets. We are an export industry ; and 
successful forest culture, resting upon stable values, is hardly conceivable 
without offshore trade. 

But the State Department through its "Lumber Declaration" makes 
the restoration of West Coast lumber trade with the entire British Em- 
pire contingent upon opening our own domestic markets to the unlimited 
competition of lumber from the entire world. Whatever it may claim 
otherwise, this certainly is not a policy to encourage reforestation. 

The growing of trees is a long-time job. A young Douglas fir will 
produce no lumber short of forty years ; and no lumber of desirable qual- 
ity short of eighty or a hundred years. 

To be grown, except wholly at public expense, trees must be market- 
able. Forestry must have a stable foundation of economic security, rec- 
ognized and protected in the policies of government. 

The leading forest countries of Europe learned this lesson generations 
ago. In France, Germany or Sweden, the security of domestic forest in- 
dustries and domestic timber values is just as deeply intrenched in pub- 
lic policy as the system of land usage and control. Economic security, in 
timber values and timber markets, is the basis of their conservation. 

It is impossible to conceive of France, Sweden or Germany treating 
their domestic forest culture as the Government of the United States 
has done in the Canadian Agreement of 1935 and again in the British and 
Canadian Trade Agreements just concluded. Forest industry has largely 
responded to the public interest in reforestation. It has gone a long- way 
in fire prevention, utilization of raw material, restocking cut-over lands 
and — in a considerable number of cases — in selective logging and sus- 
tained production. 

All of us have been gratified by the progress of the Pacific North- 
west from the old order of timber mining toward a new order of timber 
cropping — with its promise of keeping our twenty-nine million acres of 
forest land steadil}' employed and our forest industries permanent. 

But, in its foreign trade and tariff policies, the national government 
tells our forest owners to make "bricks without straw." 

The latest estimates put the area of forest and potential forest land 
in the United States at 600 million acres. Fire prevention and forestry 
have made notable strides in the last 25 years, while the use of timber 
has decreased. Forest growth is overtaking the drain from use and fire. 

With known methods adapted to the different tree species, our present 
timber crop can be increased nearly two and a half times. That is what the 
Federal Forest Service, the States and the industry are striving to accom- 
plish in the Pacific Northwest, whose economic structure is built on the 
forest. Far from there being any danger of timber famine, the key ques- 
tion in forestry today is how can we utilize and sell all the trees that are 
growing. Progress in West Coast forestry is basically a matter of mar- 
kets. 

The government cannot bring about sustained timber culture on near- 
ly a third of the soil of the United States simply by preaching to its 



24 THE CARPETSTTEK 

owners to grow trees. Forestry and land use must be backed up by for- 
estry in marketing and in public economics — just as it is in Northern 
Europe. AVe cannot grow what we cannot sell. 

One-half of our Pacific Northwest soil is in the business of growing 
trees. Apparently it always will be. It is as important to the Pacific 
Northwest to keep its land profitably employed as to keep its people 
profitably employed. 

The Trade Agreements leave forest conservation out in the cold. 



Machines Making Labor's Skill Valueless 

The displacement of human labor and the destruction of the market 
value of skilled labor are the inevitable results of the widespread intro- 
duction of measurement devices and automatic control instruments in in- 
dustry, according to a report entitled "Industrial Instruments and Chang- 
ing Technology," which was prepared by the National Research Project 
of the Works Progress Administration. 

Although the report emphasizes that the measurement devices and 
automatic control instruments have "speeded up production, improved the 
quality of products, reduced costs and increased the productivity of 
labor," there is no escaping the baneful effects of this process on working 
men and women both in the destruction of job opportunities and the de- 
gradation of skilled labor. On these two subjects the report says: 

"Instruments in some instances serve as direct substitutes for labor. 
Relays, switches and other mechanisms which transfer the actions of an 
instrument into automatic operations of a machine have eliminated man- 
ual workers. Inspection and handling operations are particularly suscep- 
tible to automatic control in mass production industries. A wide variety 
of automatic devices has been applied in these industries to mechanize 
handling and visual-inspection tasks. 

"The judgment of a trained workman is frecjuentl}^ made unnecessary 
by an instrument which indicates a condition so precisely that an un- 
skilled operative can give the process the necessary attention. Where a 
new skill is introduced it is likely to be of a different sort, for instance, 

one requiring an ability to read meters and perform calculations." 

© 

Dies Scores Labor Secretary Perkins 

The Dies committee, charged with inquiry into "un-American activities," 
submitted a report at tire opening of Congress. It scored Secretary of Labor 
Perliins for laxity in deporting alleged Communists like Harry Bridges of the 
CIO; hit "sit-down" strikes, and lamented the failure of executive departments to 
assist in the investigation. 

All the members of the committee signed the report, but Congressman Healey 
(Dem., Mass.) issued a statement in which he said the committee should be con- 
tinued and adequate funds provided, but that in the future "the investigation 
should be guided by orderly and judicial principles, except where matters of com- 
pelling public interest required a departure." 

Democratic House leaders are endeavoring to work out a compromise along 
the lines suggested by Healey. The committee will probably be continued for 
two years more and given $150,000 to finance its operations. 

In return, the leaders would like to have the youthful chairman abandon 
some of the "circus methods" which have won publicity for the committee, but 
which have also subjected it to much criticism. 



THECARPEXTER 25 

Hearst Signs Chicago Editorial Contract 

AFTER several weeks of negotiations the Chicago Editorial Asso- 
ciation, chartered by the American Federation of Labor, signed an 
agreement with the Chicago Herald and Examiner which is said 
to be one of the best contracts ever made for editorial workers. 
The Editorial Association is also negotiating a contract with the Chicago 
American for the editorial employes of that paper. 

The Newspaper Commercial Associates, another A. F. of L. affiliate, 
representing the employes of both newspapers in the commercial and 
other departments not hitherto organized by the American Federation of 
Tai)or unions, is also holding conferences with the managements of both 
newspapers for the purpose of making contracts for employes in the 
departments represented by this organization. 

Both the Chicago Editorial Association and the Newspaper Commer- 
cial Associates were organized last June and have a majority of the eli- 
gible employes in their unions. 

One important provision of the agreement with the Chicago Herald 
rmd Examiner provides that "no employe shall be required to have pub- 
lished under his own name any material containing an expression of 
opinion not in conformity with his opinion." 

The agreement establishes a working day of eight hours falling with- 
in nine consecutive hours and a working week of five days falling within 
seven consecutive days except for certain specified editors. 

Overtime rates are paid for work in excess of 44 hours per week. 

There is an important provision for severance pay which ranges from 
one week's salary for an employe who is discharged after more than six 
months and less than one year's employment to 12 weeks pay for em- 
ployes discharged after seven years and less than eight years employment 
and 26 weeks pay for employes discharged after 15 years or more of em- 
ployment. 

Vacation with pay also is provided in the contracts. 

The minimum salary rates set forth in the agreement vary according to 
experience. 

For re-write men the minimum ranges from $25 for those with less 
than one 3^ear's experience to $65 after three years experience. 

For copy readers the minimum ranges from $25 for employes with 
less than one year's experience to $60 after three years experience. 

For reporters, photographers and artists the minimum rates ranges 
from $25 to $50. 

There is also a stipulation which provides that after five years continu- 
ous service the minimum salary rate for all of the employes in these four 
groups shall shall be increased ten per cent. 

In order to prevent work stoppages the agreement bans strikes and 
lockouts and provides that grievances of employes which cannot be set- 
tled directly by the employer and the union within seven days shall be 
referred to a board of adjustment upon written request of either party. 

The signing of the agreement is a definite defeat for the ClO's News- 
paper Guild in Chicago, which has always been in the minority in that 
city. The Guild recently picketed the Hearst building which houses the 
Herald and Examiner and the American in an effort to force a contract 
upon the publishers. The Guild officers made many unjust accusations 
during the walkout of its handful of members. .Vmerican Federation of 
l-vabor afiiliatcs refused to recognize the Guild strike. 



26 THE CARPENTER 

1938 Retail Sales 12 Per Cent Below 1937 

TOTAL retail sales in 1938 amounted to $35,300,000,000, a decline of 
about 12 per cent from the 1937 volume of $39,900,000,000 accord- 
ing to preliminary estimates of the Bureau of Foreign and Do- 
mestic Commerce made public by Harry L. Hopkins, Secretary 
of Commerce. Final estimates will be issued as year-end . information 
is complete. 

The year 1938 was the first since 1933 during which the total dollar 
volume fell below the previous year's level. During the four preceding 
years there "vVas a continuous expansion from the depression low of $25,- 
000,000,000 recorded in 1933 to $39,900,000,000 in 1937 when sales, were 
higher than at any time since 1930 and were within 18 per cent of the 
1929 total of $49,000,000,000. 

Sales in 1938 were below the 1937 level for all major business groups. 
However, only two out of fifteen groups sustained losses greater than the 
average decline recorded for total trade. The automotive group, which 
accounted for about 11 per cent of all sales made during the year, showed 
a 35 per cent loss and- furniture and household appliances 17 per cent. 

After one of the worst slumps in automobile history, in which new 
passenger car sales fell off almost 50 per cent during the first nine months 
of 1938 from the comparable period of 1937, the demand for new cars dur- 
ing the last quarter advanced automobile sales decidedly for the final 
months of the year. The pronounced gain over the last quarter of 1937, 
was due in part to the downward plunge experienced in sales during the 
latter part of 1937 rather than entirely to the rise in 1938. 

Lumber and building materials decreased about 11 per cent during 
1938, as did sales of jewelry stores and farmers supply and general stores ; 
sales of department, dry goods and general merchandise stores averaged 
a decline of about 8 per cent, with the relative decline being somewhat 
less for department stores alone; apparel shops were off 9 per cent. 

Food sales, which do not record wide fluctuations of change, de- 
creased 5 per cent in dollar value ; however, the substantial reduction in 
food costs during 1938 indicates that the physicial volume of food sold 
about equaled that of 1937. Drug stores, filling stations, variety, and beer 
and liquor stores all recorded declines of less than 5 per cent. 

Of each dollar spent in retail establishments in 1938 more than one- 
third went for food and beverages ; about one-fourth for general merchan- 
dise and apparel ; less than one-fifth for automobiles, auto accessories and 
gasoline; and the remainder for other goods sold. 

• 

Sweden's Bomb-Proof Problem 

In Sweden the question of protecting the country's many water-power generat- 
ing plants from air bombs has become of considerable interest. Thirty of the 
1,400 plants supply 65 per cent of all Swedish electric power, and bomb-proofing 
work will be limited to them, at a cost of 24,200,000 crowns. The protective 
measures include bomb-proof coverings, shelters for employes, protection of 
dam gates and intakes, provision for reserve supplies, etc. 

• 

In all the affairs of human life, social as well as political, courtesies of a 
small and trivial character are the ones that strike deepest to the grateful and 
appreciating heart. — Clay. 



THE CARPENTER 27 

Andrew's Ruling Bans Overtime Waivers 

A bluntly worded warning to employers was issued by Elmer F. 
Andrews, Administrator of the Fair Labor Standards Act, against dis- 
regarding- requirements of the law even though prior consent has been 
c)l)tained from the workers. The heavy penalties of the Act will be ap- 
plied against all such instances uncovered, he asserted. 

"It has come to my attention," Mr. Andrews said, "that certain employ- 
ers have been contemplating having a waiver of overtime payment 
stamped or printed on pay checks on the assumption that acceptance by 
the employes of pay checks so stamped will thereby result in an effective 
waiver of rights given by the statute. 

"Employers who may be proceeding on this assumption are badly ad- 
\ised and will find themselves in clear violation of the law. 

"I can hardly believe that any employer would be so foolish as to have 
employes sign that they had worked a certain number of hours during a 
week when in fact they had worked longer hours. It is clear that any 
such practice, as well as any other falsification of records, constitutes a 
violation of Section 15 (a) (5) and subjects the employer to the penalties 
of the act." 

The provision of Section 15, of the AA^age and Hour Act. referred to by 
Mr. Andrews, makes it unlawful for any person to violate any of the 
])rovisions of the Act requiring employers to preserve the records of per- 
sons employed by him and of the wages, hours and other conditions and 
])ractices of employment maintained by him. It also declares that it 
shall be unlawful for an employer to make any statement on this subject 

which he knows to be false. 

• 

The United States : 

contains 6 per cent of the world's area; 

contains 7 per cent of the world's population; 

consumes 48 per cent of the world's coffee; 

consumes 53 per cent of the world's tin; 

consumes 5 6 per cent of the world's rubber; 

consumes 21 per cent of the world's sugar; 

consumes 72 per cent of the world's silk; 

consumes 36 per cent of the world's coal; 

consumes 42 per cent of the world's pig iron; 

consumes 47 per cent of the world's copper; 

consumes 69 per cent of the world's crude petroleum; 

operates 60 per cent of the world's telephone and telegraph facilities; 

operates 33 per cent of the world's railroads; produces 70 per cent of the 

world's oil; 
produces 69 per cent of the world's wheat and cotton; 
produces 50 per cent of the world's copper and pig iron; 
produces 40 per cent of the world's lead and coal; 
owns 80 per cent of the world's motor cars; 
possesses $11,000,000,000 in gold — nearly half of the world's monetary 

metal; 
has 6 6 per cent of the world's civilized banking resources; 
purchasing power is greater than that of the 500,000,000 people in Europe 

and much larger than that of the more than a billion Asiatics; 
has the largest number of UNEMPLOYED IN THE WORLD. 



One's character will never rise higher than his aims. 



28 THE CARPENTER 

Teachers Offer Prizes for Essays on Labor 

Widespread interest is announced in the prize contest under the auspices of 
the American Federation of Teacliers open to every liigh scliool pupil in America 
on the subject: "Organized Labor — America's Problem or Opportunity?" 

The first prize is $125 or aid toward visiting the World's Fair in New York if 
preferred; second prize |75; third prize $50; fourth prize $25. 

In a statement announcing the conditions of the contest, the Teachers' Fed- 
eration said: 

"Each contestant must submit a typewritten paper of from 1500 to 3000 
words (5 to 10 typewritten pages) on the subject: Organized Labor — America's 
Problem or Opportunity? 

"Each paper must carry the name and address of the contestant and the name 
and address of the high school he attends. 

"Contestants must send their manuscripts to: Contest Department, American 
Federation of Teachers, 50 6 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 

"Manuscripts which do not reach this office by March 31, 1939, are ineligible 
for the contest. 

"Manuscripts will not be returned. 

"The American Federation of Teachers reserves the right to publish any 
paper submitted. 

"JUDGES — Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, William Green, president, American 
Federation of Labor; Jerome Davis, president, American Federation of Teachers." 

• 

Britain Spending 5 Millions A Day For War 

According to oificial estimates Britain, during the last year, has been spending 
$5,000,000 a day on the most ambitious rearmament program in its history. 



Rail Profits Show 54 Pet. Gain for November 

Railroad profits for November were around $50,000,000, a 54 per cent gain 
over the same month in 19 3 7, according to the "Wall Street Journal." 

— ■ -• 

Women Frequent Victims of Industrial Mishaps 

That unguarded machinery and other hazards of industrial employment are 
no respecters of persons is disclosed in a report of the U. S. Women's Bureau 
showing an appalling toll of deaths and accidents among women. 

In 1934 over 1,000 women were injured in each of nine states, while more 
than 29,000 were hurt in 17 reporting states. 

* 

Grade Crossing Work Makes Slow Progress 

The Bureau of Public Roads is still operating under an appropriation of 
$100,000,000 voted by Congress four years ago for highway crossing removal. 

During the fiscal year of 1938, the bureau disclosed it had eliminated 711 
grade crossings, reconstructed 144 obsolete crossing structures and protected 744 
other crossings by signs or signals. 



We must define democracy as that form of government and 6f society which is 
inspired above every other with the feeling and consciousness of the dignity of 
man. — Thomas Mann. 



TIIECARPEXTER 29 

'4 U 

; ; w 

I "Statistics Prove" I 

II n n n n ,1^ 

• • • '^ 

y "Statistics prove" so many things, g 

y The size of towns, the height of kings, § 

v. ^ 

^ The age of children in the schools, . If 

^. ' ^ 

^ , The skull development of fools. ^ 

11 The salaries that parsons get, ^ 

^^ The number of abodes to let, ^ 

i The wealth of lucky millionaires, i 

H The price of hens and mining shares ^ 

I All things below and things above, | 

I It seems to me, "statistics prove." | 

i i 

^ But no ! statistics never yet U 

iv? Appraised a single violet, ^ 

H Measured the glances of an eye, c1 

>^ Or probed the sorrow of a sigh. ^ 

^ j^ 

?^ Statistics never caught the gleam w. 

'0. That dances on a meadow stream, J 

^ Or weighed the anthem of a bird ^ 

I In forest aisles devoutly heard. | 

Statistics never proved a soul, {|| 

In high or low, in part or whole, ^ 

Sin, beauty, passion, honor, love — 



s? 



j..^ How much statistics cannot prove ! y 



^ 



V m 



Editorial 




FRANK DUFFY, Editor 



MALADMIXISTRATIOX OF THE LxlBOR RELATIOXS ACT 

DEFINITE evidence that the National Labor Relations Board has far ex- 
ceeded its statutory authority in administering the National Labor Rela- 
tions Act and usurped power to determine the structure of the American 
labor movement was presented by the Executive Council of the American Federa- 
tiontion of Labor to the 19 3 8 convention of the Federation and approved by that- 
body. * 

In its indictment of the National Labor Relations Board, the Executive Coun- 
cil said, in part: 

"On May 15, 1935, Senator Robert F. Wagner arose in the Senate and said 
of the National Labor Relations Act: 

" 'Anyone familiar with these laws will recognize at once that 
there is nothing in the pending bill which places the stamp of gov- 
ernmental favor upon any particular type of union.' 

"Had the National Labor Relations Board construed and administered the 
Act in the spirit and on the basis of the foregoing declaration, we would not now 
have occasion to submit the following report. Instead of a report of justified 
criticism we would be submitting a report of unqualified approval of the Board 
and its administration. 

"It is with deep regret that frankness impels us to report to you that the 
National Labor Relations Board has administered the Act contrary to its letter, 
spirit and intent, with manifest bias and prejudice against the American Federa- 
tion of Labor and in favor of dual and rival organizations. Our resentment has 
been aroused and your officers have publicly and officially in most vigorous terms 
condemned this unholy alliance between a Government agency exercising quasi- 
judicial jurisdiction and the CIO. 

"Increasing importance which attaches to the actions of the National Labor 
Relations Board is evidenced by the fact that in the three years of its existence 
the Board has handled 16,500 cases involving almost 4,000,000 workers. As the 
work of the Board grew so did its tendency to go beyond the direct Congressional 
mandate and gradually to apply its decisions not to the questions of Labor's 
basic rights which the Wagner Act had been designed to protect, but to the prob- 
lems of form and structure of the labor movement itself. 

"That a three-man board, composed of men with no direct labor experience, 
should undertake to shape the form and structure of our labor movement through 
decisions clothed with judicial authority, aroused among our unions a growing 
feeling of apprehension and indignation. 

"Aware of its solemn responsibility to preserve and perpetuate the basic 
democratic principle of Labor's self-determination and self-government, the en- 
tire membership of the American Federation of Labor has united in its protest 
against this unwelcome intervention in Labor's internal problems by a Govern- 
ment bureau. 

"The American Federation of Labor is aware that problems which have 
emerged and developed over a period of fifty or sixty years — problems with 
which Labor has struggled for several generations- — -cannot and should not be 
settled by snap judgments of outsiders no matter how well-intentioned or learned 
they may be. 



THECARPEXTER 31 

"It is with this invasion of Labor's democratic sovereignty that we have found 
fault and not witli the principles and purposes which the Act embodies and which 
will always have our unyielding support. 

"The Board has exceeded its public purpose and has vitiated the procedure 
delineated in the Act in three respects: 

"First, in a large number of instances its agents have shown 
gross favoritism and bias in the handling of cases, furthering the 
objectives of one union against another and favoring one form of 
labor organization. 

"Second, by administrative fiat the Board has set aside legally 
valid and binding contracts entered into in good faith by bona fide 
unions and employers. 

"Third, through the arbitrary determination of appropriate 
units in cases dealing with the question concerning representation, 
the Board has sought to impose upon workers regardless of their 
wishes the type of organization it favored. 

"Before the United States Supreme Court on April 12, 193 7, handed doAvn 
the five epoch-making decisions, upholding the constitutionality of the National 
Labor Relations Act, the administration of the law by the National Labor Rela- 
tions Board was on the who'le, just and proper. Such errors as were committed, 
were the natural result of a newly constituted Government agency administering 
a newly created law. 

"Since the decisions of the Supreme Court of April 12, 19 37, the Board has 
abandoned whateA^er restraint it imposed upon itself prior to this date and has 
brazenly and by official acts declared itself as a proponent of the CIO fostering 
its interests and bj' the effect of its decrees recruited membership for the CIO.'''**" 

• 

ONLY 50 PER CENT OF BEST STUDENTS GET TO COLLEGE 

H^ I sHE leaders of tomorrow are growing up in the homes of the Avorking class 

I today." That's a reassuring statement, and it comes from prettj' good 

authority — the Public Affairs Committee of New York which, from time 

to time, issues pamphlets packed with information concerning social and political 

problems. 

The latest of these publications carries the intriguing title, "How Good Are 
Our Colleges?" It's based on a survey of Pennsylvania high schools, normal 
schools, colleges and universities. Here are some of the interesting facts devel- 
oped: 

Fifty per cent of the best high school students went to college, the other 50 
per cent went to work. Why? Because they didn't have the money to go to 
college. 

The places they should have taken in college went to students who were not 
so bright but whose parents had the necessary cash. 

About ISOO of the high school students had parents who Avere professional 
men or Avomen; more than 14,000 Avere from the homes of skilled or unskilled 
laborers. About 6 00 students from homes of the professional class reached or 
surpassed an intelligence score of 56, Avhile about 2200 students from the labor 
group reached that same level. 

Putting it another way, the test amply demonstrated that intelligence is not 
confined to any class or group. 

It also revealed a most amazing fact concerning the relative intelligence of 
high school and college students. For example, there Avere 350 college seniors 
ready for graduation Avhose "stock of kuoAvledge" fell beloAV that of the average 
high school graduate. That meant that there Avere hundreds of boys and girls 



32 THE CARPENTER 

about to enter college who knew more than boys and girls who were about to 
graduate after four years of a college course. 

Many, many other facts of equal interest were dug up, but one which seems 
most worthy of earnest consideration is that which reveals that at least half of 
our best high school students can't get to college because their parents haven't 
the money. Surely, that is a waste of human resources which America cannot af- 
ford to continue. — Labor. 

• 

ISO-STRIKE AGREEMENT FOR WASHINGTON'S LOW-COST HOUSING 

WIDESPREAD praise was expressed in the nations capital with the no-strike 
agreement reached between the Alley Dwelling Authority of the District 
of Columbia, in charge of the slum clearance and low-cost housing pro- 
gram under the United States Housing Act, and the Washington Building and 
Construction Trades Council, affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, 
guaranteeing that work on A. D. A. projects shall not be stopped because of juris- 
dictional disputes and that the wage rates in effect when work on a project starts 
shall be continued until the project is finished. 

The agreement is in conformity with the policy recently established by the 
Building and Construction Trades Department of the American Federation of 
Labor and the Labor Relations Division of the U. S. Housing Authority, which 
A. F. of L. Building. Trades Councils representing hundreds of local unions in 
many cities have agreed to observe. 

In an editorial on the " 'No Strike' Agreement" for low-cost housing in the 
District of Columbia, the Washington Evening Star said: 

"The pledge given by the Washington Building and Construction Trades Coun- 
cil that no work shall be stopped on projects of the Alley Dwelling Authority be- 
cause of jurisdictional disputes should receive the welcome it des&rves from all 
who are interested in the speedy completion of the local slum clearance and low- 
rent housing program. 

"The 'no strike' agreement is in line with the improved labor relations negoti- 
ated by the United States Housing Authority, sponsor of the nation-wide slum 
clearance program, with the building trade councils representing 535 local unions 
in eighty-six cities. It is a start in the right direction to avoid some of the costly 
pitfalls that embarrassed and frustrated the initial housing program of the Govern- 
ment several years ago. 

"During four years of alley reclaiming and building in the District, the rela- 
tions between the A. D. A. and the local Building Trades Council have been friend- 
ly. By submitting plans and specifications in advance to the council for the pur- 
pose of having the latter point out possible causes for jurisdictional disputes, the 
A. D. A. has avoided all controversies of a serious nature. Labor has reciprocated 
by occasionally pointing out possible savings in construction costs. 

" The new agreement also will sei've to stabilize wage rates to the satisfaction 
of both labor and contractors. A provision continuing wage rates effective at the 
start of a project through the entire period of construction will discourage de- 
mands for increased wages on the one hand, or for a downward revision on the 
other. Such demands usually are fraught with strike possibilities. 

Labor is primarily interested in the construction of low-rent dwellings in the 
District. * * * It is heartening to know that labor is willing and apparently anxious 
to cooperate in keeping these costs down." 



THE UNION LABEL TELLS 

The wage-hour act does not require goods to be given a label showing that 
they have been made in accordance with this law. Most people knew this already; 
but a statement from the office of the Administrator of the act should remove 
all doubts. And this stateriient certifies once again to the service which the union 
label trades are rendering to the cause of decent wages and working conditions. 

Goods bearing a union label do not need another label that they are made in 
compliance Avith the wage-hour act. The union label proves that, and more. 
Unions, where they had the power, anticipated the law, and went beyond it years 
ago. 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Obtice : Carpenters' Building. Indianapolis, Ind. 



Gen'erat, President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

U. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, lad. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DPFFT 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind 



General Treasurer 

THOMAS NEAI.E 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, T. M. GUERIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
1231 N. Winnetka St., Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Third District. HARRY SCHWARZER 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
200 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
6375 Chambord St., Montreal, Que.. Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
4155 Lakcshore Blvd., Jacksonville, Fla. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON. Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 

STAYAWAY NOTICES 

Local 109, Sheffield, Ala., reports an Influx of carpenters in its territory and 
that there is not enough work to keep its Local membership busy. 

Carpenters are advised not to come to Birmingham, Ala., with the idea of find- 
ing work. Many of the members there are idle, according to a notice sent to The 
Carpenter. 

a: :'.: .•!; :i: * 

Lansing, Mich., sends word that work is A'ery scarce and advises traveling 
Brothers to that effect. 

Waukegan, 111., Local 448 is suffering at present from a lack of jobs and many 
of the Brothers in that citv are idle. 



Local 2 5 of Los Angeles writes that "although recent fires will create some 
jobs, they will not come anyways near putting all our members to work as several 
hundred are now idle." 



Fort Atkinson, Wis 
Newark, N. J. 
Troy. Mont. 
Headquarters. Ida. 
Fayetteville. N. C. 
Mayfield, Wash. 







NEW 


CHARTERS ISSUED 




2195 


Houston. Tex. 


2201 


Durant, Okla. 


2211 


1293 


Houston, Tex. 


2204 


Hammond, La. 


2212 


2196 


Sonora, Calif. 


1302 


Nashville, Ark. 


2662 


2667 


Bellingham, Wash 


2206 


Odessa, Tex. 


2664 


2199 


Raton, N. Mex. 


2209 


Mt. Pleasant. Tex. 


2210 


2200 


Hope, Ark. 


2666 


Husum, Wash. 


2663 



34 THE CARPENTER 

REPORT OF DELEGATES TO THE 31st ANNUAL 
CONVENTION OF THE UNION LABEL TRADES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN 
FEDERATION OF LABOR 

To the General Executive Board: 

Dear Sirs and Brothers: 

The Thirty-first Annual Convention of the Union Label Trades Department of 
the American Federation of Labor was held at the Rice Hotel, Houston, Tex9,s 
on September 29th and 30th, 1938. Eighty-four delegates were present, represent- 
ing thirty-seven national and international unions. The Executive Board in its 
report said: 

"By the achievements of the past renewed inspiration and guidance are 
aroused. By discussions had, new light and determination have been de- 
veloped for future action. As a Department we have now been doing this 
for thirty continuous years. The experience had and results attained have 
fully borne out the validity of methods and procedures followed. 

"We stand today on the threshold of a New Era. The seat of power is 
shifting from the propertied class to the producing and consuming masses. 
The Labor problem is now for the first time in history facing the attention 
of the awakened producing and consuming masses, and is also summoning 
the enthusiastic cooperation of all right minded and public spirited citizens. 

"By our mutual efforts we have considerably aided in the advancement 
of the employment standards of wage earners. By means of the further- 
ance of our trade Union Labels, Shop Cards and Buttons we have helped to 
create a better understanding of the mutuality of relationship between 
producers and consumers. Indeed, our Department has acted as a clearing 
house between producers and consumers, and as well between our respec- 
tive alfiliated trade unions in their cooperative relation to one another 
and to our Department. 

"The Union Label Trades Department of the American Federation of 
Labor has had a most successful year. In addition to increasing the usual 
activities for the promotion of the Union Label, Shop Card and Service 
Button, the Department held its first national exhibition of Union Label 
products and Union services, known as the A. F. of L. Union Label and In- 
dustrial Exhibition. 

The increased demand for the Union Label, Shop Card and Service 
Button is due to the volunteer work of the members of the National and 
International Labor Unions, State Federations of Labor, Central Labor 
Unions, Union Label Leagues, Women's Auxiliaries and various Union 
Label Committees. The Union Label Trades Department takes this oppor- 
tunity to thank the officials of these various branches of the American 
Federation of Labor and the editors of the Labor press for their whole- 
hearted support and intelligent cooperation in every plan to publicize the 
official emblems of Labor Unions affiliated with the American Federation 
of Labor." 

The Executive Board also dealt with the following matters: 

A. F. of L. Union Label and Industrial Exhibition 

Editorials, Releases and Cartoons . 

Union Label Literature 

Radio Broadcasts 

Union Label Catalogue-Directory 

Union Label Leagues 

Cooperation from A. F. of L. Officials 

New Affiliates. 



' THE CARPENTER 35 

Under this heading the Executive Board reported that tlie following national 
and international unions became affiliated with the Union Label Trades Depart- 
ment during the past year: 

American Flint Glass Workers' Union of North America 

International Ladies' Handbag, Pocketbook and Novelty Workers' Union 

Sheep Shearers' Union of North America 

International Broom and Whisk Makers' Union 

International Glove Workers' Union of America 

International Metal Engravers' Union 

Sheet Metal Workers' International Association 

American Wire Weavers' Protective Association. 

RECOi\LMEXDATIONS 

The Executive Board made the following recommendations: 

1. That the Union Label Trades Department sponsor an annual A. F. of 
L. Union Label and Industrial Exhibition. 

2. That each affiliated Union begin at once to plan an exhibit of its prod- 
ucts or services and also urge that the Unionized industries which dis- 
plaj^ their Union Label, Shop Card and Button to likewise prepare an 
unusual and interesting exhibit for Labor's next annual show. 

3. The continuance of the Union Label Catalogue-Directory as a regular 
publication of the Union Label Trades Department. 

4. That Central Labor bodies in cooperation with Union Label Leagues, 
AVomen's Auxiliaries and other Union Label committees sponsor Union 
Label Weeks. 

5. The use of radio broadcasts over national networks and also over local 
radio stations. 

6. The formation of Union Label Leagues in every city, town and village 
throughout America. 

In concluding its report the Board said: 

"We desire to pay especial tribute to the organized labor movement of 
Ohio. The officials of the State Federation of Labor and the Central Labor 
Union of Cincinnati were tireless in their efforts to make the first A. F. 
of L. Union Label and Industrial Exhibition a success. Under the sterling 
leadership of Jack Hurst, President of the Central Labor Union, we were 
favored with the cooperation of the Chamber of Commerce, the City Ad- 
ministration, the Labor movement and the Ladies' Auxiliaries, which re- 
sulted in all records being broken for attendance in the spacious Music 
Hall where the Exhibition was held. The local Building Trades Council of 
Cincinnati is to be commended for its cooperation with the Union Label 
Trades organizations. 

"We are deeply grateful for the generous amount of space accorded the 
Union Label, Shop Card and Button by the editors of the Labor weekly 
newspapers and the monthly journals." 

This was referred to the Committee on Officers' Reports and was concurred in. 
The report of the Committee was unanimously adopted by the Convention. 
The following officers were unanimously elected for the coming term: 
President — Matthew Woll, Photo-Engravers. 
First Vice-President — Joseph Obergfell, Brewery Workers. 
Second Vice-President — A. A. Myrup, Bakery Workers. 
Third Vice-President — John J. Mara, Boot and Shoe Workers. 
Fourth Vice-President — T. A. Rickert, United Garment Workers. 
Fifth Vice-President — Claude M. Baker, International Typographical 

Union. 
Secretary-Treasurer— I. I\I. Ornburn. Cigar INIakers' International 
Union. Respectfully submitted, 

M. A. HUTCHESON, 

A. DARMSTADT. 

HENRY GEORGE, Delegates. 



36 



THE CARPENTER 



%. 



fAom 



Telegrams - COHESIVE Wjtmington.Iancs' 




161, WiLM SLOW Road, WiTHiNCTON, 



FW/P 



December I3th. 1938, 



Ifr Prank Duffy, 

Secretary, 

The United Brotherhood of 

Carpenters & Joiners of America, 



Dear Sir, 



"Our Society's History" 



Early in 1939 will be published this history covering 
a period of over seventy years and I think that some of your 
members, particularly tliose with overseas connections will 
be interested in this publication. . 

A section will of course deal with the relations of 
the overseas branches of the late A.S.C. & J. and in the case 
of the American and Canadian Branches an account will be given 
of the efforts made to unite with the Brotherhood and the "Plan 
of Solidification". 

I will send you a couple of copies as soon as the 
publication is ready but in the meantime I was wondering if 
you might help by pl-acing a notice in "The Carpenter" 
advising your members of this forthcoming publication. 

The history will occupy nearly 400 pages, apart 
from illustrations, and will be bound in a stiff cloth binding, 
and is being sold at as low price as possible. 
Any of your members who require a copy can be supplied at the 
price of one dollar, carriage paid to the member's home. 
The postage will be at least elghtpence per copy. Of course 
if you were willing to take some copies to supply direct to 
your members they would be supplied at a discount. 

However, at the moment the. particular matter is 
to see if there is likely to be any demand from your members 
and if you could arrange for a notice as suggested I should 
be very much obliged. 

With kind regards. 
Yours sincerely. 



xours sijacereiy, ^ f/— 



Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory, 

Xot dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



Brother Boudreault, Oldest Member of Local 1210, Dies 

As the New Year was getting under way, death took the oldest member of 
Local 1210, Salem, Mass., when Brother Joseph Boudreault, age 81, died. Brother 
Boudreault had held membership in the Brotherhood for thirty-five years and 
had been very active in Local affairs until three years ago. 

Brother Boudreault was regarded as one of the conservatives of Local 1210 
always striving for peaceful methods in reaching agreements in all disputes. 

Brother Boudreault was born in Canada and came to Salem some fifty years 
ago. He became a citizen of this country and raised a large family of five sons 
and five daughters. 

A large number of friends and relatives at the funeral attested to the high 
respect and place he held in the community. Fraternal delegations, officers and 
members of Local 1210 led the funeral procession. 

Many were the good deeds rendered by Brother Boudreault for his Brother 
carpenters. A true epitaph for Brother Boudreault would be: He gave sincerely, 
tirelessly and honestly of himself to aid his Brothers and his Brotherhood. 



In Rememberance of W. T. (Red) Watkins 

Brother W. T. (Red) Watkins was born May 23, 189 3 in Clay county. Miss. 
He died November 28, 1938, age 45 years, 6 months and 5 days. 

Brother Watkins joined the Brotherhood August 14, 1914. He cleared into 
Local Union 213 from Local 753, October 7, 1921. He served as President of 
Local 213 for three years. 

At the time of his death he was Business Agent of Carpenters District Council 
of Houston and vicinity. 

Brother Watkins died suddenly after reaching home from a meeting of the 
District Council. 

Local Union 189 of Conroe, Texas, a member of the District Council said in 
a resolution: 

"We who lived and worked with Brother William T. Watkins can assure those 
who knew him as an Officer and Business Agent of the District Council that he 
was their friend and servant. 

"Local 213 has lost one of its best friends and loyal members. Those of us 
who were co-officers with Brother Watkins feel a great loss in one we had come 
to love as a dear friend. May those who remain, profit by his example of devotion 
to a cause so dear to his heart." 



Brother Fred Deveau, Victim of Auto Accident 

Brother Fred Deveau, member of Local 12 72 of Seattle, Wash., died November 
15, 1938, near Seaside Oregon. He was the victim of an automobile accident. 

Brother Deveau, was born September 30, 1890, at Salmon River, Nova Scotia. 
He had been an active worker in the labor movement in Seattle for the past 20 
years, and was highly respected by all his brother members. 

On November 9, 193 8, lie was appointed general representative for the water- 
front in the Northwest Pacific district, which office he held until his death. 



38 



THE CARPENTER 



In Memory o£ Seimon Banning, Local 993, Miami, Fla. 

Brother Seimon B. Banning was born February 3, 1875, and was initiated into 
the Brotherhood February 3, 1907. He departed this life September 12, 1938. 

In the passing of Brother Banning the Local and the Brotherhood has suffered 
a sad loss. 

We who knew him best cannot express in mere words 
the esteem in which we held him as a Brother and a 
worker in our ranks. 

When the going was hard and many obstacles were 
to be overcome we could always depend on our deceased 
Brother to give unstintingly of his time and wise coun- 
cil to capture the objectives in view. 

We are confident that his life's Avork was well done 
and that he has received the benediction of the Supreme 
Ruler. And we are most confident that he received the 
blessing of the Great Architect in these words, "Well 
done thou good and faithful servant, enter now upon the 
joys of life." 

The relationship of our deceased brother will forever linger in the minds of 
those who knew him best. 

The most regrettable part of his passing is that we are now deprived of his 
good and wise council, and that we have lost a brother who had the real spirit 
of good-fellowship and true unionism at heart. 

May his memory be a guiding star to those of us who have survived him, and 
be an inspiration to carry on the great work of the greatest Brotherhood in 
Unionism. 

Clarence E. Miller, Recording Secretary. 





Brother William Albert, Local 836, Janes- 
ville. Wis. 

Brother William Albert, a member of Local Union 
836, Janesville, Wisconsin, died June 17, 1938. He was 
initiated into that Local December 15, 1911. Date of 
birth, August 21, 1874; classed as a beneficial member. 
He was a loyal, true and faithful member. He was al- 
ways in good standing entitled to all the rights, privi- 
leges and benefits prescribed by our Laws. 

Recording Secretary Fred W. Smith of that Union 
asks that the following poem by one of the brothers 
be published in his memory: 



THE PASSING OF 

It happened without any warning, 
Like a lightning bolt from the blue. 
The hand of the Reaper reached sud- 
denly out. 
And grasped at the boss of the crew. 

He was busy performing his duty, 

A smile on his honest old face. 

When the Master Mechanic assigned 

him, 
To fill a more prominent place. 

A man with a wealth of good nature, 
Respected by rich and by poor, 



BROTHER BILL 

A mechanic well skilled and proficient, 
His buildings stand firm and secure. 

His name at the top of our roster. 
The first to respond to roll call. 
Oh Lord, how we're going to miss him. 
When we meet Friday nights in the 
hall. 

His memory will be Avith us always, 
Tho his voice in the council is still, 
We have lost a most valuable member 
In the passing of Dear Brother Bill. 



CorrospondoncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

WPA Replacing Skilled Labor with "Carpenters' Helpers" in 
Oklahoma; Tulsa Local Asks Your Help 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

It has been the disappointing- experience of representatives of Labor 
that the Works Progress Administration, in erecting building projects, 
instead of insisting on the use of skilled mechanics to perform work ordi- 
narily done by men trained for this work, invariably permit the employ- 
ment of so-called "intermediate" labor or "helpers" at a rate of wages far 
below the established wage set for skilled mechanics. 

At the present time there are more than 300 WPA projects in Okla- 
homa alone, such as schools, auditoriums, courthouses, and other build- 
ings, that are ordinarily erected by private contractors who employ no 
such thing as "semi-skilled" or "intermediate" workmen outside of reg- 
ular apprentices, but instead use journeymen of their respective trade 
for the i)erformance of this work at a rate of pay established by long and 
strenuous effort. We presume the same conditions prevail in all other 
states. 

Repeated efforts to have this condition corrected have only resulted 
in the matter g^oing from bad to worse. 

It is very evident that if this practice is allowed to continue it will 
only be a short time until we will lose, not only the WPA work, but the 
regular contract work as well. 

The object of this letter is to ask every carpenter, no matter where he 
resides, to immediately write the Federal Works Progress Administra- 
tion, demanding that it refuse to approve further WPA building projects, 
and to refuse to start those already approved and not under construction. 

As soon as Congress has before it a bill to continue the Works Prog- 
ress Administration we ask that you write your Senators and Congress- 
men, demanding a clause be inserted, prohibiting the use of Federal funds 
for building projects, and further, that no Federal funds be used for the 
construction of bridges or culverts on Federal aid highways, as the same 
practice of using "intermediate" labor to do skilled work prevails there 
also. 

It is otir opinion that if every carpenter will write in his own hand- 
writing, in his own language, to their respective representatives this will 
result in the correction of these abuses. 

We would also ask that you call this matter to the attention of your 
Trades Councils and Central Bodies, and make this a campaign of letter 
writing. 

Remember, it is up to each and every building tradesman to flood 
Congress and the WPx\ with letters. If this does not get the job done it 



40 THE CARPENTER 

won't be long- until we will have an opportunity to use our vote for an 
anti-New Deal. 

Approved by Local Union No. 943 at a regular meeting November 22, 1938. 

J. F. Doonan, Recording- Secretary. 

^ ;!; ^ ^ ^ 

Mr. Frank Duffy, Gen. Sec'y., 

U. B. of C. and J. of A., 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Dear Sir and Brother: 

Your letter of December 7, 1938, addressed to Recording Secretary 
J. F. Doonan, with reference to complaints this Local Union made against 
the Works Progress Administration in our letter to you under date of 
November 22, 1938, was referred to the undersigned by Local 943 for 
answer. 

We have seen copies of General Lettters Nos. 183 and 184 issued by 
Administrator Harry L. Hopkins, instructing- State Administrators to 
correct such conditions as we complained of, and we felt that when these 
letters were sent out that these conditions would be corrected. 

The fact is, however, as far as Oklahoma is concerned, that very little 
has been done and we still have "carpenter helpers" doing work belong- 
ing to carpenters at sub-standard wages. 

As an illustration I will call to your attention one job near here, a 
school house, about a $40,000 job. On this particular project the labor 
break-down provides for something over 1500 carpenter hours of labor 
and something over 4000 "carpenter helper" hours of labor. The sponsors 
of the project pay the carpenters employed on the job and the WPA pays 
the "carpenter helpers." The result, of course is that "carpenter helpers" 
are doing work that belongs to carpenters. 

The area engineer has made this break-down with the full knowledge 
and apparent approval of the State Administrator, and all efforts on our 
part have failed to remedy the matter. This condition prevails more or 
less throughout the state. Apparently the Divisions of Operations and the 
Division of Employment are unable to get together on proper labor classi- 
fications with the result that skilled men are doing very little WPA work 
in Oklahoma. 

Since a condition of this kind will tend to break down wage scales and 
conditions that it has taken 3^ears to build up, we feel that we are justified 
in making every effort possible to have building construction projects 
eliminated entirely from the Public Works Administration program. 

Our fair contractors complain about this unfair competition on the 
part of the WPA and they are justified in- their complaints. It will be 
hard to hold many of them in line so long as this condition exists. 

The same conditions prevail in State Plighway construction as far as 
using "helpers" to do skilled labor work. 

As a matter-of-fact skilled labor is being coerced into accepting a 
"helper" classification in order to secure employment and many of these 
men so employed are actually skilled workmen and are doing skilled work 
at about half the prevailing rates of wages for work they are doing 

In view of the facts as set out above we feel justified in taking the 
action we have and again respectfully request that our letter be published 
in the Journal. 

Fraternally yours, 

L. A. Meek, Financial Secretary, 



THE CARPENTER 41 

Jurisdiction Dispute Strikes Hit By California Federation 

An appeal to all A. F. of L. labor councils and unions in California to exert 
the strongest efforts to eliminate stoppages of work in connection with jurisdic- 
tional disputes between unions is issued by Edward D. Vandeleur, secretary of 
the California State Federation of Labor. 

The appeal was authorized by the Executive Council of the Federation at a 
recent meeting, before which numerous cases were discussed and the matter given 
thorough consideration, Mr. Vandeleur said. 

"Jurisdictional disputes that result in stoppage of work are a most serious 
threat, and result not only in unfriendliness to organized labor, but monetary 
losses to labor and its employers," Mr. Vandeleur's statement declared. 

"Elimination of such disputes is a goal which organized labor must work 
quickly toward, and the officers of the California State Federation of Labor stand 
ready, willing and anxious to do all in their power to reach this goal. 

"Such disputes are ultimately settled by both sides sitting down together and 
discussing the matter thoroughly, and there is no good reason in most cases why 
this cannot be done before a controversy reaches the stoppage of work stage to 
the detriment of all concerned. 

"Because the American Federation of Labor is a democratic and not an auto- 
cratic iifstitution it is the duty of the officers of all affiliated unions to show their 
sincerity by reaching an agreement in any controversy in a democratic manner, 
and not attempt to force their stand upon fellow workers and the employers in 
an autocratic manner. 

"In virtually all cases of jurisdictional disputes the employer does not care 
what union has jurisdiction so long as the required work is performed. But the 
employer does lose confidence in the entire organized labor movement when his 
capital and operations are tied up by a jurisdictional dispute and work stops. 

"Jurisdictional disputes are a major problem of the labor movement, and 
this problem, particularly in relation to work stoppages, must be given the im- 
mediate and sincere attention of officers of all organizations to the end of retain- 
ing the confidence of all employers of labor. 

"We must realize the seriousness of the threat such disputes are to our 
organization and exert our ability to the utmost to eliminate them. 

"We appeal to the officers of all American Federation of Labor unions and 
labor councils in California to accept their responsibility by giving their utmost 
sincere and ardent attention to the elimination of stoppages of work because of 
jurisdictional disputes. 

"The officers of the California State Federation of Labor, situated in all dis- 
tricts of the state, are ready and willing at all times to give their effort and 
counsel toward this end." 



Brother Decries Selfish Work Attitude of Railroad Men 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

During the past few months there have been circulated l)y unemployed railroad 
men petitions to Congress asking regulation of the mileage or number of basic 
days per month Avhich railroad men in service as engine and train service em- 
ployes may be permitted to work in any one month. 

These petitions are based on the premise that most of the men now in service 
are working from 35 to 60 basic days per month, which is contrary to the spirit 
of good unionism in times like the present. 

That in some cases these men work as high as 60 basic days per month, stead- 
ily the year round. 

That passage of legislation as proposed, i.e. to limit these men to the natural 
month of 26 days would increase employment in engine and train service on our 



42 THE CARPENTER 

railways as high in some terminals as 9 5 per cent and an average of over 50 per 
cent. 

That the proposed legislation would actually re-employ 220,000 men, releas- 
ing them from WPA or other forms of relief. 

That the saving to WPA administration would be in excess of $260,000,000 
per year. 

That it would release into the channels of retail trade $400,000,000 annually. 

That many of the men laid off as a result of this excessive high mileage have 
20 or more years service to their credit. 

That the average age of these is above 45 and at some terminals is above 
50 years. 

That these men have no hope of securing other permanent employment and, 
as a result have been denied any career whatever during their lifetime unless the 
proposed legislation is given favorable consideration at this session of Congress. 

That they have tried to get consideration for their problem through their or- 
ganizations but have been unable to make progress for the following reason: 
That for the greater part of the time, when they are in service and can take 
action in an ethical manner they are on the extra list and compelled to work when 
the regular men, those who benefit by present high mileage rules, lay off. 

When any action is proposed in the organizations the assigned men lay off 
and the extra men have to work and the assigned go to the union meeting and 
vote down any proposal to regulate the mileage downward and, in fact have used 
these tactics to raise the maximum at the cost of the junior men. 

The petitions mentioned above were circulated in La Grande and good success 
was had in getting signatures among the men affected. I made a personal investi- 
gation of the matter and found the charges they make against the senior men 
are substantially true. I also found that the measure would increase employ- 
ment on the Union Pacific at this point by approximately 105 men or over 50 per 
cent. 

The matter was taken up in Carpenters Union, Local 2019, and we approved 
the proposed law and wrote to our Congressman, Mr. Walter M. Pierce, urging 
him to take such steps as were necessary to correct the evil condition. 

During debate the following facts were developed: That our members are 
required, either by rule or law, to limit their earnings to a maximum of $173.67 
per month at $8.00 per day. 

That other building trade's men were making a like sacrifice. That as a result 
of this general policy in our Unions we have created jobs for several hundred 
thousand men. Had we failed to limit our earnings by limiting the number of 
basic days per month which our members are permitted to work these several 
hundred thousand men would now be on WPA. By making this sacrifice we 
saved the taxpayers of the country hundreds of millions of dollars a year during 
this depression. That the railroad men profit by this sacrifice on our part as much 
as we do but have yet done little or nothing themselves to aid in making jobs 
for their own members. 

That in fact we are compelled to absorb for a portion of each year the greater 
part of the men who are now unemployed by the railways as a result of this short- 
sighted policy on their part. That in fact we have these men competing with us 
in our own craft because of the policy of the senior men to have work which they 
want done taken care of only when there are men laid off of their own working 
lists, giving as a reason that they wish to throw work to their unfortunate broth- 
ers. But we noted that in all cases where these men profited at all by such work 
they were required to work far under our scale, some doing carpenter work as 
low as 45c per hour. Our scale is $1.00 per hour. 

It was also developed that many business men in the town, who are otherwise 
friendly to our organization, were using these unemployed railroad me«i in com- 
petition with us, at a greatly reduced scale of wages in order to permit them to 
work out debts which they owe. 

Our members feel that if a carpenter, at $8.00 per day should be compelled 
to limit his earnings to $173.67 per month and a building laborer at $5.00 per day 



THE CARPENTER 



43 



to limit his earnings to $108.33 per month in order to create jobs for members 
that a locomotive engineer at $10 per day should be willing to limit his earnings 
to $216.67 per month and conductors, brakemen and firemen should not hesitate 
to make a similar sacrifice, especially since their annual earnings would not suffer 
as much as ours by the application of such a rule. They have a chance to pick up 
lost time during the month but our members have no such opportunity but must 
count time lost as gone with the wind and not recoverable under present condi- 
tions of employment. 

An investigation into the conditions at railway terminals will convince you 
that a similar condition prevails at all of them and that the Carpenters Union is 
deeply interested because of the effect on our members. It is my desire that you 
publish this in our magazine in order that we may get expressions of opinion and 
information from other points in the country. 

Fraternally, 

C. E. Abrahamson, Local 2019, 

602 Adams Avenue, La Grande, Oregon. 



Prize-Winning Float of the San Diego District Council 

Shown here is the prize-winning Labor day Parade Float of the San Diego 
District Council of Carpenters. The float is a reproduction in miniature of the 




Carpenters' Home at Lakeland, Fla. The idea and craftsmanship drew many 
Avords of praise not to mention first prize for the District Council. 



Labor Victim of Unemployment Whip 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

For ten years the problem of unemployment has been the whip that has forced 
the workingman to perform for the benefit of the more favored classes. 

Each time legislation is passed to presumably help the laboring class a wage 
joker Is attached. 

Labor, the most valuable asset of this nation, is undersold because we strive 
not to control production, but to control the price or wages labor receives. 

In the parable of the laborers in the vineyard, it is pointed out to us that 
wages cannot be successfully regulated on strictly an hourly basis and that the 
honorable employer will seek to provide sufficient pay for necessities and comfort 
by unselfish reasoning. 

One of our greatest leaders once said that, "unless we have equal rights for 
all and special priviliges for none, this nation shall not stand," and until labor is 
looked upon as a valuable and necessary asset instead of merely a class deserving 
charitable consideration, we shall not have equal rights. 

Fraternally, 

Joseph Oberhauser. 
Local 64. Louisville, Ky. 



44 THE CARPENTER 

Local 608's Annual Banquet Hailed As Huge Success 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

The Fifth Annual Grand Banquet of Local Union 608, which was held Novem- 
ber 5, 1938, at the Riverside Plaza Hotel, New York City, was one of the most 
successful affairs of its kind ever held here and truly representative of labor. 

Twelve hundred persons gathered that night to pay tribute to one of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America's great Local Unions. 
The spacious grand ballroom was filled to capacity. The arrangements committee 
certainly did a good job. The committee justly earned everybody's congratulations. 

At nine P.M. sharp the festivities commenced when everybody stood to the 
strains of the Star Spangled Banner and continued incessantly until three A.M. 
when the orchestra played Home SAveet Home. 

Jack O'Donnel was the very capable toastmaster and George Meany, Presi- 
dent of the New York State Federation of Labor was the speaker of the evening. 
Other speakers included the inimitable Jack Flynn, representing the General Office; 
County Judge William O'Dwyer; James C. Quinn, Secretary-Treasurer of the 
Central Trades and Labor Council; John J. Breunan, Secretary-Treasurer of the 
Building and Construction Trades Council; Dan Quigley and Sidney Pearce of 
the New York District Council of Carpenters and John C. Sweeney of L. U. 60 8. 

Those seated at the dias were Timothy B. O'Rourke, Recording Secretary; 
Eugene Barrett, Trustee; Edward Miles, Trustee; Edward Bjelke, Vice-President; 
Jack O'Donnell, Business Representative; Dave Scanlan, Secretary-Treasurer; 
John C. Sweeney, President; John G. Callan, District Council Delegate; Thomas 
Mallery, Trustee; Joseph Foley, Conductor; John McDonagh, Warden Pat 
Hannon and Michael O'Grady all of Local 60 8. Fred Marshall, Business Represen- 
tative of Scenic Artists Local Union 8 29; Sidney Pearce, Secretary-Treasurer and 
Dan Quigley, Vice-President of the New York District Council of Carpenters; 
John J. Brennan, Secretary-Treasurer of the Building and Construction Trades 
Council; County Judge William O'Dwyer of Brooklyn; George Meany, President 
of the New York State Federation of Labor; Jack Flynn, Representing the Gen- 
eral Office; James C. Quinn, Secretary-Treasurer of the Central Trades and Labor 
Council; Fred Johnson, Business Representative of Local Union 48 8; Alfred 
Beck representing the Hudson County District Council; John S. Sinclair, President 
of the Westchester District Council and Terence Long, Sports Editor of the NeAv 
York "Irish Echo." 

It is not possible to mention all those present so I will endeavor to mention 
the representatives of the different organizations who participated and if I should 
omit anybody, I hope they will accept my apology. 

We had Edward Kuehn, Business Representative of Local Union 298; George 
Welsch, Business Representative of Local Union 740; Joseph Jennings of the 
Mayo Men's Association; Al Lakofsky, Business Agent of Local Union 1663; 
Harry Eilert, Financial Secretary of Local 488; Michael McMahon of the Clare 
Men's Association; Frank Sarraile, Business Representative of the Exhibition 
Employees Local Union 175 74; Sam Shooten, Business Representative of Local 
Union 1204; Joseph Siegleaub of Local Union 135; Robert M. Johnson, Business 
Representative of 1536; Vincent J. Castelli, Secretary Treasurer of Local Union 
385; H. G. Cozzens, Business Representative of Local Union 20; George Mul- 
holland, Business Representative of Local Union 2 305; Alfred Zimnier, Business 
Representative of Local Union 808; Jack Haig, Business Representative of Local 
Union 1657; Charles Olson, Business Representative of Local 257; John Murphy 
of the Limerick Men's Association; Counsellor Joseph McLoughlin of the Appellate 
Division; James Cunningham, Business Representative of Local Union 246; James 
Coen of the Sligo Men's Association; Charles McElroy and Andrew O'Brien of 
the Carlton Construction Co.; Alfred Ford, Jr., of the Building Department; Ed- 
ward O'Dowd and Glen Willets of the Rosoff Construction Co. and many others. 

So came to an end one grand and glorious night with everybody reluctant to 
leave but promising to meet at the Sixth Annual Ball of Local Union 608. 

Fraternally yours, 

David Scanlan, Secretary-Treasurer. 



THE CARPENTER 45 

Lewiston-Auburn Local 407 Marks 50th Year 

Tuesday evening, November 1, was a gala occasion for members of Lewiston- 
Auburn Carpenters' Local 407 who, with guests, celebrated the organization's 50th 
anniversary with a banquet and entertainment in Union Hall, Lewiston. 

Principal among the guests was J. E. Ballard, only living charter member, 
now of Portland, who attended with his wife and step-daughter. Mr. Ballard, who 
is 8 9 years of age, was the recipient of vociferous applause following his short 
but vigorous address, during which he recounted numerous interesting and excit- 
ing incidents when the Local Union was in its formation and during a number 
of years which followed receipt of the charter. 

Mr. Ballard has been a member of the Brotherhood for more than 50 years. 

Mr. Ballard said efforts to organize a Local Union were made in 1886, which 
resulted in the formation of Local 176, but serious obstacles were put in its way 
Avhich made it extremely difficult to make any headway, and the Local finally had 
to be abandoned. 

However, it wasn't long before the need of organization was more greatly felt, 
and with new arrivals to the twin cities, who added zest to the situation, another 
effort was made. In May, 1888, at a meeting at which a temporary organiza- 
tion was instituted, it was voted to apply for a charter from the Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America. It was on November 1 of that year that the 
charter was received, and at a meeting held on that evening, Carpenters Local 
No. 407 came into being. 

There was tough sledding for the small but sturdy band of men who dared to 
face the opposition which prevailed against unionism in those days, Mr. Ballard 
said, but undaunted, they bravely and enthusiastically carried the union banner 
which, in time, reflected itself on members of other crafts, and which marked the 
real start of trade unionism in Lewiston. 

Both at the organization of Local 176, when as president he was assisted by 
E. E. Greenleaf as vice-president, H. F. Woodbury as recording secretary, and H. 
Dennison as treasurer; and later as treasurer of Local 407, Mr. Ballard was 
prominently identified with the union's affairs. He served as treasurer of Local 
40 7 for 2 6 consecutive years, and has been a member in good standing since the 
union was chartered. 

Mr. Ballard represented the Local at a number of conventions of the Brother- 
hood, was active as a delegate to conventions of the State Federation of Labor 
and took a prominent part in the formation and affairs of the Lewiston Central 
Labor Union, and is credited with having been greatly responsible for the building 
up of the local Labor movement. 

Among others called upon to address the gathering by Joseph A. Elie who 
acted as toastmaster, were Frank C. McDonald, first vice-president of the Maine 
State Federation of Labor; A. F. Eagles, legislative agent for the Federation; 
David Hastings, secretary-treasurer of Portland Local 340, Teamsters and Chauf- 
feurs Union. 

John Bell, President of Local 407, made the address of welcome, and Past 
Presidents C. H. Merrow and Eugene Hodgdon made brief but most interesting 
reference to the history of the organization. Other speakers were W. H. Burkett 
and D. D. Gould, Treasurer of Local 407. 

Local 40 7, which has a membership of more than 150, is regarded as one of 
the strongest and best among building trades unions in the State. Its affairs are 
administered by men of long experience in trade union affairs, and through whose 
ability and willingness to serve, have been successful in consummating written 
agreements Avith the leading building contractors in Lewiston and Auburn. 

The splendid relations existing between the union and local contractors were 
attested at the celebration by the presence of 11 of the district's leading contrac- 
tors, who joined with the union in the observance of its occasion. 



46 THE CARPENTER 

1,000 Enjoy Local 47's Good Fellowship Event 

More tlian 10 00 guests danced and made merry December 3 as Carpenters' 
Local 4 7, one of the oldest and largest organizations comprising tlie Carpenters' 
District Council of St. Louis, held its annual good fellowship gathering. 

The success of the event was primarily due to the hardworking and popular 
chairman of the entertainment committee, Erwin C. Meinert and the committee 
under him which functioned so admirably. The boys set out to put on a shoAV, not 
for profit, but for good will and sociability. To them it was an opportunity for 
the carpenters to reveal themselves in a social atmosphere and to fraternize with 
their brethren of other unions. 

The North St. Louis Turner Hall, large as it is, was somewhat crowded with 
the number who came to enjoy themselves. That the committee had determined 
to do things high, wide and handsome was evidenced by the lavish decorations, 
the fine music and floor show, the roses and carnations for the guests and the 
ample supply of food and refreshments. 

Many prominent labor ofiicials attended the affair, and they were lavish in 
their praise of the manner in which the dance was directed. 

* 

Carpenters Dedicate New Hall in Kalispell, Mont. 

Upwards of 10 00 attended the dedication ceremonies of the new Carpenters' 
Union Hall at Kalispell, Mont. Among out-of-town union officials attending were 
C. A. Paddock, representing the International Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners, and B. I. Steinmetz, of Great Falls, president of the Cascade County 
Trades and Labor Assembly. 

George Hedger, president of the Kalispell Carpenters' Union, presided as mas- 
ter of ceremonies. He introduced Mayor F. O. Williams, Avho congratulated the 
organization on its splendid new building, and Oscar Johnson, only surviving 
charter member of the Local which was organized in 1901. A violin solo by Doris 
Christopherson followed. 

Rev. H. B. Ricketts delivered the dedication speech in which he stressed the 
responsibility of the sponsors of the new building in that its objectives and use 
be in keeping with the philosophy which was given to the world by Jesus of 
Nazareth, the greatest Carpenter in history. 

Following a violin number by Roberta Hyde, brief talks were given by Mr. 
Paddock; Joe Dzivi, president of the Central Trades and Labor Council; Mr. 
Haswell, a member of the Railway Conductors' Union, and Mr. Steinmetz. At the 
close of the program moving pictures of the Great Falls three-day Labor day cele- 
bration were enjoj^ed. 

Dancing followed and generous refreshments were served the large crowd in 
the basement dining rooms. 



Gustav Heuser Brotherhood Member for More Than 53 Years 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

In response to the article in the December issue of The Carpenter, which states 
Mr. Frank Coghlan, Sr., of Local Union 808, of New York City, often wonders 
how many of the oldtimers are left in the United Brotherhood with a record 
something like his, I am sending the record of my father, Gustav Heuser, who 
has long been in the labor movement. 

He was born February 14, 1858 in Germany and there was a member of his 
trade union. He came to San Francisco in 1883. There being no Union here on 
March 3, 1885, a small group of German cabinet-makers, including my father, 
organized and obtained charter for Local Union No. 15 of the Amalgamated 
Wood Workers' International Union of America. 



THKCARPKNTER 47 

On May 17, 1904, this Union affiliated itself with Millmen's Union, Local No. 
4 2 2, United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, and this Local in 
turn later was known as Local No. 42, U. B. of C. and J. of A. 

Thus within a few months he too will be 81 years of age and has been a mem- 
ber in good standing and without interruption in his craft union for more than 
53 years. He always reads the official monthly journal immediately upon arrival. 

I have written this letter for him as he writes very little, due to crippled hands. 

It may be of interest to note that my husband, Otto W. Sammet, is also a 
member of Local 42, U. B. of C. and J. of A. 

Edna M. Sammet, San Francisco, Cal. 



Another Enviable Brotherhood Membership 
Record Conies to Light 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

In the December, 19 38, issue of The Carpenter, Brother Frank C&ghlan, Sr., 
a member of L. U. 808, tells of his record, a record he may well be proud of. 
He says he often wonders how many old timers are left in our Brotherhood. We 
are pleased to inform Brother Coghlan that a member of L. U. 72 of Rochester, 
N. Y., Brother Fred Welton, is in our opinion a real oldtimer. Brother Welton 
joined the Brotherhood September 6, 1886. He has, therefore, been a member 
for 52 years. 

Brother Welton held various offices over a period of forty years, was continu- 
ously Treasurer of L. U. 72 for 2 7 years. This office he voluntarily retired from 
seven years ago. At this time the Union presented him with a fine Avatch and a 
testimonial, which are among his proudest possessions. 

Brother Welton maintains a keen interest in Union affairs, and is a diligent 
reader of The Carpenter. The membership of L. U. 72 are proud of Brother 
Welton's record, and we hope we may be privileged to publish in The Carpenter 
the fact that he has reached his 60th year of membership. 

Arthur White, Secretary-Treasurer, 
Rochester District Council. 



Firm Ordered to End Attacks on Carpenters Local 

Following- an investigation of charges of unfair labor practices filed 
against the Vaughan Furnittire Company, Inc., Galax, Va., by the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenter and Joiners of America, Local No, 1063. 1'^^*^ 
National Labor Relations Board ordered the compan}' to stop discourag- 
ing membership in the Carpenters Local and, tipon demand, to bargain 
collectively in good faith vsdth it. 

The Board also ordered the company to reinstate thirteen employes 
and place two others on a preferential rehiring list, and to post the Board's 
order throughout the plant along with statements that the company's su- 
])ervisory employes are not in any Avay to interfere with imion activities 
of employes, under penalty of being reported to the company's president 
and the Board's regional office. 

In addition, the Board req.uired the company to post notices that 
e\ery employe is free to join either the Carpenters Union, the Associa- 
tion of Vaughan Furniture Employes, or any other labor organization; 
that every eligible employe is free to vote in any ^vay he desires in any 
election that may be held ; that the company Avill not interfere with em- 
ploye voting, and that if any labor organization is designated by the 
majority the company will recognize it as the sole representative of all 
production employes. 




Auxiliary 267 of Tacoma, Wash. 

Ladies Auxiliary No. 267 out liere in Tacoma, Wasliington has been yearnin' 
to get in the Yarnin' Basket. We are coming along by leaps and bounds in our 
activities. 

In the fall of 193 8 v/e had a successful card party, a very enjoyable Halloween 
party, and a state Installation party at which one of our members was installed as 
State President; also a joint Christmas party with all members of 470 and fam- 
ilies invited. 

We have a kitchen band as well as our drill team to furnish fun and enter- 
tainment for our parties. Our kitchen band is quite a success and we are often 
Invited out of our organization to entertain others. 

In the summer we have a picnic or two for just our Auxiliary and then 470 has 
a picnic for all members and their families with free ice cream and coffee. 

For money-making projects we have card parties, food sales, food raffles, 
cooking demonstrations and inspection tours. 

There are two delegates from our Auxiliary to the Card and Label League 
who report back to us at each meeting all unfair business places and non-union 
goods. 

Our members are a very congenial and enthusiastic group, but entertainment 
is not our sole aim. Some of the members have taken advantage of the adult 
education classes in public-speaking and they are asked to give talks on different 
subjects of interest. The subjects are: The Enabling Act, Union Conditions here 
and elsewhere, Socialized Medicine and Health Insurance. 

The flower fund is raised by our penny drill. To increase the interest in this 
fund as each member lays down her penny she picks up a number which is a 
chance on a small gift. The one receiving the lucky number brings the gift next 
time. The lucky number is decided by the one who brings the gift. 

In the spring we plan on having an auction of plants donated by the mem- 
bers to swell the flower fund. 

There is a standing committee who looks after the sick and sends flowers and 
cards. 

Our Welfare Committee looks after all Carpenters' families who are having 
a hard time through misfortune or ill health. The committee in charge is ap- 
pointed by our President Lillian Kuesal. 

Most of our activities are for our Auxiliary members and their* husbands. 
Occasionally we give Local 470 a surprise by inviting them all in for refresh- 
ments in hopes that hearing of our good times will cause the other Brothers of 
Local 470 to urge their wives to join us. 

Our entertainments usually end in dancing as most of our members enjoy 
this form of entertainment. 

I could go on and on telling of the wonderful times we have but will save some 
of it for another yarnin'. 

With glad New Year Greetings to all other Auxiliaries. 

Yours sincerely, 

Carrie L. Simons, Recording Secretary. 



THE CARPENTER 49 

Washington Auxiliaries Form State Council 

The Carpenter Auxiliaries of the State of Wasliington met at Mt. Vernon, 
Wash., April 7, 8, 9, 1938 for the purpose of forming a State Council of Ladies 
Auxiliaries to the Carpenters and Joiners of America. Having the approval and 
full cooperation of the State Council of Carpenters the new movement was con- 
sumated successfully. A Constitution and By-Laws were drawn up by the dele- 
gates and the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, Mrs. 
Olga Leek, Tacoma, No. 267; Vice-President, Mrs. Ingrid Emery, Bremerton, 
No. 283; Recording Secretary, Mrs. Mabel Smith, Bellingham, No. 198; Treas- 
urer, Mrs. Lois Hunsaker, Mt. Vernon, 241; Organizer, Mrs. Rosa Writer, Olympia 
149. 

The purpose of the organization is to form closer contacts and promote better 
understanding among members throughout the state and to educate ourselves 
on all questions pertaining to the labor situation so that when the opportunity 
presents itself we will be able to act intelligently. 

We believe that the women will cooperate more completely when they thor- 
oughly understand. In this work they have a mutual bond of interest and under- 
standing which will bring them in closer sympathy Avith the labor movement. 
We have pledged ourselves to: 

Assist the Carpenters in every way we can. 

To work for legislation favorable to working men and women. 

To fight all malicious bills which have a tendency to tear down the ideals 

for which we staind. 
To promote the sale of goods bearing the Union Label. 
To organize as many new Auxiliaries in the State of Washington as is 

possible. 

We believe that this organization merits our best endeavors and is v/orthy of 
our best efforts. 

Our Constitution and program have been accepted by the General Office and 
on September 23, 1938, we received our charter and supplies. 

The Ladies Auxiliaries of Tacoma, Washington feels it a great honor that the 
first State President should be one of its members and showed its appreciation by 
being hostess to the state installation of officers which was held the evening of 
November 19, 1938, at Tacoma. Mr. Philip Writer, the President of the State 
Council of Carpenters acted as Installing Officer. There were about 200 present 
who enjoyed the installation which was followed by entertainment provided by 
the Tacoma Ladies Drill team and a newly organized kitchen band. Decorations 
were in Union colors, blue and gold with red carnations gracing the supper table. 
Dancing followed the program. 

Mrs. Mabel Smith, State Recording Secretary. 
• 

Auxiliary 252, of Milwaukee, Wis., Holds Annual Party 

Auxiliary 252 of Milwaukee, Wis., entertained members of its families at its 
annual Christmas party. Husbands and children each received a gift distributed in 
true Santa Claus fashion. The party was followed by dancing. 

We also had a pillow case card party, each member contributing to the em- 
broidery work, topped by a supper. 

This year we are starting something new for us. The birthdays of each mem- 
ber in the future months will be remembered with cake, coffee and sandwiches to 
which our husbands will be invited. The birthday cake will be supplied by the 
one whose birthday it is and the other sisters will do the serving. 

Mrs. Frieda Mueller, Recording Secretary, 
Local 252, IMilwaukee. 



50 THE CARPENTER 

Auxiliary Adds 12 New Members on First Anniversary- 
Editor, The Carpenter: 

Sincere greetings from Ladies Auxiliary 296, Newark, New Jersey, to all 
sister auxiliaries. 

Organized in 193 7, we celebrated our first anniversary and our installation of 
officers, Saturday night, December 3, 19 3 8, in the main hall of the Labor Lyceum. 

We invited our husbands, Carpenters Local 178 2, and the wives who were 
not members. We had an orchestra and a catered supper which expense the Car- 
penters' Local graciously shared with us. 

The purpose of this event was a membership drive and we succeeded in add- 
ing twelve new members that evening bringing our membership to sixty-two. 

Due to so much unemployment we reduced our membership dues to two dol- 
lars a year instead of three. But we are always planning Bridge and Bingo socials 
as a means of financing funds for our Treasury. We also have a raffle at each 
meeting. 

We meet every second Tuesday at the Labor Lyceum, 190 Belmont Avenue, 
Newark, N. J. 

We aim to make our meetings of great interest, by having either a lecture or 
entertainment of educational value to follow the business meeting. 

Our members are deeply interested in labor unity and world peace and we 
contribute to the best of our ability to these great tasks. 

At all times do we wish to cooperate with our men's Local, coping with each 
situation as it arises. 

Most women represent the purchasing consumers. It is up to us to demand 
union made goods and goods made in America and democratic countries. 

Fraternally yours, 
Selda Dreskin, Recording Secretary, Auxiliary 29 6, Newark, N. J. 



Former School Teacher Aware of Lumbermen's Needs 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

I taught school in upper Michigan thirty-two years ago. I married a lumber- 
man, cooked in camps three years and also was the timekeeper. We came west, 
have lived in nearly all of the mill towns in Oregon so I know something of the 
lumberman's needs and his rights. 

Your Journal is very good, but do the men read it? They should be required 
to. I suggest questionnaires and answers for the Journal. They are interesting 
and educational. You must dignify labor, exhalt it. The laboring man has more 
time to improve himself and not waste his time and money. The farmer has his 
Grange and the Four H club for the youngsters. Why don't our Unions do some- 
thing for the youth of the land? Teach them that crime does not pay and respect 
for the law and help our democracy to survive. Constructive teaching but not 
prohibitive teaching. 

Let us ask in the Yarnin' Basket, What kind of a Husband is the American 
Laboring man in comparison to the Business Man? 

Here are a few pithy sayings of my own: 

Do not hate evil, but love the good. Hate wears you out, but love builds 
you up. 

Death is nothing but the door to the Father's house. 

Children should linger longer in childhood before growing up. Youth must be 
trained for leisure. 

A man's life means, tender 'teens, teachable twenties, tireless thirties, fiery 
forties, forcible fifties, serious sixties, sacred seventies, aching eighties, shorten- 
ing breath, death, the sod. 

Character is a perfectly educated will. Personal liberty is the right to do as 
we ought rather than the right to do as we like. 

Very truly yours, 

Mrs. R. Wickland. 



THE CARPENTER 51 

Auxiliary 303 Donates Proceeds of First Sale to Needy 

The ladies Auxiliary 3 03 of Toronto held their first sale of their handiwork 
iu November. Mrs. Jean Laing, one our hardest workers for the success of our 
organization here in Toronto, Avas in charge of the sale. 

The success of the sale was due to earnest work of the committee and the co- 
operation of the entire membership. The money derived from the sale went 
toward providing food and clothing for unemployed families. It is by lending a 
helping hand to those in time of need that furthers the meaning and respect of 
our trade unionist cause. 

Alice Trenchard, Recording Secretary, 
Auxiliary 303, Toronto. 



Greetings from St. Petersburg, Florida 

Ladies Auxiliary Union 325 helds its first meeting October 19, 19 38 and at 
the beginning of the new year had a paid-up membership of sixteen members. This 
Auxiliary is going places and doing things under the capable leadership of Presi- 
dent Roslyn Bishop. 

Our first opportunity for worthwhile service came during a carpenters' strike 
in this city the latter part of October when the women served lunches to approxi- 
mately 100 on two days. We are extremely grateful for the assistance given us 
by the Tampa Union at that time. 

Each month since our organization a joint social gathering has been held 
with Carpenters' Local 531. In November an old-fashioned box social and square 
dance was enjoyed. At Christmas a fine party was held for the benefit of carpen- 
ters' children and a splendid entertainment given. A chorus of more than forty 
children sang Christmas carols and Santa Claus presided at a beautifully decorat- 
ed tree with presents for everybody. 

Meetings are held twice a month in the Labor Temple. 

Best wishes to all for a successful year. 

Fraternally, 

Vera L. Hays, Recording Secretary, 
Auxiliary Union 32 5. 



Wage Act Not Enough to Protect Child Labor 

The National Child Labor Committee has issued a warning against 
the view held by many people that the child labor section of the Federal 
Wage and Hour Act ends the exploitation of children in industry and 
commerce. 

On this point an article entitled "Wage-fTour Law Not Enough," 
printed in "The American Child," the National Committee's ofhcial ctrgan, 
says : 

The Fair Labor Standards Act, generally known as the Wages and 
Hours Law, is now a reality. Its child labor provisions, under the cap- 
able administration of the Federal Children's Bureau, will soon be in 
force throtighout the country. This by no means warrants the conclusion 
that child labor is ended nor that further Federal regtilation is unneces- 
sary. Only those industries which ship goods across state lines come 
under the child labor ban of the Wages and Hours Act. A vast amount — 
in fact the largest percentage — of child labor is in intrastate occupations, 
\\hich are not reached bv the new IcQ-islation. 



To make knowledge valuable, you must have the cheerfulness of wisdom. 



Craft ProblQm s 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 

LESSON 124 

Corrugated metal has a very practi- 
cal place among the building materials 
our trade depends upon. This material 
is used more extensively in rural dis- 
tricts. It is not only useful as a roof- 
ing material, although that is in real- 
ity what it is, but it is often used to 
cover the sides of buildings and serves 
a useful purpose there. 

Having in mind galvanized metal, it 
is durable and at the same time rather 
inexpensive, especially when one takes 
into consideration that it does not re- 
quire paint. It is fire-proof itself and 
fire-resisting so far as protecting other 
materials is concerned. This fact in- 
creases its demand not only in the 
country where they are almost without 




Fig. 1 

fire-fighting equipments, but in towns 
and cities where the fire codes often re- 
quire fire-proof material. 

As a roofing material, if it is properly 
put on, it does not require as much 
pitch in the roof as shingles, and it 
is seldom damaged by hail. 

Having said these things about cor- 
rugated metal, we have covered all its 
better points. Against it, corrugated 
metal never gives a pleasing appearance. 
It always impresses the observer with 
the idea of cheapness. The best effect 
with it is obtained on plain buildings, 
but even there it robs the architecture 
(if there can be architecture with corru- 
gated metal) of whatever beauty plain- 
ness possesses. In buildings that are cut 
up with windows, doors, dormers and 
so forth, corrugated metal is less and 
less suitable, for the cost of labor and 
material is increased, while the appear- 



ance and usefulness are not improved — 
in many instances it becomes altogether 
impractical. The joints of corrugated 
metal can hardly be made wind-proof, 
and no matter how well the metal is 
nailed, sooner or later it will rattle or 
grate in a wind. It can not be depend- 
ed on for bracing a building, as you 




Fig. 2 

can depend on lumber — the skeleton 
frame must be thoroughly braced, if it 
is to hold its shape — the metal covering 
both on the roof and of the sides of a 
building will not brace the building 
properly. The last disadvantage against 
corrugated metal as a building material, 
is that when it comes to its end, by 
reason of deterioration caused by rust 
and the like, there is little that can be 
done to salvage it. Then there remains 
only the problem of getting rid of it. 

Taking up the illustrations, we are 
showing a sheet of corrugated metal 
6 feet long and 2 6 inches wide in Fig. 
1. On the market it is sold in sheets 2 6 




Fig. 3 

inches wide and 6, 8, 10 and 12 feet 
long. These lengths make possible a 
great deal of variation in the sizes of 
the buildings; for little cutting should 
have to be done, since cutting is rather 
difficult. 



THE CARPENTER 



53 



Figure 2 shows cross sections of two 
joints still unnailed. The upper draw- 
ing shows the right way to make the 
joints, while the bottom one shows the 
wrong way. The right and Avrong ways 




Fig. 4 

of nailing the joints are shown in Fig. 
3. Here the upper drawing shows the 
proper method and the bottom the im- 
proper one. Figure 4 shows to the left, 
upper drawing, the right way to nail 
between joints and to the right the 
Avrong way. The bottom drawing shows 
what happens when the nailing is care- 
lessly done. 

Figure 5 shows a good comb con- 
struction, both for the metal itself and 
for the support and nailing provisions. 
Instead of using two nailing strips at 
the comb, one on either side, we are 
showing how a single nailing strip can 
be used so it will give all the service 
required. Figure 6 shows a good method 




k 



of eaves construction. Here we are show- 
ing the plate, the foot of the rafter and 
the bottom nailing strip in addition to 
the metal construction. To obtain the 
best results, nailing strips should not 
be smaller than 2x4"s, spaced 3 or 4 
feet on centers, Avhich is also a good 
rule to follow for the rafter spacing. 
These things, of course, must be gov- 
erned, to a great extent, by the condi- 



tions under which the workman finds 
himself. The size of the roof and 
whether or not the roof must support 
other weight besides the roofing, must 
be considered. 

Figure 7 shows, perhaps, the best 
lake construction for corrugated metal 
where the sides of the building as well 
as the roof are covered with this mate- 
rial. This construction does not leave 
any wood exposed, and for most pur-. 
poses will give the required service. If, 
however, a more conventional rake con- 




Fig. 6 



struction is desired, it can be used with, 
corrugated metal, just as it is with 
other roofing. 

Figure S shows another method of 
framing the skeleton roof for corrugat- 
ed metal. The upper drawing is a section 
showing the ends of two rafters with 
headers for supporting the roofing be- 
tween the rafters. The rafters are 




spaced 2 feet on center. The bottom 
drawing shows, from left to right, the 
eaves construction, the comb construe- 



54 



THE CARPENTER 



tion and the relative position of the 
header to the rafter. 

A word more should be said about 
nailing. A good rule is to nail every 
third ridge to every bearing or nailing 
strip. If, though, the nailing strips are 
rather closely spaced or the building is 
to serve for only a short time, then the 
workman should use his judgment in 
the matter of nailing. Where it is 
known that a building is to be disman- 
tled in a short time, the fewer , nails 
used the better. In most such cases, a 
nail for each joint at every bearing is 
sufficient, which Avill increase the sal- 
vage value of the roofing. 

As to cutting corrugated metal, tin 
snips is the legitimate tool, especially 




for making cross or angle cuts. For 
cuts parallel with the ridges and val- 
leys, some workmen use a straight-edge 
and with the corner of a sharp chisel 
partially cut the metal from end to end 
in a valley. This done, the metal is 
bent back and forth until it breaks. 

Flashing, where a roof joins the side 
of- a building covered with corrugated 
metal, is difficult. The best method is 
to use tin flashing and fit it as closely 
as possible and then seal it with fibered 
roofing cement against the side of the 
building. The edge of the flashing that 
comes onto the roof should not be 
sealed, for the expansion and contrac- 
tion of the metal, in time would break 
loose the cement from the side of the 
building and cause leaks. 



Builder's Mathematics 

By L. Perth 
1. ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY 

In going over our files containing in- 
quiries from readers it was found that 
the subject of "Mathematics" is one of 
those heading the list. 

It is gratifying to know that the im- 
portance of the knowledge of mathe- 



matics as applied to the trade is real- 
ized and this in face of a popular notion 
that building mechanics have no use 
for this branch of knowledge. 

Those who are in the habit of doing 
analytical thinking may quickly detect 
the fallacy of such conclusions. For 
what is ordinary "roof framing" if not 
carpenter's trigonometry? Is it not the 
solution of right angled triangles? And 
how is the carpenter going to determine 
the amount of building materials need- 
ed for a certain job if he has no work- 
ing knowledge of the rules of elemen- 
tary mathematics? How can one intelli- 
gently and proficiently prepare an esti- 
mate of a construction job if he is not 
well versed in the operation of frac- 
tions, decimals, proportions, percentage, 
etc. 

Carpenters need no higher mathe- 
matics but they certainly cannot do 
without what is known as "Builder's 
mathematics." 

To supply this need we will endeavor 
to prepare various articles touching the 
subject in its most needed aspects. 
These will not contain anything the 
builder does not need and they will 
furnish everything one cannot do with- 
out. 

Following the established policy of 
the Journal the material which is to 
appear in its columns will be in plain 
language, void of all complicated tech- 
nical terms. 

The present paper as the title implies 
deals with elementary geometrical defi- 
nitions. 

We earnestly urge those who have 
any difficulty grasping the meaning of 
any part of this article to communicate 
with the writer and it will be explained, 
demonstrated or otherwise elucidated. 

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY 

Geometry is that branch of mathe- 
matics which deals with lines, angles, 
surfaces, and solids. It describes the 
definite figures upon which all objects, 
however complex, are based, and the 
principles and methods by which these 
figures may be measured and graphical- 
ly constructed. Geometry is thus funda- 
mental in all engineering drawing and 
constructive arts. 

1 GENERAL DEFINITIONS. 

Solids — A physical solid or material 
object occupies a certain portion of 



THE CARPENTER 



55 



space and has shape, size, weight, color, 
etc. Geometry is concerned simply with 
the shape and size of the space which a 
physical solid occupies or is conceived 
to occupy; hence — a geometric solid is 
a limited portion of space. 



two dimensions; length and breadth or 
width. 

Lines — The boundaries of a surface 
are called lines. A line has only one 
dimension: length. 

Points — The limits or ends of a line 







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A solid has dimensions or extent in 
three principal directions at right an- 
gles to each other, namely: length, 
breadth or width, thickness or height, 
altitude and depth. 

Surfaces — The boundaries of a solid 
are called surfaces. A surface has only 




T/7/¥C£/^rs. 



are called points. A point has position 
but no dimension. 

Points, lines, and surfaces may be 
considered as apart from a solid, or as 
combined in any conceivable Hgure; 
also a line may be imagined as geuei'- 
ated by a point, a surface line, and a 
solid by a surface in motion. 



56 



THE CARPENTER 



Figures — Similar iigures are those 
having the same shape; equivalent fig- 
ures, those having the same size, and 
equal or congruent figures, those hav- 
ing the same shape and size. 

Plane — -A figure that lies wholly in 
one plane is a plane figure. A figure 
whose lines are straight is rectilinear; 
one whose lines are cui'ved is curvi- 
linear. 

Axis— The axis of a figure is a 
straight line Avhich passes through its 
center and about which it is symmetri- 
cal or balanced. 

An axis of revolution is a straight 
line about which a figure is revolved. 

Intersection — When two lines, two 
surfaces, or a line and a surface meet or 
cross they are said to intersect or cut 
each other and the point or line in 
which they intersect is. their intersec- 
tion. 

Bisector — a bisector is a point, line, 
or plane which divides a figure into 
two equal parts, that Is, bisects it. To 
trisect is to divide into three equal 
parts; to quadrisect, into four equal 
parts. 

3. LINES. 

Straight Line — A straight line or 
right line has the same direction 
throughout. It is a path developed by 
a point moving in one direction and is 
the shortest distance between two, 
points. Fig. 1. 

Curved Line — A curved line or curve 
is one no part of which is straight. Fig. 
2. A reversed curve is one whose di- 
rection of curvature changes. Fig. 2. 

Horizontal Line — A horizontal line is 
one that is level throughout. Fig. 1. 

Vertical Line — A vertical line is one 
that is upright or plumb. Fig. 1. 

Oblique Line — An oblique line is one 
that slants. A line not vertical. Fig. 1. 

Broken Line — A broken line is one 
composed of straight lines running in 
various directions and consequently in- 
tersecting. Fig. 4k. 

Irregular Line — An irregular line is 
a path generated by a point moving in 
a changing and nonuniform direction. 
Fig. 4j. 

Parallel Lines — Two lines having the 
same relative direction are parallel to 
each other. Their relative points are 
equidistant or equally distant from each 



other. Parallel lines never meet and 
consequently never intersect. Fig. 3. 

Two straight lines which extend 
from the same point or which would in- 
tersect when extended are said to be at 
an agle with each other. Fig. 5. 

Tangents — Two curves, or a straight 
line and a curve, are tangent to each 
other when they touch in but one point 
and cannot intersect. The point is the 
point of tangency. Fig. 6. 



Early American 
Blanket Chest 

By Charles A. King 

I have yet to see the first woman 
who does not look with covetous eyes 
upon such chests as I will discuss here- 
in. In fact I shall always believe that 
two young men who each made a simi- 
lar chest in an adult evening class the 
writer taught, found in them just the 
needed additional ounce of persuasion 
required to bring an affirmative ansv/er 
from the young women they brought 
into class one evening, for the weddings 
came a little later. While the original 
chest of this article was made of pine 
and dated 16 65, the chest from which 
the photo was taken was made of 
maple, but there is no reason why the 
craftsman may not make one of any 
wood he prefers. 

Unless otherwise noted all boards will 
be %" thick; the ends will be 17" x 
30,%", the bottom end of each being 
shaped as indicated. Groove % " x % " 
for shelves as dimensions require. Stop 
the front of the bottom groove % " 
from the front edge which will later be 
part of a dovetail. Rabbet the back in- 
side corners A V4" x %" from the top 
to the bottom of the bottom groove and 
miter the front corner to the drawer 
opening D as at B. Make the middle 
shelf 16%" X 43", verify all dimensions 
as the work progresses. Get out the 
bottom shelf 16%" x 43%" which will 
allow the front edge to be dovetailed as 
at C; this will allow for the dovetail at 
each end which will come 3/16" from 
the outside of the end of the case when 
assembled, allowing the back of the 
shelf to be 43" long from the dovetail 
back. 

If desired a pine bottom may be used 
and the front edge faced with a piece of 
face wood % " x % " x 43 % ", dovetailed 



THE CARPENTER 



57 



and glued in place. The front should 
be 16" X 44" with a %" x %" rabbet 
as at D. Square carefully and miter the 
ends as at B and fit. Get out a %" 
plywood back 25%" x 43" and square 
it. 

Make a template or pattern of veneer 
13/16" wide and 15^/4" long. Begin 
1/4 " from the bottom or rabbet end V2 " 
from the top end; make marks about 
1 14 " apart which will locate the cen- 



six handscrews at each joint. When 
hard, fit dowels in the holes, the shelves 
in their grooves and try together dry 
if there is any doubt that they will 
come together easily. Assemble perma- 
nently with slow drying casein glue. 
Fasten the back in place Avith brads and 
that with the selves and the front will 
square the chest and hold it there. 
When glue is set remove and smooth 
the mitered joints. 




ters of the dowels; place the other, or 
the outside edge of the template to the 
outside of the mitered edge, the rabbet 
end resting at the rabbet; with a 
scratch awl mark the center of each 
dowel; do this accurately to each mi- 
tered face of each joint and bore \i " 
holes as deep as possible so they do not 
come through the face. Smooth all ex- 
posed surfaces. 

Miter twenty-four % " triangular 
pieces XV-i" long of pine as at Bl, and 
rub glue six on each side of the joint 
opposite each other to provide grips for 



Make the top of two or three pieces 
of quarter sawed stock to resist tend- 
ency to warp and shrink, IS" x 46"; 
shape ends and front edge as in detail. 
Get out pieces for E U" x 1" and V2," 
X 1" and each 42 U" long; fit, glue and 
brad as at E to resist vermin and to 
strengthen the top edge of the back to 
hold hinges. Make rabbet strip % " x 
%" X 8 4"; rabbet to leave 3/ 16 "•on 
each side and fit ^2" x %" quarter 
round. Hang the top with three 2" 
back flap hinges of suitable width, turn 
the chest bottom up and miter rabbeted 



58 



THE CARPENTER 



pieces around the cliest with a piece of 
stout pasteboard laid between eacli and 
the front ends of tlie chest to allow for 
clearance. Glue and brad the front; 
glue and brad to the cover the front 6" 
of the end rabbeted pieces to hold per- 
manently, and fasten them back of that 
to the cover with screws to allow for 
shrinkage of the latter. Fit and fasten 
quarter rounds with glue and brads. 



the grove. Rabbet the plywood bottom 
on 1/4 " to fit the groove as indicated. 
Fit sides closely to the opening, the 
front also but allow a little play on the 
latter in preparation for dovetailing. 
Make the front ends of the sides to co- 
incide with the front of the chest to 
insure that the inside of the lip fits. 
Dovetail the drawers and fit them 
closely for the close fitting drawer is 



^6"- 




1t 



RABBET l/4-'"X3/a" ^' A 

MITERED BLOCKS ) 

FOR HAND SCREWS 



1^^-,' DETAIL OF EAKLY AMERICAN 
T >4=C KNOBS BLANKET CHEST 



Make the drawer front of % " stock, 
thicker if possible but STRAIGHT, 9 % " 
X 43". Any difference in thickness up 
to %", add to the front to make the 
lip thicker, not to the depth of the 
dovetails. The drawer sides and back 
are all % " thick for this is a large 
drawer. Two sides 9" x 15%", one 
back SVs" X 421/2" one %" x 15%" 
plyWood bottom; verify. Make a % " 
X 14 " groove in the front and two sides 
% " from its top to the bottom of the 
front and sides, or % " between the 
bottom edge of each and the bottom of 



the drawer that runs easily. Turn the 
two knobs of curly or burl grain for 
they will be finer than plain grain. 

Finish the chest either in the wood 
or stained, with oil and turpentine and 
a little japan. If a warmer tone is de- 
sired in maple, add a little dry burnt 
umber. If preferred, stain and give 
three or four light coats of shellac, 
rubbing each coat with 6/0 sandpaper 
and the last coat with pumice stone and 
oil, finishing with rotten stone. If a 
soft veh^ety sheen is desired, polish 
with wax. 



THE CARPENTER 



59 



Sinking Foundations 

Few homes in these days, whether in 
the country or in the city, are without 
a private garage. These garages have 
in many instances not only light super- 
structures, but also light foundations. 
Frequently (altogether too frequently) 
it develops that the foundation of such 
garages sink, which throws the doors 
cut of adjustment. This is always bad, 
but if the doors are swung on hinges 




Fig. 1 

the results are somewhat on the order 
shown by Fig. 1, where we are showing 
a front view of the doors with the foun- 
dation exposed. 

Figure 2 shows the same lay-out 
after the foundation has been leveled 
and supported with concrete piling. The 
piles were put into place by boring 
holes with a post-auger to the proper 
depth, and filling them with concrete 
reinforced with rods. The piles are 
shown in an angular position, because 
it is more convenient to bore the holes 




Enough earth is taken from under the 
foundation to form a shoulder at each 
of the piles, which supports the load. 

We are showing only two piles, as- 
suming the foundation is reinforced and 
self-supporting at the center. In case 
!he foundation is not self-supporting at 
the center, it should have a pile placed 
there. In other words, as many piles 
as the case might require should be put 
in. The purpose of the piling, is to get 
below the influence of frost and dry or 
wet weather. — H. H. Siegele. 



that way. (If it is desired to have the 
piles perpendicular, that can be done 
by boring the holes perpendicular.) 



Diagram of Building Terms 

ANSWERS 

A complete diagram of terms used in 
building construction was published in 
a recent issue. The purpose of the dia- 
gram was to test one's familiarity with 
the most commonly used terms. 

It was suggested that the student 
write out the answers to the respective 
numbers indicating the various pai'ts of 
a building. 

The correct answers follow: 

1. Footings, 

2. Basement floor, 

3. Foundation wall, 

4. Buttress, 

5. Steps, 

6. Platform, 

7. Porch column, 

8. Porch cornice, 

9. French doors, 

10. Frame wall, 

11. Eaves cornice, 

12. Gable end, 

13. Rake cornice, 

14. Finial, 

15. Valley, 

16. Chimney flashing, 

17. Shingle lath. 

18. Ridge Board, 

19. Common rafter, 

20. Hip rafter, 

21. Purlin, 

22. Collar beam, 

23. Jack rafter, 

24. Chimney cap, 

25. Chimney, 

26. Corner post, 

27. Plate, 

28. Diagonal sheathing, 

29. Sheathing paper, 

30. Shingle, 

31. Balcony, 

32. Veranda, 



60 



THE CARPENTER 



33. 


Piers, 




34. 


Water table, 




35. 


Underpinning, 




36. 


Cleanout door, 




37. 


Sub-floor, 




38. 


First floor beams, 




39. 


Finisli floor. 




40. 


Column base, 




41. 


Plaster partition. 




42. 


Column cap, 




43. 


Iron column. 




44. 


Girder, 




45. 


Window sill. 




46. 


Pilaster, 




47. 


Ground course, 




48. 


Brick wall. 




49. 


Sliding door, 




50. 


Wainscoting, 




51. 


Stair soffit, 




52. 


Metal lath, 




53. 


Platform, 




54. 


Newel post,- 




55. 


Hearth, 




56. 


Fireplace, 




57. 


Casement window. 




58. 


Rough head, 




59. 


Bridging. 




60. 


Rough sill. 




61. 


Truss over opening. 




62. 


Ceiling beams. 




63. 


Studding, 




64. 


Second floor beams. 




65. 


Ribbon, 




66. 


Gutter, 




67. 


Balustrade, 




68. 


Leader head. 




69. 


Dormer window, 




70. 


Handrail. 


— L. Perth 



flooring can be joined. The arrows show 
how the pieces of old flooring are taken 
out. This is further illustrated by Fig. 



Joining Finish Flooring 

There are many instances Avhere 
joining finish flooring becomes neces- 
sary. This is especially true in remod- 
eling. When a new floor is joined to 
the edge of the old, the process is sim- 
ple, but when the joint must be made 
on the ends of the old flooring, then we 
have a problem requiring skill. 

Figure 1 shows a part of an old floor 
that must be extended over a new part. 
How to make the joint so it will not be 
noticeable after the floor is finished is 
illustrated by Fig. 2. Here we are show- 
ing shaded. Marked A, a section of the 
new flooring joined to the old. At B 
we are showing the old flooring pre- 
pared to receive the new, and at C we 
have shaded the pieces of old flooring 
that must be removed before the new 




Fig. 1 

3. To the left of this figure we are 
showing a section of an end joint with 
the chisel (shown in part) ready to be 
inserted to open the joint enough so 




Fig. 2 

that the point of a bar can be used to 
drive the board out. The point of the 
bar in position is shown to the right. 




Fig. 3 

The arrow shows where to strike the 
bar with a heavy hammer to get the 
best results. — H. H. Siegele. 



THE CARPENTER 



61 



From St. Paul Again 

The third problem the brother from 
St. Paul is interested in, deals with cir- 
cular stairs for frame buildings. 

So far as the finished stair is con- 
cerned, we recommend that it be turned 
over to the mills; for they are prepared 
to do such work much better and with 




Fig. 1 

less expense than it can be done on the 
job. However, the rough work must be 
done by the field carpenter, and that is 
the part we are going to take up here. 

Figure 1 is a floor plan of a circular 
stair, showing the direction and line of 
traffic by the arrow. To build the rough 
work for this stair it will be necessary 
to build two circular horses. (If the 
stair is a wide one, three horses should 
be provided. ) These we are showing at 
A and at B, Fig. 2, where, for the sake 
of clearances, they are shown as if they 




Fig. 2 

were placed in a straight line. The in- 
side supports are made of 2x4 's set in 
a circle and in an upright position and 
notched at the upper end to receive a 
2x2 tie which forms the step, as we 
are showing by the drawing. The out- 
side supports are 2x6 's set in a circle 



and in an upright position with notches 
at the top for the 2x2 ties, which form 
the steps. To the right of Fig. 2 is 
shown a story pole on which are 
marked the elevations of the rough 
steps. 

The brother from St. Paul has done 
what many other readers have done; 
namely, when they found that their 
problems Avere not covered in the Craft 
Problem Department of our journal, 
they proceeded to present their prob- 
lems for treatment. That is as it should 
be, for it is impossible to deal with all 
the problems that need attention, just 
when they need it, without being in- 
Tormed; and even if informed, they 
must wait their turns for publication. 
— H. H. Siegele. 



Company Announces New 
Portable Handsaws 

The Mall Tool Company, 7740 South 
Chicago Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, an- 
nounces two new portable electric hand- 
saws; one known as the Model IB with 
a cutting capacity of 2%" and the 
other, the Model 2AA with a cutting 
capacity of 3 % " on straight cuts. 

Both saws incorporate a number of 
improvements and refinements over pre- 
vious models. Each has a heat treated 
aluminum tilting base for bevel cuts up 
to 45 degree angles, new improved, 
more powerful motors, and the MALL 
patented approved safety guard. Other 
features include extra large gears and 
pinions for long life, strong castings 
that will stand abuse and hard usage, 
castings of special analysis aluminum 
alloy for light-weight, and a special 
blower that clears the cutting line and 
keeps sawdust from getting into the 
operator's eyes. 



BIG LUMBER PRODUCTIOX 

Approximately 24,500,000,000 feet of 
lumber was produced in America in 
193 7, according to the Department of 
Commerce. In a single piece of wood 
of standard thickness this output would 
extend 1S6 times around the world. 



Make a tour of the shops that dis- 
play the Union Label, Shop Card and 
Button. Don't detour! 



Keep Your Dues I'aid Up 



The Federal Postoffice Department now requires 
extra postal charges when they notify International 
Headquarters of any change in address of members 
on The Carpenter mailing list. 

These changes are literally coming in by the hun- 
dreds and the expense is a considerable item. This 
expense can be avoided if all members use the form 
below, to notify us of change of address. Just fill out 
the form and drop it in the mail addressed to Editor, 
The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 
Ind. 

This is an important matter and it is requested 
that all members notify International Headquarters 
of change of address IMMEDIATELY. 



(Date) 19- 

Editor, The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Please change niy address on Journal file. 

From . Street 

City State 

To Street 

City State 

Name in full 

L. U. No , City State 



It is suggested that you cut out blank if you have changed your 
address and paste it on a one cent postcard to save postage. 

Members are not entitled to the Journal if they or their Local 
are in arrears. Honorary members required to pay one dollar yearly 
subscription rate. 



PRICE LIST 



OF 



SUPPLIES 



One Charter and Outfit $15.00 

Application Blanks, per pad 50 

Application Blanks, Ladies' Aux- 
iliary, per 50 50 

Constitutions, each 10 

Constitutions, Ladies' Auxiliar}-.. .03 

Due Books, each 25 

Troas. Cash Books, each 50 

F. S. Receipt Books, each 50 

Trcas. Receipt Books, each 50 

R. S. Order Books, each 50 

OflScial Note Paper, per 100 50 

Ritual and Constitution, bound 

together 50 

Rituals, Ladies' Auxiliarj', each . . .O.j 

Minute Books, 100 pages 1.50 

Minute Books, 200 pages 2.25 

Day Bonks (padded) 50 original 

and 50 duplicate sheets 1.00 

Day Books (padded) 100 original 

and 100 duplicate sheets 1.75 

Ledgers, 100 pages 2.00 

Ledgers, 200 pages 3.00 

Ledgers, 300 pages 3.75 

liCdgers, 400 pages 4.50 

Ledgers, 500 pages 5.00 

Gavels 1.25 

Receipting Dater for F. S 1.75 

Small Round Pencils 03 

Card Cases 10 

■^'Ithdrawal Cards, issued by Gen- 
eral Oflice only, each (always 

send name) 50 

Rubber Seal 1.75 

Belt Loop Chain 75 

Watch Fobs 50 

Key Tags 15 

Rubber Label Stamps 1.00 

Match Box Holders 15 

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Blanks for F. S. Reports for Treas- 
urer's Rcniittauces and for Do- 
nation Claims Free 

Emblem Buttons 1.00 

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Uolled Gold Watch Charms 1.50 

Solid Gold Watch Charms 7.50 

Solid Gold Rings 5.00 

TRICES OX SPECIAL LEATHER 
BOrXI) LEDGERS, WORKING CARDS, 
POSTCARD NOTICES, ARREARS NO- 
TICES. OFFICER'S CARDS, STATION- 
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Note — tlio above articles will be supplied only 
when the requisite amount of cash accompanies 
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prepaid or Express charges paid in advance. 




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— to be a — 

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FREE! 88 PAGE INTERIOR FINISH 1 

SHOWS YOU HOW TO MAKE MORE PROFITS WITH 




REG. U. S. PAT. OFF. 

INTERIOR FINISH PRODUCTS 

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THE CELOTEX 



- S19 N. MICHIGAN Ave. 

Copyright 1939. The Celotex Corporation 



0HICA60 




Powerful Handsaws That 
Wiii Speed Up Your Work! 

There is a MALL Handsaw for every job — 
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drills. 

MALL Tool" c o wTpa n y 

7751 South Chicago Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Please send additional information to 

NAME 

STREET 

CITY STATE 



AUHEt-S Carpentei's 
and Builders Guides 
!4vois.^6 




Insids Trada Information 

for Carpenters," Builders, Join- 
ers, Buildins Mechanica and 
all WoodworkcrB. Thcao 



oluti 



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.An 



easy progressive course for tho 
apprentice and student. A 
practical daily helper and 
Quick Reference for the master 
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ter Pay, 



■ Guides 
to Eat-ior 
and Bet- 



Knside Trade Information Ons 



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PON below, 
How to use the eteel square — How to file and set 
saws — How to build furniture — How to use a 
mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How to use 
rules and scales — How to make joints — Carpenters 
arithmetic — Solving mensuration problems — Es- 
tiniatins strength of timbers — How to set girders 
and sills — IIow to frame houses and roofs — How to 
estimate costs — How to build houses, bams, ga- 
rases, bungalows, etc. — How to read and draw 
plans — Drawing up specifications — How to ex- 
cavate — How to use settings 12, 13 and 17 on the 
etcel square — How to build hoists and scaffolds — 
skylighis — How to build stairs — How to put oa 
interior trim — How to hang doors — How to lath- 
lay floors — How to paint. 

THEO. AUDEL & CO., 49 W. 23rd St., New York City 

Mai! Audels Carpenterfl and Builders Guides, 4 vols., 
I will remitjl in 7 days, and $1 monthly untU $0 ia paid. 
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Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24, 1912 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for In Section 1103, act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8. 1918 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Sawmill and Timber Workers, Furniture Workers, Stair 

Builders, Machine Wood Workers. Planing Mill Men, Millwrights, Shipwrights and 

Boat Builders, Piledrivers and Kindred Industries. Owned and Published by 

the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, at 
Carpenters' Bnilding, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 
Advertising Department, Rm. 250, Bible Honse, New York, N. Y. «i^^51 



Established In 1881 
Vol. LIX.— No. 3 



IXDIANAPOLIS, MARCH, 1939 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter"' reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, in their Judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated as 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 



-ff?g 










Labor Has A Plan— Will Congress Listen? 



At the end of 1938, there were still 10,380,000 out of 
work in the United States. This is 3,000,000 more than 
in September, 1937. Although 1,200,000 have gone back 
to work since last May, there are 500,000 more job seek- 
ers than in December, 1937, due to our increasing popu- 
lation. 

Federal spending has failed to solve this grave prob- 
lem. A National Planning Board of representatives 
from business, labor, agriculture, consumers, govern- 
ment and expert economists has been proposed by the 
American Federation of Labor. 

All present governmental experiments have failed 
miserably. Will Congress listen to the voice of Labor 
for a change? 






2 THE CARPENTER 

What's Ahead for 1939 and 1940? 

BUSINESS has started the year 1939 at a substantially higher level 
than that of a year ago. Steel ingot production in the week of 
January 21 was 713,000 tons, which compares with 485,000 tons in 
the corresponding week of 1938. This is a sign of new life in many 
basic industries: Builders are ordering steel for a volume of heavy build- 
ing contracts 88 per cent above last year (first three weeks) ; railroad 
steel orders are expected to be 50 per cent above last year because rising 
freight haulings have made the need for new rails, cars, locomotives im- 
perative ; orders for machine tools in December were more than double 
the Ma}^ 1938 low figure, orders for electrical ecjuipment, farm tools and 
other machinery have increased substantially and are still increasing. 
Automobile plants turned out 90,000 cars this j'^ear compared to 65,000 
last year in the week of January 21. This increase means that there is 
more activity in the industries manufacturing parts, paint, glass, tires, 
upholstery materials, batteries and accessories, and there will be more 
work for gasoline stations. Automobile manufacturers are keeping their 
production closely geared to sales, and sales have been well above last 
year. Business activity as a whole is 11 per cent above last year, accord- 
ing to the New York Times index, which stood at 91, in the week of 
January 14, compared to 82 in the same week last year. 

The rapid business rise which began last June tapered off in mid- 
November to a temporary lull which observers believe is normal after so 
swift an upswing. War scares had a dampening effect in January, but 
observers point out the underlying soundness of the business structure 
and the stimulating forces now present, believing that the spring will 
bring a new upsurge of recovery. Inventories have been sold off, workers' 
buying power is rising, there is no inflation of credit, and prices have 
held almost without change since mid-November. Government spending 
has been running at very high rates and will continue in the first half of 
1939. In addition to railroad building, utilities must now plan new con- 
struction to meet record demands for power; residential as well as heavy 
construction is increasing, contracts for the four weeks ending January 
7 being more than double last year's. Observers seem unanimous in the 
belief that, barring war, recovery will soon be resumed. The outlook for 
1939 is distinctly encouraging. A more constructive labor policy is de- 
veloping, typified by Roger Babson's advice to his clients that "regular 
conferences with labor's representatives may avoid serious trouble." 

A'VAGES: Of the wage increases which, due to union activity, lifted 
the general hourly wage from 54:^ cents in 1936 to 6^^ cents at the end of 
1937, very little was lost in the recession of 1938. There were some wage 
cuts, but no general move of wage cutting. By October 1938 the wage 
tide had turned upward again and the average was 63 cents for industry 
as a whole. Thus, of the 7-cent gain only 2 cents were lost, and losses are 
already being recovered. In manufacturing, wage gains in 1937 were 
greater than in industry generally, rising 9 cents, from 57^ (1936) to 
66i (end 1937) ; and in 1938 losses in the first three quarters were partially 
restored in October and November so that the manufacturing wage level 
is now 64^ cents (November), showing a net loss of only 2 cents also. 
By November wage cuts in factories were being replaced by wage in-, 
creases and 90 plants reported wage increases to the Labor Department, 
while only 23 reported wage cuts. This compares strikingly with the 
worst 1938 month, when 233 wage cuts were reported and only 36 in- 



THE CARPENTER 3 

creases (May). In building, union scales averaged $1.36 per hour in 
1938 compared to $1.26 in 1937. Thus it is clear that labor, through its 
trade unions, has been able to keep wages well intact through the I93(S 
recession. Because of this achievement. bu)nng power will expand rapid- 
ly with reemployment and lift production to higher levels than would 
otherwise be possible. 

BUYING POWER: Trade unions have done important service to 
^Vmerican industry. Maintenance of buying power was one of the chief 
reasons why the recovery of 1938 was the swiftest in our history. At a 
time when general wage cutting was imminent, trade union resistance 
checked this destructive force. This point comes out clearly when we 
compare the peak business months of April and May 1937 with the same 
months a year later, when the recession had its bottom. While buying 
power of non-farm labor declined only 6 per cent, production of consum- 
ers' goods fell 19 per cent and production of producers' goods 33 per 
cent. Buying kept on while production was cut, and the large inventories 
of goods which had choked the market were sold off. In December 
1937, inventories in the hands of wholesalers were 6 per cent above 1936, 
and sales were doAvn 12.5 per cent; today (December 1938) inventories are 
14 per cent below last year and sales are up 1,5 per cent. This healthy 
situation is one of the reasons for the brighter 1939 o^itlook. Orders are 
coming straight through to manufacturers with ever}^ increase in em- 
plo}-ment and workers' buying. ^^'PA has also been responsible for main- 
taining bu3"ing power b}' giving jobs to those laid off by industry and 
adding $500,000,000 to workers' income in the last half of 1938. 

What reductions occurred in buying power in 1938 were due chiefly 
to unemplo3"ment. By the 3'ear end unemployment was still above last 
December by 2,000,000; neverthless, the total buying power of non-farm 
workers, including ^VPA and relief payments, was slightly above De- 
cember 1937, totaling $3,790,000,000 for the 1938 month compared to $3,- 
736,000,000 last 3^ear. 

COST OF LIVING: At the end of 1938 cost of living was somewhat 
lower than a 3'ear ago. The index of the National Industrial Conference 
Board for December Avas 85.8, 3 per cent below that of December 1937, 
Avhich was 88.6. But the cost of living increased two-tenths of i per cent 
in December over November, due to higher food costs. While large in- 
creases in living costs are not anticipated in the near future, Labor should 
watch this important point. At the present price levels it takes a wage of 
75 cents per hour with emplo3'ment of 40 hours a week for 50 weeks a 
3'ear to give a worker's family of live a bare subsistence level of living; 
such a living level affords no provision for emergencies or illness, or 
higher education for the children. It cannot be considered an American 
standard. A wage of $r.oo per hour, with emplovment as above, will pro- 
vide a minimum health and efficiency level of living, or a minimum 
.American standard. Budgets for skilled workers are much above this 
1 c \- e 1 . 

PRODUCTIVITY AND LABOR COSTS: It is not high wages, but 
high labor costs that run up the emplover's expenses. Labor costs are 
often low when wages are high; and labor costs are bound to decline as 
production rises. The National Industrial Conference Board gives the 
following figures, to show changes in wages, productivit3' and labor costs 
from 1929 to October 1938: In these nine vears, output per man-hour in 
American factories increased 22 per cent; hourl3'- wage rales rose 16 per 



4 THECARPENTER 

cent, but labor cost today is 5 per cent below 1929; and the average work- 
week is 23 per cent shorter than in 1929. We are entering- the year 1939 
with higher wages and lower labor costs than in predepression days. As 
production increases, labor costs will decline further. 

UNEMPLOYMENT: At the end of 1938 (December) there were still 
10,380,000 out of work in the United States. This is nearly 3,000,000 more 
than in September 1937, when unemployment reached its recovery low 
point. Although 1,200,000 have gone back to work since last May, when 
the recession was at its worst, there are 500,000 more work seekers than 
there were in December 1937, due to our increasing population. Labor- 
saving machinery has probably eliminated about 2,000,000 jobs in the last 
9 years, in spite of the general reduction of work-hours to 40 or 44 per 
week. In these years, 5,000,000 have been added to our working popula- 
tion, so that we must find jobs for 7,000,000 more persons than in 1929, 
even after recovei-y has put the depression-unemployed back to work. 
Louis H. Bean of the United States Department of Agriculture, esti- 
mates that by 1940, even if recovery reaches normal proportions and in- 
dustrial production is 9 per cent above the 1929 level, there will still be 
6,000,000 unemployed. To find work for these unemployed in private in- 
dustry is America's major task today. There is nothing as yet in the 
industrial outlook which would reduce 1939 average unemployment below 
the 9,000,000 mark. 

PROFITS: With the improvement in business activity in the third 
quarter of 1938, profits turned upward, but from a low level. Standard 
Statistics index for 158 companies, which had been 84.5 in December 1937, 
fell to 36.5 in the first and 35.4 in the second 1938 quarter, and rose in the 
third quarter to 40.4. It is too early for fourth quarter reports. With the 
improved 1939 outlook and higher business activity, profits should be 
considerably above last year's low level. 

OUTLOOK FOR 1940: There is no prospect of a return to 1929 levels 
of production and employment in 1939. Unless the American nation can 
devise some means of National Planning, labor will be permitted full 
employment to create full production only for short periods of prosper- 
ity; the years between will be times of widespread unemployment and 
low production, with miserable living standards and actual hunger for 
millions. 

A very real danger lies ahead for 1940. The Federal government, with 
all its spending for recovery, has not succeeded in getting private in- 
dustry to put men to work and produce goods to capacity. By 1940 the 
present wave of government spending will have largely exhausted its 
stimulating effect on business, and unless plans are devised to set private 
industry to work producing goods and raising living standards, we shall 
either face another depression or a greater armament program to put men 
to work. Excessive armaments lower living standards and increase danger 
of war. Also, government cannot forever go on piling deficit on deficit. 

In this critical outlook, which literally may be a matter of life or 
death to all of us, the first step is to establish a National Planning Board 
of representatives from business, labor; agriculture, consumers, govern- 
ment with provisions for experts to assist them and a mandate to stimu- 
late the production of goods by private industry. 

— ■_ o 

Demand the Union Label 



THECARPENTEK 5 

Lewis Sabotaging Labor, Martin Declares 

LABOR has been watching with interest the interfactional strife with- 
in the CIO's Automobile Workers Union. 
As sideline observers watch this strugg-le between those sup- 
porting- Homer r\Iartin, former executive member of the CIO and 
the group representing John L. Lewis, they are again brought sharply 
up with the fact that Lewis and his lieutenants are intent on a labor policy 
of rule or ruin. 

Such a statement Homer Martin makes in his letter of resignation to 
Lewis. This knowledge of Lewis' present policy regarding organized 
labor is not new to those who have watched his tactics since he launched 
the CIO. 

Below are excerpts from ^lartin's letter to Lewis. The letter clearly 
sets forth Martin's conflict with Lewis and his disappointment in the 
present goal of the CIO. 

You are hereby notified that I am officially resigning as a mem- 
ber of the executive board of the Congress of Industrial Organiza- 
tions. As president of the United Automobile A\'orkers' Union of 
America and as an advocate of democratic principles and proce- 
dures in the labor movement, I can no longer subscribe to the poli- 
cies and tactics to which you and A^our representatives have resorted 
in your conduct relating to the affair of the International Union, 
United Automobile Workers of America, in particular, and the 
affairs of the labor movement in general. 

^ ^ ^ 1^ 1^ 

We, of the Automobile AA'orkers' Union, were of the opinion 
that the objectives of the CIO were the objectives of any legiti- 
mate, democratic labor movement. It is, therefore, with the deepest 
regret that we are forced to the conclusion that whatever lip serv- 
ice you may have paid to these principles and objectives, it is now- 
evident that in practice you have utterly repudiated them. Your 
action has convinced me and multitudes who have followed you that 
you are unable to rise above your personal ambitions and dicta- 
tor complex. 

It is now clear that you have lost sight of the basic ideals of 

the lal)or movement and have given yourself to a policy of rule or 

ruin. 

***** 

Having driven the International Ladies' Garment ^^'orkers' 

Union out of the ranks of the CIO by }Our totalitarian method of 

leadership, you are now driving the L^nited .Vutomobile Workers 

of America into the same position. Whereas 3'ou should have played 

an important role in uniting the forces of labor, your dictatorial 

policies have driven the wedge of separation even deeper into 

labor's ranks. 

***** 

You have represented the CIO as guaranteeing the autonomy 

of the United Automobile Workers of America at the very moment 

when you and your lieutenants were conspiring to destroy it. 

***** 

While we were engaged in carrying on the work of our organ- 
ization, your lieutenants, Phillip Murray, Sidney Hillman, and 



6 THE CARPENTER 

Others, were holding secret conferences, both with members of the 
United Automobile Workers of America and the automobile em- 
ployers, for the purpose of transferring control of the organiza- 
tion to yourself. 

Your agents did not dare to make an open move to Impeach 
me ; they have, therefore, in a sneak}^ and cowardly manner moved 
to strip me and the other loyal officers of the union of every 
right and power accorded us by the constitution of the union. 

There has not been a blacker chapter in the annals of American 
labor than that written by you and your agents in your deliberately 
planned sabotage of the vigorous efforts of our union to organize 
the employes of Henry Ford and obtain a collective bargaining 
agreement with the Ford Motor Company. All of these moves 
against the membership of our union were animated solely by your 
desire to make a mockery of its autonomy and to foist upon it 
your iron dictatorial rule. 

We warn you that while this method and these policies might 

work in the lands lorded over by ruthless dictators of the stripe of 

Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin, we are confident that the intelligent 

union-conscious workers of America, loyally devoted to democratic 

principles and procedure, will never submit to such dictation. And 

among these workers, the membership of the United Automobile 

Workers of America have taken and will continue to hold a leading 

and determined position. 

• 

Booth-Kelly Recognizes Lumber Workers 

ONE of the most important victories for the- American Federation of 
Labor in the Northwest during the closing weeks of 1938 was the 
memorandum of recognition which the Booth-Kelly operation in 
the Willamette Valley gave to the Lumber and Sawmill Workers 
Union, Oregon-Washington Council of Lumber and Sawmill AVorkers, 
of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners. 

The memorandum gave exclusive bargaining rights to the Lumber and 
Sawmill Workers Union and notice of the termination of the agreement 
with the Independent Employes Union. 

The Union Register, official newspaper of the Oregon- Washington 
Council of Lumber and Sawmill Workers, said the memorandum, "was 
hailed with great rejoicing throughout the Northwest," adding: 

"Booth-Kelly is one of the oldest operations In the Pacific Northwest. 
For more than half a century the firm has been cutting timber. The grand- 
sons of some of the men who worked at Booth-Kelly are now working 
for the same operation. 

"Booth-Kelly is undoubtedl}^ the ke}^ operation in the entire valley, 
and the victory in the Wendling Mill and camp is the greatest yet made in 
unionizing the entire area. The operation has been the center of the 
organizational drive for the past several years. 

"The importance of the Booth-Kelly victory cannot be overestimated. 
The way is now paved for sweeping through the Willamette Valley with 
a drive to completely unionize the hundred odd operations existing there. 
The most difficult task in the valley has been completed and the Lumber 
and Sawmill Workers Union has been given the green light." 



THECARPENTER 7 

USHA Expansion Means More Jobs 

EXPANSION of the United States Housing Authority's slum clear- 
ance program through authorization by Congress of another $800,- 
000,000 for additional rehousing loans will mean full time jobs for 
one-third of all the unemployed workers in the building industry, 
it was set forth in a report received by Nathan Straus, USHA adminis- 
trator, from the Building and Construction Trades Department of the 
American Federation of Labor. 

The report, signed by Joseph Mclnerney and Herbert Rivers, Presi- 
dent and Secretary, respectively, of the A. F. of L. Building and Con- 
struction Trades Department, highly commended the progress made by 
the USHA during its first year of operation and urged immediate enact- 
ment of pending amendments to "guarantee the extension and continuity 
of the program." 

"It is estimated that under the program authorized by Congress to 
date, a total of 270.000,000 man-hours of work will be created at the site 
and more than $257,000,000 will be paid in wages to laborers at the sites 
of construction," the report pointed out. 

"The proposed amendments Avill double these benefits to the building- 
workers, providing 540,000,000 man-hours of employment at the site, or 
two full years' work to 330,000 building workers. This outlook is espec- 
ially significant in view of the estimate that at the close of 1938 there 
were nearly 1,000,000 Imilding workers totally unemployed." 

The text of the report follows: 

The United States Housing Authority, set up under the Act of Con- 
gress originally sponsored b}' the Building- and Construction Trades De- 
partment, has completed the first year of its operations. In the develop- 
ment of this program, which has been new and withi^ut precedent in our 
experience, many complex problems had to be solved and many difficul- 
ties had to be met. The success of the work of the USHA is attested by 
the following facts: 

T. "\\'hereas there were only 46 housing authorities when the program 
was begun in November, 1937. there were 221 local housing authorities 
by the end of December 1938. 

2. Earmarkings have been made for ])rojects of local authorities in 
27 states. Although under the amendments passed in 1938 the lending 
power of the USHA was increased from $500,000,000 to $800,000,000. the 
actual amount made available for housing loans was in practical effect 
limited to about $650,000,000. This is because the $28,000,000 fixed, by the 
law as the maximum annual contributions is sufficient to cover only $650.- 
000.000 in Federal loans. Substantiallv all of the sum of $650,000,000 
available for earmarking and loans has no^^• been earmarked. 

3. -Actual loan contracts have been approved for y}, cities and 2 coun- 
ties in 22 states, the District of Columbia and Hawaii. This brings the 
total amount of loan money contracted for to $321,000,000 at the end of 
December, 1938. In addition to the loan contracts already signed, ear- 
markings are outstanding for T20 cities and 3 counties in 27 states, the 
District of Columbia. Hawaii, and Peurto Rico, in the amount of $329.- 
000.000. The total amount of earmarkings outstanding and loan contracts 
approved for 151 cities and 4 counties in 29 states, the District of Colum- 
bia. Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, was $650,000,000 at the close of 1938. 

4. By the end of 1938 there were 14 USHA projects under actual con- 
struction. These projects will provide 9,956 new homes. Additional pro- 



8 THE CARPENTER 

jects will be begun almost immediately and it is estimated that construc- 
tion will be started on about 80,000 additional dwellings during 1939. In 
other words, the increasing volume of reemployment and construction 
activity in 1939, and the opening of projects for occupancy in 1940, will 
result from loan commitments of the USHA made in 1938. By the same 
token construction activity and reemployment in 1940 will depend on new 
authorization of funds being made in 1939 for the initial undertaking of 
additional projects. This authorization is especially important to pre- 
vent an interruption in the program and to permit many cities which have 
not yet entered the program to participate in its benefits. 

Fifteen States have not yet enacted necessary enabling legislation to be 
eligible for participation in the USHA program. The Housing Commit- 
tee of the A. F. of L. has provided State Federations of Labor in these 
States with carefully drawn model bills, recommending these bills for 
introduction in their State legislatures. 

Pursuant to the instructions of the Houston Convention of the 
Building and Construction Trades Department of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor and of the American Federation of Labor, to further en- 
large and perfect the low-rent housing and slum clearance program, the 
officers of the Building and Construction Trades Department and the 
Housing Committee of the A. F. of L. have requested Senator Robert F. 
AVagner of New York, the original sponsor of the Act, to introduce in 
the present session of Congress an amendment to the Act which would 
accomplish this purpose. 

In accordance with this request, on January 12, 1939, Senator Wagner 
introduced a bill (S.591) known as the "United States Housing- Act 
Amendments of 1939." This bill woLild increase the authorization of the 
United States Housing Authority for financing the construction loan for 
low-rent housing and slum clearance projects, by $800,000,000 bringing 
the total authorization to $1,600,000,000. As in the original Act this money 
is available onl}^ for loans to local public housing agencies for construc- 
tion of low-rent housing and slum clearance projects at an interest rate at 
least one-half cent above the cost of money to the Federal Government. 
These loans involve no subsidy, right-of, or other cost to the government. 
They represent a solid capital investment which is completely self-liqui- 
dating. 

The original Act authorized, in addition to these loans annual con- 
tributions by the USHA to bridge the gap between the rents which would 
otherwise have to charged for decent new housing and the rents which 
families now living in slums can afford. The purpose of these annual 
contributions is to bring rents in the new projects down to a level which 
will make them available to low-income families who must now live in 
slums. These contributions which efifectively prevent competition be- 
tween such low-rent public housing and good private housing, are paid 
to the local housing authorities as the only authorized recipients of the 
USHA's financial assistance. 

At the present time the USHA is authorized to spend $28,000,000 a 
year for these grants-in-aid. The amendment proposed by Senator Wag- 
ner increases the authorization for the annual contributions by $45,000,- 
000. In introducing this amendment, Senator Wagner pointed out that 
this maximum limit of $45,000,000 per year in additional annual contribu- 
tions, added to the $28,000,000 maximum limit provided under the present 
law represents the maximum annual cost to the Federal government of 



THE CARPENTER 9 

the enlarged USHA program. In his statement to the Senate, Senator 
Wagner said : 

"This is a very small cost in terms of economic and social 
benefits of slum clearance and low-rent housing, and in terms 
of the infinitely larger expenditures undertaken for other 
public purposes that are certainly no more important than de- 
cent housing. It indicates that slum clearance and low-rent 
housing constitute about the most economical method of 
stimulating reemplo^aiient, increasing industrial activity, and 
uniting business recovery with fundamental social improve- 
ment." 

Further emphasizing that the additional authorization of $800,000,- 
000 for construction loans Avill not involve an appropriation and therefore 
will have no effect upon the budget. Senator Wagner called the attention 
of Congress to the fact that the bonds to be issued by the x\uthority to 
raise these loan funds will not be obligations of such a character as to be 
included in or added to the national debt. He stressed the fact that not 
only is the loan program completely self-liquidating, but that instead of 
providing for the immediate expenditure of the entire amount, it merely 
enables the USHA to enter into loan contracts initiating this amount of 
construction while the actual development of the projects and the com- 
plete use of these funds will require at least two years. 

According to Senator Wagner : 

"The present program will provide decent American 
Homes for about 150,000 families or more than half a million 
persons now living in the slums. It will mean a total increase 
of employment, on the site of construction and indirectly in 
factories, of more than 330,000 men for a full year. This pro- 
gram of uniting reemployment with the improvement basic 
housing conditions must be continued in order that the coun- 
try may move nearer to the objective of a revived construc- 
tion industry, a completely restored industrial system, and a 
decently housed nation of American families.'' 

It is estimated that under the program authorized by Congress to 
date, a total of 270,000,000 man-hours of work will be created at the site 
and more than $257,000,000 will be paid in wages to laborers at the sites of 
construction. The proposed amendments will double these benefits to the 
building workers, providing 540,000,000 man-hours of employment at the 
site or two full years work to 330,000 building workers. This outlook is 
especially significant in view of the estimate that at the close of 1938 
there were nearly 1,000,000 building workers totally unemployed. 

It is recommended that the Executive Council of the Building and 
Construction Trades Department: 

1. Give favorable consideration to the facts regarding the progress 
made under the USHA program summarized in this report, and commend 
the Administrator of the USHA for his work. 

2. Take appropriate action to assure the passage of the USHA amend- 
ments of 1939 (S591) and thus guarantee the extension and continuity of 
the program, as directed by the Thirty-Second Annual Convention. 

• 

A brave man is clear in his discourse, and keeps close to the truth. 



10 THE CARPENTER 

High Court Ponders Powers of U. S. to Deport Red 

As The Carpenter was about to go to press. Communism was put on 
trial before the United States Supreme Court. 
The issue of whether Communist beliefs are sufficient to sub- 
ject an alien to deportation was argued before the High Court in 
the much-debated case of Joseph G. Strecker, Austrian-born restaurant 
man of Hot Springs, Ark. 

Robert H. Jackson, Solicitor General, appearing for the Department 
of Labor, maintained that Strecker should be sent back to his native land 
because of his former membership in the Communist Party and his pres- 
ent advocacy of the Communist cause. 

Jackson went deeply into the history and the program of the party, 
contending these proved the Communists look forward ultimately to the 
overthrow of the American form of government by force. 

Strecker himself was quoted as admitting that Communist leaders 
considered use of armed force as essential to their purpose. Jackson de- 
clared that Strecker said he would not bear arms now against the govern- 
ment, but that if it came to a show-down between Communism and cap- 
italism, "I would be a fool to get killed fighting for capitalism." 

Jackson's arguments were challenged by Whitney N. Seymour, New 
York attorney assigned by the International Labor Defense to Strecker's 
cause. He maintained the Communist Party had the same peaceful ob- 
jectives as other political parties — namely, the election of candidates to 
office. 

The Supreme Court took the Strecker case under advisement. On its 
decision will hinge the fate of Harry Bridges, West Coast CIO leader 
and Australian-born alien. Bridges has been accused of Communist mem- 
bership, but Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor, has held up deportation 
proceedings against him pending disposition of the Strecker action. 

Miss Perkins' delay on Bridges provoked a resolution from J. Parnell 
Thomas (Rep., N. J.), a member of the Dies Committee on Un-American 
Activties, demanding her impeachment. The resolution was believed 
slated for burial by the House Judiciary Committee. 

Meanwhile, the Dies Committee, which some time ago heard testimony 
on Bridges, began organizing a staff to continue its inquiry into subver- 
sive organizations. The committee indicated that it will turn over a new 
leaf, in so far as its methods of investigation are concerned, and urged 
that judgment of its work be withheld for the present. 

• 

Bill Gives Aliens Year to Become Citizens 

Every alien who does not apply for first citizenship papers within a year after 
he becomes eligible to do so would be deported, under a drastic bill proposed re- 
cently by Congressman Jennings Randolph, (Va.) 

The bill, if passed, would hit 3,500,000 to 5,000,000 non-citizens now in this 
country, Randolph estimated. 

• 

You will find your value increased by courtesy. 

A cheerful temper joined with innocence, will make beauty attractive, knowl- 
edge delightful and wit good natured. — Addison. 



THECARPEXTEK, 11 

L. S. W. Wins Another Victory 

From The Seattle Union Register 

AFTER the shortest strike ever recorded in the annals of organized 
labor in the Pacific Northwest, the thousand-odd employes of the 
Bloedel-Donovan operations, affiliated with newdy organized local 
2667 of the Ltimber and Sawmill AVorkers Union of the United 
Brotherhood returned to work Avith all wage cuts eliminated. 

The strike lasted less than an hour. In returning to work the men 
won an unconditional victory. Even the men in the upper brackets whose 
wages were higher than those prevailing in other sections had their pay 
restored in full. There were no adjustments of any nature whatever. 

All Bellingham was jubilant at the sw-eeping victory won for the men 
by the Lumber and Sawmiill Workers Union. Negotiations for restoration 
of the pay cut had been carried on for over a week. When no satisfaction 
was forthcoming from the management, the employes — to a man — refused 
to start the plant. In less than an hour the management capitulated. All 
wage cuts were terminated and the men returned to work under the scale 
which the Lumber and Sawmill Workers Union won for them originally. 

Thus "finis" was written to one of the outstanding examples of the 
havoc which dualism can create. In common with practicall}^ all the rest 
of the industry, the Bellingham men were working under the fine wages 
and conditions won by the Lumber and Sawmill Workers Union prior to 
the advent of the International Woodworkers of America. With the ap- 
pearance of the dual CIO organization, dissension and disruption began. 

The men voted to affiliate with the dual body. Work became uncertain ; 
mistrust and 1:>itterness crept in. Finally the mill went down entirely. 
For the better part of a year the men walked the streets while their wives 
and children went under-fed and under-clothed. 

No help of any nature was forthcoming from the dual organization 
which caused the men all their grief. The situation rapidly became desper- 
ate — the men were out on the end of a limb and they began to realize it. 

In sheer desperation, they organized the Independent Ltmiber Work- 
ers Union, a body without an}^ sort of affiliation. In order to feed their 
women and children, the men accepted a wage cut of sixt}^ cents a day. 

Soon, however, they realized that they were still out on the end of a 
limb without anywhere to turn except to the Lumber and Sawmill Work- 
ers Union which had won for them the only gains they ever knew. At a 
meeting held recently, the men voted unanimously to return to the Lum- 
ber and Sawmill Workers Union and the United Brotherhood of Carpen- 
ters and Joiners. Out of nearly seven hundred men present at the meet- 
ing, only twelve votes were cast against reaffiliating with the American 
Federation of Labor sawmill group. 

A charter Avas immediately sent for. At a meeting held not long ago, 
the charter was installed and the men were received into the union. 
Negotiations for the restoration of wages were undertaken immediately. 
Many meetings were held, but the raise was not forthcoming until the 
culmination of the recent strike. 

Steady employment and harmonious relations now face the members 
of 2667. Gone is all the uncertainty and bitterness which pre\ailcd under 
the I. W. A. The local is now facing the new year with the utmost confi- 
dence and optimism. 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



The situation is now cleared up once and for all time. Rebuilding- the 
havoc created by the I. W. A. is now the chief task facing the Bellingham 
Vv^orkers. 

The Lumber and Sawmill Workers Union won for the Bellingham 
lumber workers all the g-ains they ever enjoyed. For over a year the 
dual organization kept dissension and disruption alive while the men 
walked the streets. In the end, the same union that won the wages and 
conditions for the men had to step in to clean up the mess and restore to 
the workers the wages and conditions they enjoyed before the advent of 
the I. W. A. 

What happened in Bellingham will eventually have to happen every- 
where that the I. W. A. has gained a foothold. In the end, the Lumber 
and Sawmill Workers Union will have to take over to restore wages, 
peace and harmony. 

9 

80 YEARS IN ONE SHOP 

On December 31, 1938, four members of Carpenters Local Union 200 
Columbus, Ohio, retired after serving the State of Ohio many years in 
the State University Carpenter Shop. They have been very loyal mem- 
bers and have many friends who honored them with a banquet on January 
4, 1939, at Carpenters Hall. 




From left to right, their names and records follow: 
John Kraner, Foreman of Shop, Served 27 ys., A member of Brotherhood 38 yrs. 
E. I. Martin Served 23 yrs., A member of Brotherhood 36 yrs. 

W. E. Steele Served 13 yrs., A member of Brotherhood 13 yrs. 

Charles Blesch Served 17 yrs., A member of Brotherhood 40 yrs. 

To date three appointments of the younger members of Local 200 have 
been made to fill the vacancies. 



THECARPEXTER 13 

Hands-off Business, A. F. of L. Tells U. S. 

THE Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor 
closed its mid-winter session with a ringing challenge to indus- 
try to put its shoulder to the wheel and contribute its share in 
getting the nation out of the depression and idle workers back 
into jobs. 

At the same time, the Council called oh the government to step aside 
and give business an opportunity to function with a minimum of restraint. 

A lengthy statement issued by the Council described the unemploy- 
ment situation as "appalling." It emphasized that lo years of recovery 
spending have failed to provide a permanent solution of the problem, 
and cited more than 10,000,000 idle workers as proof of its contention. 

"Fear, a lack of confidence and distrust in governmental, social and 
economic procedure," the Council said, "should be removed. A political 
and economic state of mind should be created which would enable all fin- 
anciers and the owners and management of industry to face the future 
with confidence, willing to risk in the expenditure of funds for the de- 
velopment of industrial enterprises and in the manufacture and sale of 
manufactured products." 

Declaring it could not "accept the claim that we must be prepared to 
maintain constantly an army of unemplo3'ed as wards of the govern- 
ment," the Council continued: 

"We must turn to private industry for the solution. It should and 
must serve the nation. Our national interests require that private industry 
be accorded the widest opportunit}^ to do so. 

"Whatever stands in the way — whatever barrier may have been cre- 
ated, either as a result of fear or as a result of affirmative action on the 
part of those who administer the affairs of government — ought to be 
Ijroken down, so that our industrial processes may function in a proper 
way and unemployment may thus be overcome." 

The Council reaffirmed the A. F. of L. position that "private Initiative, 
private investment and private endeavor" should be encouraged and sup- 
ported. 

"We assert," the Council said, "that those who Invest in private in- 
dustry should earn a fair return upon such investment and that labor 
should be paid a wage which would accord to all workers and their fam- 
ilies an opportunity to live in decency and comfort. 

"We urge the development of the highest and most perfect form of 
cooperation between management and labor. We are convinced that the 
best interests of all the people of the entire nation can be served through 
the acceptance by those who administer the affairs of our government 
of the well-considered plans and recommendations which both manage- 
ment and labor can submit for information and consideration." 

At a press conference President William Green amplified the Council 
statement, saying: 

"There has been strong complaint against the excess profits tax for 
one thing. We believe its repeal would help." 

Green vigorously assailed what he called "surprising and unexpected 
regulations by Federal administrative agencies" and demanded "that the 
rules of the game be made clear and plain." 

Before concluding its sessions, the Executive Council also revised its 
recommendations for overhauling the National Labor Relations Act, It 



14 THE CARPENTER 

proposed the creation of a five-man board to replace the present three- 
man setup. President Green declared this enlargement would speed dis- 
position of board cases. 

Organizing drives in the coal and maritime industries were announced. 
The Progressive Miners, A. F. of L. affiliate, will demand recognition 
from 250 coal operators hitherto under contract with John L. Lewis' 
United Mine Workers, the council declared. In the maritime field, A. F, 
of L. unions are to be united in a maritime department. 

Site of the next national convention was shifted from San Francisco 
to Cincinnati, because of reported inadequate hotel and meeting facilities 
in the former city. Sessions are to be held in October. 



1 



Law Asked to Halt Strike Breaking 

"^ HE report of the Senate Civil Liberties Committee, headed by 
Senator Robert F. La Follette, Jr., of Wisconsin, condemning the 
use of strike breakers and proposing the enactment of a Federal 
statute to prohibit employers from hiring agencies or individuals 
to engage in strike breaking activities is the result of the committee's 
protracted investigation of this notorious scheme used by anti-union em- 
ployers to destroy trade unionism. 

The committee, of which the other member is Senator Elbert D. 
Thomas, of Utah, and which is already drafting legislation to support its 
proposal, makes use of the legal principle now upheld by the United 
States Courts that Federal jurisdiction over interstate commerce in- 
cludes industrial relations affecting interstate commerce. Strike break- 
ing, the committee holds, vitally affects interstate commerce, and there- 
fore comes within the purview of Federal legislation. 

Reviewing and compiling the testimony evoked at hearings during 
two years of investigation, the committee listed 150 professional "finks," 
or strike breakers, many of them "career" men in the business, and a third 
of them allegedly with criminal or arrest records, the crimes including 
burglary, rape, larceny, assault and other types of violence. The report 
mentioned 108 plants at which it said strike breakers had been employed 
and fifty-three detective or other agencies furnishing such service. 

Also listed in the parade were "missionaries," who, the committee said, 
offered, for pay, to spread "word-of-mouth propaganda" for strike- 
threatened employers and to organize helpful citizens' committees. 

Strike breaking agencies make 25 to 100 per cent profit, the report de- 
clared. Strike breakers, it charged, had created violence to extend their 
services or to discredit or break the strikers. 

The La Follette committee report rejected as too cumbersome a pos- 
sible system of regulating detective agencies and employers' associations 
in interstate commerce as a means of banning objectionable practices. It 
held ineffective also the existing Federal legislation stopping interstate 
transportation of strike-breakers ; local strikebreaking units were avail- 
able, it declared. 

Thus the com.mittee urged that the direct prohibition be placed on the 
employer as "the key to the strike-breaking problem." "His responsibility 
for the persons he pays to take his part in an industrial dispute cannot be 
denied or evaded," the report stated. 



THE CARPENTER 15 

Lewis Still Prevents Labor Peace 

THE controversy of the American Federation of Labor with the 
Conf^ress of Industrial Organizations was thoroughly considered 
by the A. F. of L. Executive Council during its Winter session 
in Miami, Fla. 

Following the survey made by the Executive Council, William Green, 
president of the A. F. of 1^., stated that there could be no possibility of 
making peace with the CIO until John L. 'Lewis, the leader of that group, 
Avithdrew. his ultimatum that all the CIO unions must be taken into the 
American Federation of La1:)or with separate charters, despite the fact 
that in many instances the charters demanded for the CIO unions would 
overlap present A. F. of L. charters. The Lewis ultimatum meant that in 
a number of cases there would be two unions in the same field carrying 
A. F. of L. charters. 

Mr. Green said he could now report "that private citizens as well as 
representatives in public life have presented their views and have ap- 
pealed for conferences and for a settlement" of the inter-labor conflict. 

"There has been great pressure in that direction since the Houston 
convention of the A. F. of L. in October," he said. "I am not in a position 
to go into detail." 

Although tlie ultimatum laid down by Lewis to the conference com- 
])osed of representatives of the A. F. of L. and the CIO held in Wash- 
ington, D. C., in the latter part of 1937 broke up the peace negotiations 
at that time and although the intransigent and dictatorial attitude of the 
CIO leadershi]:) since the peace conference has maintained the barrier 
then set up by Mr. Lewis, Mr. Green said he believed today that, "psycho- 
logically," the atmosphere is more favorable for a settlement than it has 
been, but that the number of national unions chartered by the CIO has 
raised mechanical difficulties to the adjustment of the dilTerences. 

According to 'Mr. Green, acceptance l)y the A. F. of L. of the Lewis 
ultimatum that these ne^v and competitixe unions be chartered by the 
American Federation of Labor and placed on an equal status with exist- 
ing Federation unions would mean innumerable wars within the A. F. 
of L. ile felt that to court such internal troul)les was manifesth^ impos- 
sible. Despite this, he said, CIO leaders persistently demanded the ad- 
mission of all their unions on an ec|ual status with the older Federation 
unions covering the same jurisdictions. 

Regarding Mr. Lewis' otlicr demand, \\hich was supported by the CIO 
convention in l'ittsl)urgh last Novem1)er, ilial no compromise was to be 
made with the principle of the industrial form of organization, Mr. Green 
declared that this was not a stumbling block to peace. He said the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor already embraced, along with its scores of craft 
unions, a number of unions established on an industry-wide, plant-wide 
or vertical basis. 

"We have recognized the principle of industrial unionism," he assert- 
ed, "but we don't know what that term may mean in the minds of others 
in regard to the fields into which industrial unionism may be extended. 
We have never been opposed to that form of organization where we 
thought it was suitable." 

"It appears that the state of mind favoring peace has improved." he 
went on. "Tlial is reflected in the general statements of leaders on both 
sides and bv tlcclarations in local unions of the A. F. of L. and the CIO. 



16 THE CARPENTER 

"In my opinion the state of mind favoring peace has grown more 
rapidly among the CIO rank and file than in that of the A. F. of L. The 
pressure on the leaders of the CIO to attempt to negotiate a settlement 
has become very great." 

"But the CIO ultimatum must be withdrawn and its position changed 
before there can be any possibility of peace. If a settlement is reached it 
must be on the basis of blended unions in one field organized into one 
union. There cannot be two competing unions within the same organiza- 
tion." 

Declaring that the views he expressed were shared b}^ the A. F. of 
L. Executive Council, Mr. Green made it clear that the continuing disin- 
tegration of the CIO and the factional fights cropping out in various 
CIO units all tended to buttress the validity of the position taken by the 

American Federation of Labor. 

• 

Frisco To hold Label Exposition 

WITH A "patronize home industry" and general education theme 
in behalf of American products and the endorsement of all ma- 
jor A. F. of L. organizations, plans are announced for the annual 
Union Label and Industrial Exhibition to be held May lo to 14 
in San Francisco's Civic Auditorium. 

Working exhibits of various industries will be a feature of the Ex- 
hibition, along with an elaborate program of entertainment by radio, 
motion picture, and other stars, according to Thomas A. Rotell, secretary 
of the Union Label Section of the San Francisco Labor Council, and man- 
aging director of the Exhibtion. 

"\Ye want to make it plain at the outset that the forthcoming Exhibi- 
tion is part of an educational program under legitimate auspices of an 
accredited unit of the American Federation of Labor, strictly a non- 
profit affair, and not a racket in which private promoters have any part," 
Rotell said. 

"The aim of the project is to display to the people of California the 
methods pursued in preparing their products for the markets of the 
world, and to show our own people the advantages which we of California 
enjoy, as well as to demonstrate to our visitors during the Golden Gate 
International Exposition the wonders of California's industries." 

The annual Union Label and Industrial Exhibition will be held under 
auspices of the Union Label Section of the San Francisco Labor Council, 
and has the accredited endorsement of the California State Federation of 
Ivabor, the San Francisco Labor and Building Trades Councils, Bay Dis- 
trict Joint Council of Teamsters, Metal Trades Council, Joint Board of 
Culinary Crafts, Allied Printing Trades Council, California State Federa- 
tion of Butchers, Theatrical Federation, Federation of Building Service 
Crafts, District Council of Clerks, and various other groups. 

Numerous exhibitors spaces have already been contracted for and 
preference is being given California exhibitors who qualify under the 
rules of the Union Label Section, an affiliate of the Union Label Trades 
Department of the American Federation of Labor, Rotell said. Organiza- 
tion headquarters are maintained at the Union Label Section in the Labor 

Temple, 2940 i6th Street, San Francisco. 

« 

Blind ambition quite often mistakes her road. — Young. 



THE CARPENTER 17 

Newspaper Guild Slogan — ''Rule or Ruin'' 

WITH the last vestig-e of hope gone for winning the walkout 
staged against the Hearst newspaper of Chicago on December 
the 5th, the Chicago Newspaper Guild, an affiliate of the CIO, 
is fighting to destroy that which it cannot control. 

The Chicago Guild has made many false statements in its literature 
which it has distributed in an attempt to win sympath}- for its so-called 
"cavtse." 

The Chicago Herald and Examiner and the Evening American, the 
two newspapers involved, have a combined payroll of $8,000,000 a year 
and support more than 3,300 workers in Chicago, 90 per cent of them on 
the membership lists of the American Federation of Labor, divided among 
nine A. F. of L. labor unions, covering every avenue of employment on 
these papers. 

There are less than 100 Guild members on strike today. More than 
]5o of them have returned to their jobs, convinced that they were betrayed 
by the Guild leaders. A few of them have obtained jobs on the outside. 

The remainder are being "kidded" by their leaders into the belief that 
ultimatel}^ they are going to win and be returned to their JoIds with full 
liack pay. 

As a matter of fact there is nothing before the National Labor Rela- 
tions Board in connection with the walkout or in any other matter brought 
by the Guild. 

The Rev. Irwin St. John Tucker, vice-president of the A. F. of L. 
Chicago Editorial Association, an employe of the Herald and Examiner 
and also pastor of an Episcopal church, in a signed statement for publi- 
cation has this to say about the walkout: 

"Nobody in the newspaper world in Chicago is in any doubt as to what 
power is behind the strike, nor what its objectives are. If by using the 
Guild two newspapers can be destroyed, then by using the Guild the 
same forces can destroy all newspapers — except the communist papers. 

"This is an attempt to destroy the American press by members of the 
communist moxxment." 

Dr. Tucker is leading a movement of employes of the two newspapers 
to obtain "job security." not by joining the walkout, but by opposing it 
and the tactics of the Guild, which involve threatening advertisers of the 
papers and in that way destroying their income. 

These employes are A. F. of L. members, working under contracts and 
conditions that are satisfactory to them. 

Speaking over station ^^"CFL, owned by the Chicago Federation of 
Labor, Dr. Tucker appealed to the people of Chicago not to permit them- 
selves to be misled by lying statements and false issues. He said in part: 

"In the course of years the American Federation of Labor has built up 
a structure of industrial democracy like the American Federation of 
States. Each industry is in effect an industrial state. Such industrial 
states must be governed neither by a tyrant from above nor by a mob from 
below, but by the basic conmion sense of men who know and trust one 
another, in the general good faith necessary to maintain any common en- 
terprise. 

"The are only two possible foundations for any government; trust or 
terror. Trust, good faith; that is democracy. Terrorism is tyranny, 
whether it is terror of a dictator from above, or terror of a mob raving 
below. 



18 THE CARPENTER 

"When a mob gets control of a city, either order must be restored or 
that city will be destroyed. When a mob gets control of a union, the 
union is destroyed. 

"That has been the fate of the Chicago Newspaper Guild. It was 
started as a professional union of editorial workers, seeking to improve 
their standards and working conditions. As such, its objectives and 
ideals commended themselves highly to men and women of the news- 
paper editorial world. 

"But this Guild, started as an American Federation of Labor union, 
was sold out to the CIO. Immediately it entered the mob stage. Here in 
Chicago it admitted anybody even remotely connected with any phase 
of the newspaper business. Editorial workers of twenty and thirty years 
standing in the profession of journalism were outyelled and outvoted by 
loud-mouthed recruits. 

"To such men, violation of a contract means nothing; so the Guild vio- 
lated its contract by a walkout. Defiance of a Federal law means nothing 
to such men; so they violated the rules of any Federal hearing when, hav- 
ing placed their case before a Federal board, they refused to await the 
decision of that board, but tried to win their cause by force. 

"Every day a swarm of them parades on the sidewalk outside the 
building where three thousand American Federation of Labor union men 
and women earn a living. They shout epithets and sing wild songs, led by 
hoarse-voiced communists. 

"The editorial workers of the Herald and Examiner and the Evening 
American, disgusted and outraged by the tactics of this gang, organized 
their own union and secured a charter from the A. F. of L. and adopted 
a constitution which effectually prevents control, either by one man or a 
gang. 

"This union has signed a highh' beneficial contract with the manage- 
ment. Its most significant feature, aside from generous allowances, vaca- 
tions, sick leave and severance pay, is for a board of arbitration. Any dis- 
missal of a union member, any reduction in pay of a union member, must 
first be passed upon by the board of arbitration. 

"The Newspaper Guild had a contract but Avalked out on it two months 
before its expiration. 

"So the members of the Guild who followed the hoarse yelling of the 
mob leaders now find themselves without jobs — and without hope. They 
got no severance pay, as they would if they had been discharged. They 
certainly cannot get a job on any other paper after their wild and re- 
peated assertions that they are going to destroy these two. 

"But the objective of the Guild command is not now — if it ever was 
■ — to provide jobs. They have proclaimed loudly and repeatedly that their 
intention is to destroy these papers, which employ more than three thou- 
sand men and women. 

"Against this hysteria of destruction, the American Federation of 
Labor and the Chicago Editorial Association, which is a part of it, offer 
the policy of sturdy common sense. 

"Let us save our industries and protect our jobs, instead of permitting 
a wild-eyed, hoarse-voiced and irresponsible gang of professional wreck- 
ers destroy them." 

® 

•Don't let the dust storms blind your eyes to the Union Label, Shop Card and 
Buttons. 



THE CARPENTER 19 

CIO IS Headed for Ultimate Liquidation 

ABSOLUTE confidence in the validity of the principles of the 
American Federation of Labor and equal confidence that the CIO, 
organized in 1935 as a rebel and seccessionist group with the pur- 
pose of destro3nng the A. F. of L., is headed for ultimate liquida- 
tion was expressed by William Green, president of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, following a session of the Winter meeting of the Executive 
Council Federation's at which the controversy with the CIO was consid- 
ered. The Council's conclusion Avas that the CIO gpoup, headed by John 
L. Lewis, is rapidl}^ disintegrating. 

In amplifying the views of the Executive Council, Mr. Green cited 
the withdrawal of the International Ladies Garment Workers from the 
CIO and claimed that the United Textile Workers of America were also 
leaving the Lewis dictatorship. In addition, dissension has torn the Unit- 
ed Automobile Workers into factions. 

AVith regard to the strength of the CIO, Mr. Green said he had report- 
ed to the Executive Council that the vaunted membership of the Lewis 
group had become "largely fictitious." 

"The Steel Workers Organizing Committee is nothing more than a 
paper organization," he charged. "It has practically no dues-paying mem- 
bers. From a practical stand-point the CIO is now made up of the United 
]\Iine Workers and the Amalgamated Clothing \\''orkers, and the miners 
are financing it all." 

"The other unions affiliated with the CIO are a liabilit}- to the miners 
and clothing workers. In order to get more money, Mr. Lewis ordered 
a si)ecial $1 assessment on the miners for February, 1939. That will bring 
5^400,000 more into the CIO. The United Miners' financial report for the 
six months ended November 30, 1938, showed $1,250,000 collected in dues 
and revealed that in the same period the miners' union had contributed 
$1,400,000 to the CIO." 

Turning to the internal fight in the Automobile \\"orkers Union. Air. 
Green said he had "confidential information" showing that the bulk of 
the membership would be represented at the convention called by Homer 
Martin, whose leadership Mr. Lewis and the CIO have repudiated. His 
information, Mr. Green said, was that more than 200 of the 300-odd locals 
in the auto union would attend the Martin convention in Detroit next 
month, lea\'ing only a minority to attend the other convention called by 
Martin's rivals in Cleveland later in March. 

So far. Green said, the Federation had entered no discussions and 
made no o\ertures to either group in the divided automobile union re- 
garding a relationship with the A. F. of L. either now or later on. How- 
ever, he added, the Executive Council at its Miami meetings has "specu- 
lated to some extent upon the future status of the Martin group." Whether 
the Martinites could proceed as an independent union was a question he 
said the Federation's Council members "couldn't answer for ourselves." 
He recognized they lacked the strength of David Dubinsky's independent 
Gfarment workers' union. 



Construction Contracts Hailed as Recovery Sign 

Construction contracts placed in the first seven weeks of 1939 totalled ?454.- 
i>73,000, an increase of 30 per cent over the $360,826,000 contracts in the same 
period last year, according to a report by the "Engineering News Record," au- 
thoritative journal of the construction industry. This nearly one-third rise in 
building is cited as a favorable sign of recoverj*. 



20 THE CARPENTER 

The Lowdown On Oregon's Labor Ban 

WHY DID Oregon, last November, by a majority of almost 50,- 
000, adopt the most stringent anti-union law ever placed on the 
statute books of any state? 

Organized labor has told its side of the storj^, charging that 
the scheme was put over by propagandists, drilled and financed by the 
utilities, the bankers and hard-boiled employers who wished to cripple 
the labor movement. 

Now, a special correspondent sent to Oregon by "Collier's" substan- 
tiates the story told by organized labor, but also blames the ravings of 
Harr3^ Bridges of the CIO maritime workers, who scared a lot of people 
stifit" by his talk about a "class war." 

The most interesting thing of "Collier's" article, however, is its ex- 
pose of the propagandists. Here's the story in part : 

"The official sponsor of the law was an organization called the Asso- 
ciated Farmers of Oregon. The scheme was presented to the voters as a 
brain child of outraged farmers whose crops had rotted in the fields 
because of strikes in the shipping and trucking industries and became 
known as "The Farmers' Measure.' 

"Not much was known about the Associated Farmers except that the 
organization seemed generously financed, that it had been badly beaten 
when it tried to elect one of its members master of the Oregon Grange, 
and that its only platform was hostility to labor unions. 

"Gradually a few additional circumstances became evident. The 
'farmer' in charge of the Associated Farmers' headquarters turned out to 
be A\'. W. Knight, attorney for the Industrial Relations Association. 

"The 'farmer' soliciting finances for the Associated Farmers turned 
out to be George Baker, a former ma3^or of Portland, who was almost 
recalled and now represents the Oregon Manufacturers' Association. 

"The 'farmers' contributing to the Associated Farmers turned out to 
do their tilling and harvesting in corporation law offices and similar fields. 

"Baker went on the radio and pleaded for the passage of the law on 
'behalf of 65,000 farmers,' but the automobile dealer who paid for his 
speech admitted carelessly: 'It is no secret that business men of Oregon 
are actively supporting this bill and providing most of the money for the 
campaign.' 

"Although some blunders were made, such as mailing out the Associ- 
ated Farmers' leaflets from downtown Portland, when the organization 
was supposed to originate in such rural areas as Hood River and Hepp- 
ner, the public thought right up to election day that the law really was a 
farm product. 

"Some of that illusion has since been dispelled. The campaign expense 
accounts published by the secretary of state allegedly show that the farm- 
ers spent $32,440.65 in support of the law. Of this amount, $32,336 came 
from the Oregon Business Council. 

"This left the staggering sum of $104.65 apparently contributed by 
farmers. 

Now that the law is on the statute books, even Oregon conservatives 
are becoming nervous about the possible consequences of the propagan- 
dists' crooked work. 

The new governor says he thinks the statute is "too severe." Many 
newspapers are expressing the same view. The A. F. of L. has challenged 
the constitutionality of the law and will carry the matter to the United 
States Supreme Court. 



THE CARPENTER 21 

Report Is "Who's Who'' of Labor's Foes 

WOULD vou like to meet "Stinkfoot" McVey, "Weasel"' Epstein, 
"Eat 'Em Up" Fisher, "Snake Eyes Kid" Steinie, the "Brass 
Monkey," "Chowderhead" Cohen, "Crying Nat" Shaw, "Benny 
the Fink" Gross, "Red Demon" Berghoff, and a lot of other gen- 
tlemen with equally strange and sinister names? 

Then get a copy of a report published by the Senate Civil Liberties 
Committee. Ever}- union man ought to have one on his "five-foot shelf." 

It is a "Who's AVho" of professional strikebreakers and a histor\' of 
strikebreaking, divided into two periods: 

First, the years from 1933 to 1938, during which the National Indus- 
trial Recover}^ Act, National Labor Relations Board and Senator Robert 
M. La Follette's committee, have been trying to protect workers in their 
right to organize and bargain collectively. 

Second, the report describes the "origin and histor}^ of strikebreaking 
ing," from the Homestead Steel massacre by the Pinkertons in 1892 down 
through other famous labor struggles to 1933. 

Most of the methods used in the past few years "are old devices long- 
recognized as useful in the employer's fight against unions," the report 
says. It adds that these methods depend on three kinds of "industrial 
shock troops." 

I — Professional strikebreakers — who take the strikers' jobs tempor- 
arily. 

2 — Professional "strikeguards" — armed thugs known as "nobles." 
3 — "Strike missionaries," or "street operators," who, "disguised as 
strikers, s)-mpathizers or salesmen, spread propaganda against strikes 
and often urge or commit acts of violence." 

Scattered through the 200 pages of the report are the names of almost 
countless men who had a hand in breaking the strikes which were investi- 
gated by the Senate committee. 

From these names, the probers compiled a list of 150 men and women 
who "worked' on two or more "jobs," and are proved professional strike- 
breakers. 

vSome of them have done nothing else for as long as 35 years, and have 
drawn pa}" from jiractically every industrial detective agencv and anti- 
union employers' association. 

The report gives the police records of 48 of the 150 professionals, in- 
cluding murder, rape and scores of other crimes. It tells what strikes 
they helped break, and liv ^\■hom they were hired and furnished to em- 
ployers. 

The report says that the list of 150 is only a sample. There are many 
times more professional strikebreakers, strikeguards and missionaries, 
but the}- are hard to identify because they frequently change their aliases. 
Moreover, the committee's probe was limited to a few strikes. 

"These professionals of anti-imion warfare form a distinct class or 
occupation," the report continues. "Men who engage in strike work con- 
gregate in large cities or industrial centers and can be readily recruited 
through a word-of-mouth 'grapevine.' Persons familiar with the ways of 
the strikebreaking profession can recruit large numbers with ease in al- 
most every large American city. 



22 THE CARPENTER 

"These men are generally social misfits. -They are a sort of under- 
world. Many are professional criminals." 

Yet they are often deputized b)^ police chiefs and sheriffs, who thus 
give these criminals badges and the authority of the law to back them 
in smashing strikes and unions, the report points out. 

Often this deputizing is profitable to police chiefs, sheriffs and local 
officials, it explains. 

As one example, it tells how C. R. Ely, former mayor of Euclid, Ohio, 
collected $32,919 from that city's treasury to pay guards deputized dur- 
ing the Chase Brass and Copper strike of 1934, put "at least $7,000 in his 
own pocket," and "directed the rest to the pockets of the detective agen- 
cies" which furnished the guards. 

In recent years some detective agencies have added the formation of 
"citizens' committees" to their strikebreaking services, the report says, 
and gives examples. 

It says that neither Federal nor state laws have yet put much of a 
dent in the professional strikebreaking business. 

The report ends with a chapter of "conclusions and legislative recom- 
mendations," signed by La Follette and Senator Elbert D. Thomas of 
Utah, who toiled side by side with "Young Bob" throughout the long in- 
vestigation. 

"The committee Is drafting legislation which will shortly be submit- 
ted to Congress," the chapter says. It explains that the proposed laws 
"will forbid employers to engage agencies or Individuals who have made 
the strikebreaking business notorious. 

"The employer is the key to the problem," It continues. "His responsi- 
bility for the persons he pays to take his part in an industrial dispute 
cannot be denied or evaded. He should be subjected to penalties for tac- 
tics of aggression." 



Death of Pope Pius Mourned by A. F. of L. 

The Executive Council of the American Federatio;j of Labor, at its Winter 
meeting in Miami, Fla., adopted the following minutes on the death of Pope 
Pius XI: 

"The Executive Council was shocked and greatly grieved by the sudden pas- 
sing of Pope Pius XI. It joins with all our people — regardless of faith or of reli- 
gious affiliations — in expressing deep sorrow for the loss of this great religious 
and spiritual leader. 

"Pope Pius was not alone the leader of the Catholic world, he was likewise 
a great champion for and defender of the rights, liberties, welfare and well-being 
of the wage earners of the world over. His life's work for humanity, for peace, 
for democracy, for relief to the suffering and oppressed will long be remembered 
by all classes and by none more than by the working people. His death is a great 
loss and is received by labor in America in terms of deepest sympathy." 

William Green, president of the American Federation of Labor, added his 
own statement, as follows: 

"Pope Pius XI's interest in social, economic and labor problems was reflected 
in a most impressive way in his encyclical on labor. We regarded it as measuring 
up to the labor encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII." 

• 

Earth's worst tempters are gold and ambition. 



THE CARPENTER 



in 



11 



AVERAGE AMERICANS 

Oh, we are but average fellows, 

V/ho lead the most commonplace lives. 
Our names never stare from the "yellows," 

We never steal other men's wives; 
We're never caught cutting the capers 

Of those on Society's list, 
No stories we furnish the papers — 

We're men the reporters have missed. 

Nor wealthy, nor wild, nor romantic. 

Our lot on the level is cast. 
We never drive silly maids frantic 

To trace our mysterious past; 
The tenderloin doesn't adore us, 

We're neither be-curst nor be-kist. 
We couldn't tell one in the chorus, 

We're men the reporters have missed. 

It may be we bow to the fashion 

In owning an auto — what then? 
We are not possessed of the passion 

For running down babies or men. 
The killing of gentle old ladies 

Amuses us not, we insist; 
But then we're not headed for Hades, 

We're men the reporters have missed. 

Yes, we are but commonplace fellows. 

And ours is the average lot; 
Our lives don't appeal to the "yellows," 

We furnish no columns of "rot" ; 
And yet, gentle reader, don't blame us, 

'Twere better like this to exist 
Than shine with the foolishly famous — 

We're men the reporters have missed. 

—D. A. McCarty. 



u 



u 



l] 



^^sss? 



Editorial 




FRANK DUFFY, Editor 



LABOR IS jSOT RECEIVING ITS SHARE 

THE niaiiiifacturers of the United Stittes continue to add $6 to the price of 
their products at the door of the factory every time they give their em- 
ployes an additional $1 in wages. 

They have been doing that for a long time, as LABOR has repeatedly pointed 
out. All the facts are in the reports of the Census Bureau, in Uncle Sam's Depart- 
ment of Commerce. 

The latest Census of Manufacturers, covering the year 193 7, is just off the 
press. Let's compare its figures with those compiled by the same authority for 
1933. We find: 

Average number of wage earners in 1937, 8,569,578; in 1933, 5,787,611; an 
increase of 48.1 per cent. Total wages for 1937, $10,112,808,089; for 1933, $4,- 
940,146,002; an increase of 104.7 per cent. 

Value of products for 1937, $60,710,072,958; for 1933, $30,557,328,149; an 
increase of 9 8.7 per cent. 

Now let's take our pencils and do a little calculating: The increase in wages 
was a little over $5,000,000,000. That's very gratifying. But the increase in the 
value of products was more than $30,000,000,000, or six times as much as the in- 
crease in Avages. 

To be exact, labor's share of the things it produced in 1937 was 16.6 per cent; 
in 1933 it was 16.7 per cent. That reveals what we mean when we say that 
every time tlie employer put down an additional dollar on his payroll he added 
$6 to the value of his products. 

According to these official records, the same thing lias been happening for the 
last 30 years. Away back in 1909 the value of manufactured products was $20, 
672,051,870 and wages totalled $3,427,037,884, or 16.5 per cent. During all the 
intervening years, labor's share has not varied more than three-tenths of 1 per 
cent. 

There was a time when labor got a higher percentage. In 18 49 labor's share 
was 23.2 per cent; 40 years later, in 1889, it was 20.1 per cent; for the last 30 
years it has hovered around 16.5 per cent. 

Thus we discover one of the principal causes of our economic difficulties. 
Labor is not receiving its share. Thus labor lacks the buying power to stimulate 
American industry. 

If labor's share were restored to the 18 89 figure of 20.1 per cent, it would 
be necessary to grant employes of manufacturing concerns a horizontal wage in- 
crease of 25 per cent. For 1937 that would have amounted to about $2,500,000,- 
000. Had the workers secured that increase in 1937, there would have been no 
industrial recession in 1938. We would be out of the depression and on the high 
road to prosperity. 

Almost 20 years ago LABOR began calling attention to the story told by the 
figures supplied by this official Census of Manufacturers. It was the first paper 
in this country to perform that task. It will continue to do so, because we can 
never achieve enduring prosperity until the workers' buying power is broadly 
increased. 

So long as we permit employers to add $6 to the value of their products every 
time they add a dollar to wages, we are inviting disaster. In other words, higher 
wages and shorter hours remain the only solution for our economic problems. — 
Labor. 



THE CARPENTER 25 

MUCH REMAINS TO BE DONE 

THE 26th annual report of the Department of Labor is a readable and also 
remarkable survey of recent improvements in the status of labor, and also 
of the reforms still waiting to be accomplished. At the start the report, 
says : 

"Of particular significance in this fiscal year was the passage of the Fair 
Labor Standards Act, applying in interstate industries and putting a floor under 
wages, a ceiling over hours of work, and ending child labor in those industries. 

"While it is too early to evaluate fully the effect of this measure, there is no 
reason to doubt its ultimate contribution to the social and economic betterment 
of these United States." 

Noting that evei'ything which benefits labor also helps pretty nearly every one 
else, the report goes on: 

Already the beneficial effects of these policies have been shown in the marked 
economic gains made since 19.33 and shared in by workers, owners, and farmers. 
Weekly factory pay rolls, for instance, rose from $72,697,000 in March, 1933, to 
$134,271,000 by June, 1938, a gain of $61,574,000 or 85 per cent, and in the 
same period there was an advance in non-agricultural employment fi-om 25,946,- 
000 to 31,781,000, a rise of 5,835,000 or 22 per cent. Building construction in 
cities with a population of 2,500 and over went up from $287,739,000 in the first 
half of 1933 to $782,697,000 in the first half of 1938, an increase of 172.0 per 
cent." 

The report notes the improvement in state labor lav/s, and gives credit for 
some of this gain to the annual meetings of representatives of state governors at 
Washington. Then it takes up the things still to be done. 

"All the progress of recent years, encouraging as it is, must be balanced 
against needs still outstanding. On the debit side we still have 23 states with- 
out minimum-Avage legislation, 3 states without a legal limit of S hours, even 
for women, and 26 states with a legal weekly limit in excess of 48 hours (includ- 
ing 8 states with none at all). We have to face the fact that most hours laws 
fall short of covering all workers. . . . 

"Twenty-eight states still leave occupational diseases uncompensated under 
workmen's compensation laws — and very few of such laws as we have compen- 
sate for all diseases arising out of employment. 

"Perhaps most disconcerting of all is the fact that while workmen's compen- 
sation is our oldest form of major social legislation, and 4 6 states have such acts, 
actually today not more than half of our workers enjoy the protection of these 
laws." 

And in conclusion, the report gives the objectives of the Department's work 
for wage-earners: 

1. High wages on a national basis; 

2. Continuity of income; 

3. Stability of employment; 

4. Reasonable profits ^ 

5. Opportunity for investment of saving in expanding industries 
and in new industries; and 

6. The conservation and adequate utilization of natural resources, 
including human life and happiness. 



HUMANITY 3IAKCHES ON! 



THE character and extent of human progress should not bo judged by the 
immediate situation, whose seriousness we so easily over-emphasize be- 
cause it is the age in which we live, and by which we are personally affect- 
ed, but by the study of a period of time which will clearly show wherein human- 
ity has made substantial progress. 

Here are some of the facts to which we might give consideration. 
First, in international affairs: 



26 THE CARPENTER 

On Christmas Eve, 1814, Great Britain and the United States signed the 
Treaty of Glient, whicli on next Christmas Eve will have resulted in 12 5 years of 
continuous peace between these two countries. 

Trade agreements with nearly 20 countries throughout the world have brought 
the United States into closer economic relationships with these countries, thus 
breaking down barriers which have long kept them apart in bitter rivalry. 

The agreement which has just been entered into at the Lima Conference be- 
tween the United States and the 21 Countries of Latin America, by which we 
shall stand together in opposing aggression by countries across the seas, thus set- 
ting up a united front in the Western Hemisphere. 

Transportation facilities have so greatly improved, that instead of taking 
Aveeks and months to cover the continent, or to cross the sea, the journey may now 
be made in a fraction of the time formerly required. 

Communication has drawn together the people of the world so that we may 
converse with anybody, anywhere, anytime, instead of wearily waiting for the 
slower processes of former days. 

Second, in social, economic and physical conditions: 

Whereas at one time many of the workers of the United States were em- 
ployed 16 hours a day, for which they received very low wages, the hours of labor 
have been cut in two and the wages received have been multiplied. 

Standards of living for all toilers have been vastly improved, so that today 
they enjoy comforts many of which were at one time the exclusive privilege of 
the royalty. 

Death rates have been decreased to such an extent that today the average 
length of life is twice as long as it was a few generations ago, and certain forms 
of illness which in former days were responsible for plagues that threatened to 
wipe out entire communities, have almost completely disappeared. 

Third, in education, religion and general culture: 

Education which Avas once the privilege of a small minority of the people, has 
advanced so generally that illiteracy in our country is now almost negligible. 

Religion, which once divided the people into bitter opponents, is now bringing 
together for mutual cooperation Protestants, Jews and Catholics, who work in 
close harmony to bring in a better world. 

America has become the haven of countless millions from foreign lands, who 
have become important factors in building up our country, contributing the 
wealth of their traditions and their cultures, making the United States the rich- 
est country in the Avorld. 



A MUCH NEEDED SURVEY 



EVERY business man is talking about his tax problem. Yet no one actually 
knows the present tax burden on trade or industry. It is well known that 
the tax load on business has grown heavier in recent years, that taxes fre- 
quently absorb a large part of potential profits. Nevertheless, business men do 
not know which industries carry the heaviest burden; whether taxes bear most 
heavily on small, medium or large concerns; or how much tax is Federal, how 
much State and Local. 

Currently two million questionnaires are being mailed to every business con- 
cern listed in the Dun & Bradstreet's Reference Book. Every manufacturer, whole- 
saler and retailer in the country is asked to give his experience. The questions 
have been prepared with the advice of leading business men, economists and tax 
experts to yield a maximum of information with minimum effort on the part of 
contributors. 



Most men have more courage than even they themselves think they have. 

• 

Keep Your Dues Paid Up 



Official Information 




General OflScers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AlVIERICA 



General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Geneeal President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



FiEST Gexekal Vice-President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Genkbal Secbktabx 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second Gbnebal Vice-Pbesident 
S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Gbnebal Tbeasdbeb 

THOMAS NEALE 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Execctive Board 



First District, T. M. GUERIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Fiftli District, R. E. ROBERTS 
1231 N. Winnetka St., Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
200 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Third District. HARRY SCHWARZBR 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
6375 Chambord St., Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 

4155 Lakeshore Blvd., Jacksonville, Fla. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



AH correspondence for t he General Executive Board must be sent to the G eneral Secretary. 

STAYAWAY NOTICES 

Any report that work is plentiful in Rochester, N. Y. is false. Local 72 wishes 
to advise that two-thirds of its members are unemployed. 

^ a^ * in in 

Building in New Orleans, La., is not progressing as we anticipated, 
therefore we request you stayaway as we have ample men to take care of the 
Avork. 

C. H. Gravois, Recording SecrctaiT, Local 184(5. 



We have more than enough carpenters in Scottsbluff, Neb. to take care of our 
1939 building progi-am. 

Ted R. Johnson, Recording Secretai-y. 





NEW CHARTERS 


ISSUED 




2213 


Tonkawa, Okla. 


2661 


Fordyce, Ark. 


2214 


Festus, Rio. 


2227 


Montevallo, Ala. 


2215 


Marlin, Texas 


1324 


Rochester, N. H. 


2216 


Chattanooga, Tenn. 


2228 


Liberty, Tex. 


2219 


Houston, Tex. 


265S 


Schofield, Wis. 


2220 


Douglas, Wyo. 


2660 


Huttig, Ark. 


2221 


Opelika, Ala. 


1975 


Graham, Tex. 


2223 


Dothan. Ala. 


2155 


Oroville. Calif. 


2224 


Jacksonville, Fla. 


2229 


Ft. Lauderdale, ] 


2225 


Gideon, Mo. 


2657 


Kansas City, Rio. 


2226 


Effingham, 111. 







Fla. 



28 THE CARPENTER 

REGULAR MEETING OF THE GENERAL EXECUTIVE 

BOARD, 1939 

Since the previous meeting of the General Executive Board the following trade 
movements Avere acted upon. 

November 21, 1938. 
Columbus, Indiana, L. U. 1155. — Movement for the 40 hour week, effective 
January 1, 19 3 9. Official sanction granted. 

November 2 5, 1938. 
Santa Cruz, Calif., L. U. 829. — Movement for an increase in wages from ?1.0U 
to $1.25 per hour. Official sanction granted. 

December 5, 1938. 
Crawfordsville, Indiana, L. U. 1355. — Movement for an increase in wages 
from 90c to $1.10 per hour, effective January 23, 1939. Official sanction granted, 
without financial aid. 

December 13, 19 38. 
Johnstown, Pa., L. U. 1419. — Movement for an increase in wages from $1.00 
to $1.15 per hour and the 40 hour week, effective April 1, 1939. Official sanction 
granted. 

December 15, 1938. 
Hornell, N. Y., L. U. 1295. — Movement for an increase in v/ages from $1.00 
to $1.12% per hour and the 40 hour week, effective January 7, 1939. Official 
sanction granted, without financial aid. 

Dover, N. H., L. U. 1031. — Movement for an increase in wages from 80c to 
$1.00 per hour, effective January 1, 1939. Official sanction granted. 

December 16, 1938. 
Penn Yan, N. Y., L. U. 9 9 6. — Movement for an increase in wages and shorter 
hours, effective January 1, 19 39. Official sanction granted. 

State College, Pa., L. U. 1333. — Movement for an increase in wages from 9 0c 
to $1.00 and $1.25 per hour on heavy construction, effective January 1, 1939. 
Official sanction granted. 

December 21, 19 3 8. 
Chattanooga, Tenn., L. U. 74. — Movement for an increase in wages from $1.10 
to $1.25 per hour, effective February 1, 1939. Official sanction granted, withon.t 
financial aid. 

January 4, 19 39. 
Mobile, Ala., L. U. 89. — ^Movement for an increase in Avages from 90c to §1.00 
per hour and 40 hour week, effective February 1, 19 39. Official sanction granted. 

January 6, 193 9. 
Sayre, Pa., L. U. 145. — -Movement for an increase in wages from Soc to $1.00 
per hour, effective January 1, 1939. Official sanction granted. 

January 10, 19 39. 
Warren, Pa., L. U. 1014. — Movement for an increase in Avages from $1.00 to 
$1.25 per hour, effective January 2, 1939. Official sanction granted. 

Carpenters' Home, 
Lakeland, Florida. 
January 17, 1939. 
The General Executive Board met in regular session at Carpenters' Home, 
Lakeland, Florida on January 17, 1939, all members present. 

The report of the Delegates to the Thirty-first annual convention of the Union 
Label Trades Department of the American Federation of Labor held in Houston, 
Texas, September 2 9th and 30th, 19 38 was received and referred to the General 
Secretary for publication in The Carpenter. 

The request of the "Wisconsin State Council of Carpenters, to list each Local 
Union separate and in its respective place in the October issue of our official 



THE CAR TENTER 29 

monthly journal The Carpenter, giving meeting place, meeting night, rates of 
wages, hours worked per day and week, and other such information, was care- 
fully considered by the General Executive Board and as District Councils have 
authority, among other things to establish working hours, rates of wages and 
working conditions, and to enforce same, the Board could not see the necessity 
of publishing this information twice, first under the head of District Councils 
and then under the head of Local Unions; therefore the request was denied. 

Audit of books and accounts of the Home commenced and continued the bal- 
ance of the day. 

January IS, 1939. 

Tiffin, Ohio, L. U. 243. — Movement for an increase in wages from 75c to 90c 
per hour, effective April 1, 1939. Official sanction granted without financial aid. 

Waukesha, Wise, L. U. 3 44. — Movement for the establishment of a rate of 
wages of $1.00 per hour on all classes of carpenter work to take effect April 1, 
1939. Official sanction granted. 

Ann Arbor, Mich., L. U. 512. — Movement for an increase in wages from $1.0U 
to $1.25 per hour to take effect March 1, 1939. Official sanction granted without 
financial aid. 

Columbus, Ga., L. U. 1723. — Movement for an increase in wages from 75c to 
$1.00 per hour to take effect March 15, 1939. Official sanction granted. 

Audit of books and accounts of the Home continued. 

January 19, 19 39. 

Youngstown, Ohio, L. U. 171. — Movement for an increase in wages from 
$1.25 to $1.37 1/^ per hour, effective March 1, 1939. The Board cannot sanction 
any trade movement until our laws have been fully complied with. 

Vero Beach, Florida, L. U. 1447. — Movement for an increase in A\Tages from 
80c to $1.00 per hour and the 40 hour week to take effect February 15, 1939. 
Official sanction granted. 

Valpariso, Ind., L. U. 1873. — Movement for an increase in wages from $1.12 I/3 
to $1.25 per hour to take effect April 1, 1939. Official sanction granted. 

Audit of books and accounts of the Home continued. 

January 20, 1939. 

Clarks Summit, Pa., L, U. 339. — Movement for an increase in wages from 
$1.00 to $1.12 V^ per hour, effective April 1, 1939. Official sanction granted. 

The following resolutions were received from Local Union 1859, Minneapolis, 
Minn., and met with the full approval of the General Executive Board. 

WHEREAS, resolution No. 8 9, introduced at the 1938, Houston convention of 
the A. F. of L. constitutes an application by the Upholsterers International for 
extension of their jurisdiction to include all Upholstered Furniture, Bedding, 
Mattress and Casket Workers, and 

AVHEREAS, the largest portion of the organized workers in these fields are 
now organized in Local Unions of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners; and further, these thousands of Frame and Casket Workers not only 
have chosen the United Brotherhood of their own free will, they desire to main- 
tain that afliliation, and 

WHEREAS, the making of frames for upholstered furniture and also the 
building of all wooden caskets is a woodworking operation properly coming under 
the jurisdiction of the Carpenters' Woodworkers' Locals, and 

WHEREAS, the forced transfer of these Casket and Frame workers to another 
jurisdiction would not meet with the approval of these workers, and would result 
in great damage to the present status of these workers, therefore be it 

RESOLVED, that this Local Union of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America protest to the Elxecutive Council of the A. F. of L. against 
any decision that would grant jurisdiction over these workers to any other organ- 
ization than the Carpenters Brotherhood, and be it further 



30 THE CARPENTER 

RESOLVED, that copies of this resolution be forwarded to President William 
Green, asking that same be brought before the next meeting of the Executive 
Council at which the aforementioned resolution No. 8 9 is considered; and also that 
copies be sent to President Hutcheson of the United Brotherhood in order that he 
may take such action as the facts warrant to protect the interests of the workers 
involved. 

"WHEREAS, resolution No. 9 introduced at the 19 3 8 Houston convention of 
the A. F. of L. constitutes an application by the Upholsters International for 
transfer of existing Federal Labor Unions in the Upholstered Furniture, Bedding, 
and Casket Industries to that International, and 

WHEREAS, unity of organization in these fields with the existing organized 
furniture worker unions is essential to further progress and to hold gains now 
enjoyed, and 

WHEREAS, the thousands of such workers now organized within the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters desire to maintain their present affiliation, and at the 
same time desire and realize the urgent necessity of the unity above referred to, 
therefore be it. 

RESOLVED, that this Local Union of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America protest to the Executive Council of the A. F. of L. against 
the transfer of any of the above mentioned existing Federal Labor Unions to any 
other jurisdiction except the Carpenters Brotherhood, be it further 

RESOLVED, that copies of this resolution be sent to President Wm. Green, 
that he may call same to the attention of the Executive Council when it considers 
action on the above mentioned resolution No. 90; and also sent to General Presi- 
dent Hutcheson of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters in order that the Broth- 
erhood may use its full influence within the said Eexcutive Council to prevent 
the transfer of these workers to any other jurisdiction outside the Brotherhood. 

Approved by Local Union No. 1859, 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
SEAL. Fred Diedrick, President 

Edw. P. Kirby, Recording Secretary. 

Audit of books and accounts of the Home continued. 

January 23, 19 39. 

York, Pa., L. U. 191. — Movement for an increase in wages from 75c to 90c 
per hour and the 40 hour week, to take effect April 1, 1939. Official sanction 
granted without financial aid. 

Appeal of L. U. 1016, Rome, N. Y., from the decision of the General Treasurer 
in disapproving claim on account of death of Wm. D. Williams, L. U. 1016, 
Rome, N. Y. The decision of the General Treasurer was sustained on grounds set 
forth therein and the appeal was dismissed. 

Appeal of Mrs. Agnes Cerneckis, wife of Boleslaw Cerneckis from the decision 
of the General Treasurer in disapproving the claim on account of the death of 
Boleslaw Cerneckis of Local Union 23, Worcester, Mass. The decision of the 
General Treasurer v/as sustained on grounds set forth therein and the appeal was 
dismissed. 

The request of the Wisconsin State Council of Carpenters "To prepare and 
issue to all affiliated Local Unions, in pamphlet or book form its decisions and in- 
structions on all material to be applied by Carpenters at the present time" was 
referred to the General President for further consideration and action. 

Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, L. U. 13 2 5. — Request for an appropriation for 
organizing purposes. Request denied. 

St. Catherines, Ont., Can. Frontier District Council, request for an appropria- 
tion for organizing purposes. Request denied. 

Livermore, Ky., L. U. 1554. — Accounting of appropriation made for relief of 
men on strike, received and filed. We are pleased to learn that the strike has been 
settled and that an agreement has been signed for one year. 



THE CARPENTER 31 

Fort Frances, Ont., Can. Rainey River District Council, requests the General 
Executive Board to assign an Organizer for the Lumber and Sawmill Workers 
in the Province of Ontario. Referred to the General President. 

Fort Frances, Ont., Can. Rainey River District Council requests the General 
Executive Board not to disrupt our relations with the Canadian Labor Movement. 
Referred to the General President. 

Audit of books and accounts of the Home continued. 

January 24, 1939. 

The appeal of the Los Angeles County District Council from the decision of the 
General President in the case of B. F. Summers et al, versus the Los Angeles 
County District Council. The decision of the General President was sustained 
on the grounds set forth therein and the appeal was dismissed. 

The General President submitted the following report from a Sub-Committee 
of the Board on 

CONFERENCE BETAVEEN REPRESENTATIVES OF UPHOLSTERERS, 
PAINTERS AND CARPENTERS 

The Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America entered 
into an agreement with the Upholsterers, Furniture, Carpet, Linoleum and Awn- 
ing Workers' International Union of North AmeVica on June 30, 1938 as follows: 

THE AGREEMENT 

AGREEMENT made this 3 0th day of June, 19 38, by and between the Brother- 
hood of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America, an International 
Labor Union affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, hereinafter called 
the "PAINTERS," and Upholsterers, Furniture, Carpet, Linoleum and Awning 
Workers' International Union of North America, an International Union aftiliated 
with the American Federation of Labor, hereinafter called the "UPHOLSTER- 
ERS." 

WHEREAS, each of the contracting parties to this agreement is an interna- 
tional labor union affiliated with the American Federation of Labor; and 

WHEREAS, each of the parties hereto have had, heretofore granted to it by 
the American Federation of Labor, jurisdiction over employees engaged in certain 
crafts, as set forth in the respective Constitutions and By-Laws; and 

WHEREAS, divers jurisdictional disputes have hertofore occurred between the 
respective parties hereto; and 

WHEREAS, it is the mutuar desire of the respective parties to settle these 
divers jurisdictional differences; 

Now, THEREFORE, it is, in consideration of the mutual covenants herein 
contained, agreed as follows: 

1. The Upholsters agree to transfer to the Painters all local unions and mem- 
bership and relinquish jurisdiction on linoleum cutting, laying and measuring; 
linoleum work on floors, walls and ceilings; sheet rubber on floors and walls and 
ceilings; laying of floor covering material in sheets, squares or interlocking; lay- 
ing, measuring, cutting and fitting of carpets; laying of matting, linen crash and 
other floor coverings; fitting of all devices for the attachment of carpets and other 
floor coverings, which shall include drilling of holes for sockets and pins. The 
iuembership of the locals involved is approximately three thousand, in thirty local 
unions, excluding women workers, who shall be retained by the upholsterers but 
who shall receive protection on jobs from the Painters. 

2. The Painters concede that the following work is within the jurisdiction of 
the Upholstei'ers' International Union. The hanging, cutting, measuring, estimat- 
ing and sewing of draperies, curtains, window shades and awnings, cutting and 
sewing of furniture covering and slip covers; cutting and sewing and making up 
cushions. Drilling holes in stone, metal cement, wood, etc., for the purpose of 
installing or attaching fixtures which are a part of the equipment used with the 



32 THE CARPENTER 

work above enumerated; window trimming and display workers, awning, canopy, 
tent and canvas workers; upholstery, curtain, drapery sewers, carpet sewers and 
sewers of all materials used in the upholstery industry. 

3. The Painters relinquish to the Upholsterers their jurisdiction of Finishers 
and Varnishers in Upholstered furniture, bedding and Burial Casket Factories. 

4. The Painters agree to transfer to the Upholsterers any and all upholster- 
ers, bedding, Burial Casket and Awning Workers, who are now members of the 
Painters' Brotherhood. 

5. Any workers who are acknowledged, herein, to be under the jurisdiction 
of the Upholsterers and who are now members of Painters, with the exception of 
those specified in Paragraph 1, shall be transferred to the Upholsterers upon the 
consummation of this agreement. 

6. It is agreed that the Carpet and Linoleum Layers, within the Brotherhood 
of Painters, will be guaranteed trade autonomy and will be permitted to form a 
National Council, if they so desire. The Painters agree to protect the jurisdiction 
of the Carpet and Linoleum Layers by every means at their disposal. 

7. It is agreed that all Carpet and Linoleum Layers' Locals, now in the 
Upholsterers, must pay the per capita tax up to and including May 31, 1938, to 
the Upholsterers, before being released to the Painters and that they shall be 
transferred to the Painters as of June 1, 19 38. 

8. The parties hereto mutually agree, by and between each other, to co- 
operate with each other in the enforcement of each and every covenant, condition 
and provision herein contained, in all proceedings that may arise pertaining to 
any of the items herein contained, before the Executive Council of the American 
Federation of Labor, the National Labor Relations Board or any of its Regional 
Boards in any part of the United States, or before any State Labor Relations 
Board in any of the States of the United States, and to call to the attention of any 
of the above mentioned bodies the existence of this agreement between the par- 
ties hereto; and each of the parties agree to do everything in their respective 
powers to bring about the complete enforcement of this agreement in any and 
all other places and at any and all times during the continuance of this agree- 
ment. 

IN "WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have hereunto set their respec- 
tive seals and executed this agreement by the authority of the respective Inter- 
national General Executive Boards, on the day and year first above written. 

Signed for the Upholsterers' International Union. 
Sal B. Hoffman, Int'l Pres. 
George V. Fay, IntT Sec.-Treas. 

Signed for the Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers. 
L. P. Lindelof, Gen'l Pres. 
George Tuckbreiter, 1st G. V. P. 
Jos. F. Kelley, 2nd G. V. P. 
Edward Ackerley, 3rd G. V. P. 
Joseph F. Clarke, 4th G. V. P. 
M. H: Crow, 5th G. V. P. 
L. M. Raftery, 6th G. V. P. 
Arthur W. Wallace, Sec.-Treas. D. C, 14, 

(Representing Linoleum Workers of Chicago, 111.) 

SUPPLEMEXTARY AGREEMENT 

The General Executive Board of the Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and 
Paperhangers of America will grant the Upholsterers, Furniture, Carpet, Linoleum 
and Awning Workers' International Union of North America the sum of Fifteen 
Thousand ($15,000.00) Dollars, to be expended by the Upholsterers' International 
Union for cooperative organizing purposes, to protect the jurisdiction of both 
International Unions. 



THE CARPENTER 33 

This Memorandum will become effective when the agreement entered into is 
approved by President William Green of the American Federation of Labor. 

Signed, L. P. Lindelof, General President. 
George Tuckbreiter, 1st G. V. P. 
.Tos. F. Kelley, 2nd G. V. P. 
Edward Ackerley, 3rd G. V. P. 
Joseph F. Clarke, 4th G. V. P. 
M. H. Crow, 5th G. V. P. 
L. M. Raftery, 6 th G. V. P. 

As the terms of this agreement constituted an infringement on the jurisdiction 
of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, General President 
Hutcheson protested the approval of this agreement by the American Federation 
of Labor. 

The agreement and Protest was submitted to the Executive Council of the A. 
F. of L. at its regular meeting held in Atlantic City, New Jersey, in August, 1938. 

At that meeting, Secretary Duffy of the Carpenters protested the approval of 
the agreements for several reasons; 

1st. There is no such an organization affiliated with or chartered by the 
American Federation of Labor as the Upholsterers, Furniture, Carpet, Linoleum 
and Awning Workers' International Union of North America. 

2nd. Furniture Workers belong to the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America, ever since the Convention of the A. F. of L. in 1911 when the 
Amalgamated Wood Workers to which the Furniture Workers belonged were 
ordered by Roll Call vote of that Convention to affiliate with the United Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

3rd. That no part of the $15,000.00 given the Upholsterers, Furniture, Carpet, 
Linoleum and Awning Workers' International Union of North America by the 
Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America could be used 
to organize Furniture Workers. 

4th. That the fitting, cutting and laying of cork tile. Composition tile. Linoleum 
tile, Rubber tile, interlocking tile, etc., belongs to the Carpenters. 

The Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor refused to approve 
the Agreement, and directed President Green of the A. F. of L. to call a conference 
of all parties interested at the earliest possible date for the purpose of arriving at 
an understanding. 

In accordance with these instructions President Green called a conference at 
Headquarters of the A. F. of L. in Washington, D. C. on Wednesday, November 
30th, 1938. 

The Brotherhood of Painters were represented by; 
General President Lindelof 
2nd General Vice-President Kelley, 
and another Vice-President. 

The Upholsterers were represented bj'; 

President Hoffman, and their New York City Business Agent. 

The Carpenters were represented by; 

1st General Vice-President M. A. Hutcheson, 

General Secretary Frank Duffy, 

2nd District Board Member W. J. Kelly, 

3rd District Board Member Harry Schwarzer. 

President Green acted as Chairman of the Conference and read the Agreement 
and Protest. 

President Lindelof of the Painters asked for a copy of the protest and President 
Green of the A. F. of L. had copies made for each member of the Conference. 

It herewith follows: 



34 THE CARPENTER 

Mr. Wm. L. Hutclieson, General President 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

July 28, 19 38. 
Mr. Wm. Green, President, 
American Federation of Labor, 
A. F. of L. Building, 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir and Brother: 

There has come to my attention a copy of agreement recently entered into be- 
tween the Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America and 
the Upholsterers International organization. 

For your information I herewith quote copy of communication addressed to 
Mr. Joseph A. Mclnerney, President, Building and Construction Trades Department 
by President Lindelof of the Painters organization. 

"Upon my return to the office today I received your Day letter of July 8, 19 38 
pertaining to the strike on the part of the Glaziers on the Glyckman job, New York 
City, and in answer thereto will say it will be necessary for me to inject a brief 
summary regarding what has taken place between the Upholsterers and Brother- 
hood of Painters. 

"As you know the. controversy between these two internationals has existed for 
many years terminating two years ago with the Brotherhood taking over some 
locals formerly affiliated with the Upholsterers' International. 

"You are familiar with the action taken by the A. F. of L. at their last two 
conventions. 

"The Upholsterers and Representatives of the Upholsterers and the Brother- 
hood of Painters' representatives have met with committees of the Executive Coun- 
cil and several times with President Green endeavoring to get an adjustment. At 
the last meeting of the Executive Council of the B. T. D. you will recall Green re- 
quested me to appear before the Executive Council of the A. P. of L., then in 
session. 

"The Executive Council as well as President Green implored me to exert every 
endeavor to adjust the difficulty between the Upholsterers and our Brotherhood. 
They wanted an adjustment on just any basis satisfactory to both international 
organizations and I agreed to do all I could to bring same about before the next 
convention. 

"The outcome is that the Executive Council of the Upholsterers' International 
Organization and the General Executive Board of the Brotherhood of Painters met 
here early in June and arrived at an agreement whereby the Upholsterers were to 
turn over to our Brotherhood all members known as LINOLEUM MECHANICS 
and after this agreement had been ratified by the convention of the Upholsterers' 
International in Cincinnati the last v/eek in June, — this agreement was carried out 
and charters issued to LINOLEUM MECHANICS formerly affiliated with the Up- 
holsterers' International. 

"Inclosed (for your information) find copy of the agreement entered into. 
President Green is likewise being furnished with copy. 

"We realize while this to some extent ended the dispute between the Uphol- 
sterers and Brotherhood of Painters there are yet many features to be ironed out. 
However in vieAV of the fact that the Upholsterers have relinquished jurisdiction 
over all linoleum work to the Brotherhood of Painters we feel there should be no 
serious dispute arise in the fviture." 

You will note in said letter he sets forth, at the last meeting of the Executive 
Council of the American Federation of Labor the Executive Council and yourself 
implored him to exert every endeavor to adjust the difficulty between the Uphol- 
sterers and their Brotherhood, and that they wanted an adjustment on any basis 
satisfactory to both organizations. 

I am not censoring the Executive Council or yourself in requesting that Presi- 
dent Lindelof exert every possible effort to reach an adjustment with the Uphol- 



THE CARPENTER 35 

sterers, but the agreement entered into, copy of which I have, and in his communi- 
cation he states he sent a copy to you, sets forth, among other things, that tlie 
Painters sliall liave jurisdiction over tlie laying of floor covering material in sheets, 
squares or interlocking. 

For many years members of our organization have been employed in laying 
various types of floor covering such as rubber tiling, cork tiling, mastic tiling, etc., 
and we do not propose to relinquish claim to jurisdiction for that type of work 
to the Painters, merely because they entered into an agreement with the Uphol- 
sterers, wherein the Upholsterers consented to the Painters having the right to do 
that work. 

Xever in the history of building construction has the Painters performed the 
work of applying any type of floor covering. 

The purpose of this communication is to convey to you our position in the 
matter. 

Fraternally yours, 

(s) WM. L. HUTCHESON, 

General President. 

Secretary Duffy of the Carpenters accused President Hoffman of the Uphol- 
sterers of taking advantage of the Painters in several ways. 

First, entering into an agreement with the Painters under an assumed name. 

Second, giving to the Painters, work the Upholsterers never had — the laying 
of flooring such as Linoleum tile. Composition tile, Cork tile. Rubber tile. Inter- 
locking tile, etc., which belongs to the Carpenters. 

Third, making the Painters believe the Upholsterers had this class of work. 

Your representatives pointed out that the Painters never had at any time in 
the history of the labor movement the laying of any kind of flooring. 

President Lindelof of the Painters tried to explain that he and his associates 
did not know that the Upholsterers used an assumed name and they took for 
granted that they were dealing with the Upholsterers' International Union of 
North America. 

Secretary Duffy of the Carpenters then presented the protest of the General 
Executive Board of the Carpenters on change of name of the Upholsterers: 

"December 23, 1937" 

Mr. William Green, President, 
American Federation of Labor 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir and Brother: 

You are herewith officially notified that the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America most vigorously protests The Upholsterers' International 
Union of North America using the name, "The Upholsterers' Furniture, Carpet, 
Linoleum and Awning Workers' International Union of North America" as that 
is an infringement on the jurisdiction of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America. The Upholsterers are using this new name or title con- 
tinually in violation of Section 11, Article IX of the Constitution of the American 
Federation of Labor which specifies that "No afllliated International, National or 
Local Union shall be permitted to change its title or name if any trespass is made 
thereby on the jurisdiction of an affiliated organization without having first ob- 
tained the consent and approval of a Convention of the American Federation of 
Labor. 

Please see to it that the Upholsterers discontinue using this new name herein 
before mentioned and oblige. 

Fraternally yours, 

FRANK DUFFY, 

General Secretary. 



36 THE CARPENTER 

President Hoffman of the Upholsterers read several communications from 
President Hutcheson of the Carpenters and demanded to knoAv when the Carpen- 
ters were given this work. 

Your representatives replied that the Carpenters always had it and that they 
would not surrender it to the Painters or anyone else. It was their work and they 
would do it no matter what the cost may be. 

We accused President Hoffman of the Upholsterers of not being on the square 
with those present, that he read several letters dated 19 37 and 1938 and asked 
him why he did not read a letter from Secretary Morrison of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor dated June 22, 19 3 7, which throws a lot of light on this case and at 
the same time the action of the Executive Council of the A. F. of L. on the pro- 
posed change of title of the Upholsterers in the year 1930 to that of Upholsterers, 
Carpet and Linoleum Mechanics' International Union of North America. 

On this matter we submitted the following documents: 

'^June 22, 1937" 

Mr. Sal. B. Hoffman, President 

Upholsterers' International Union of North America 

230 East Fifty-eighth Street, 

New York, N. Y. 

Dear Sir and Brother: 

Your telegram dated June 21st received. 

Replying, I will advise that charter was originally issued to your inter- 
national Union on September 20, 1900, under the title of Upholsterers' Interna- 
tional Union of North America, and a duplicate charter was issued on February 
9, 1922 under the same title. 

There is no record that a change of title has been authorized for your Inter- 
national Union. Our records do show that in January 1930, the Executive Coun- 
cil acted upon an application for your International Union for change of title to 
read: "Upholsterers', Carpet and Linoleum Mechanics' International Union of 
North America." The ExecutiA'^e Council directed that a copy of the jurisdiction 
Claims filed with the application be sent to President Hutcheson of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners. I attach a copy of a communication re- 
ceived from President Hutcheson in which protest was filed against the author- 
ization of the change. 

The records of the Council further show that in June, 19 31, President Kohn, 
under direction of the General Executive Board of the International Union, form- 
ally withdrew the application for change of title. This information was communi- 
cated to the Executive Council at the following meeting, August 1931. 

I might advise that we also have been advised by President J. W. Williams of 
the Building Trades Department of the American Federation of Labor that in lay- 
ing floors of linoleum, cork, rubber, tile, etc., the jurisdiction of other building 
trades organizations is involved. 

In the use of the title "Upholsterers, Furniture, Carpet, Linoleum and Awn- 
ing Workers International Union," you may be under the impression that this 
title was authorized by the American Federation of Labor. As I have indicated 
however the American Federation of Labor has not authorized any change from 
the original title — Upholsterers' International Union of North America. 

With best wishes, I am 

Yours fraternally, 

(s) FRANK MORRISON, 

Secretary-Treasurer, 

American Federation of Labor. 



THE CARPENTER 37 

Wm. L. Hutcheson, General President, 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 

Joiners of America. 

Office: Carpenters' Building, 

222 East Michigan Street 

Indianapolis, Indiana. 

"February 5, 193 0" 

Mr. Wm. Green, President, 
American Federation of Labor, 
A. F. of L. Building, 
Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir and Brother: 

I have your communication of January 2 7th in regards to the request of the 
Upholsterers' International Union for a change in title, and also, as I take it, 
recognition of increased jurisdiction of work. 

I note among the various work mentioned by them in their claims is the lay- 
ing of cork, rubber and all forme of Lino-Tile. Also the slatting of all walls for 
the hanging of fabrics tacked on the walls. The drilling of all holes in wood, etc., 
for the purpose of installing or attaching fixtures. 

To one who is conversant with work in connection with building construction 
claims of that kind by the Upholsterers is ridiculous in the extreme. While they 
have always been conceded the right to lay carpets, and also the laying of ordi- 
nary linoleum they never have been conceded the right to lay cork, rubber or 
any other form of tile, or the heavier forms of rubber flooring. For instance many 
of the rubber companies like the U. S. and others make a form of floor covering 
which is sometimes laid in tile form, again it is laid in sheet form, but in each 
instance it is laid in a glue material; some people might call it cement, but it is 
a glue substance the same as is used for laying cork tiling and the same as is 
often used in laying parquette flooring and the manner of laying rubber tiling, 
cork tiling or similar materials is identical with the laying of parquette flooring, 
and our organization never would consent to the Upholsterers or any other organ- 
ization being given jurisdiction over that class of work. Neither would we con- 
sent to them being given jurisdiction of nailing on furring, or slats as they term 
it, for wall decoration, or the drilling or boring of holes for the purpose of install- 
ing fixtures of any kind. 

Fraternally yours, 

(s) W:\r. L. HUTCHESON, 

General President. 

JURISDICTION OVER LINOLEUM MECHANICS 

E. C. Minutes, 
January 8-17, 103 
St. Petersburg, Florida. 

The application was considered of the Upholsterers' International Union of 
North America for change of title to read — "Upholsterers', Carpet and Linoleum 
Mechanics' International Union of North America." Attention was called to the 
fact that the Carpenters are doing work in branches of linoleum floor covering. 

It was decided that the matter be laid over until Vice-President Duffy is 
present. 

The Council took up again the charter application of the Upholsterers' Inter- 
national Union for change of title to "Upholsterers' Carpet and Linoleum Mechan- 
ics" International Union of North America." 

It was decided that a copy of the jurisdiction claims filed with this applica- 
tion be sent to President Hutcheson of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners, and that further consideration of the application be laid over until the 
next meeting of the Executive Council. 



38 THE CARPENTER 

President Hutcheson of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America was advised of tlie application for change of title. He replied; (Letter 
dated February 5, 19 30.) 

"While they have always been conceded the right to lay carpets, 
and also the laying of ordinary linoleum they never have been con- 
ceded the right to lay cork, rubber or any other form of tile, or the 
heavier forms of rubber flooring. For instance many of the rubber 
companies like the U. S. and others make a form of floor covering 
Avhich is sometimes laid in tile form, again it is laid in sheet form, 
but in each instance it is laid in a glue material; some people might 
call it cement, but it is a glue substance the same as is used for lay- 
ing cork tiling and the same as is often used in laying parquette 
flooring and the manner of laying rubber tiling, cork tiling and simi- 
lar materials is identical with the laying of parquet flooring, and our 
organization never would consent to the Upholsterers' or any other 
organization being given jurisdiction over that class of work. 
Neither would we consent to them being given jurisdiction of nail- 
ing on furring, or slats as they term it for wall decoration, or the 
drilling or boring of holes for the purpose of installing fixtures 
of any kind." 

President Kohn of the Upholsterers was duly informed and was asked to file 
any further statement that he might desire in response to the position of the 
Carpenters. 

June 2 2, 1931 — President Kohn under direction of the General Executive 
Board of the Upholsterers' International Union formally withdrew the applica- 
tion for change in title. 
E. C. Minutes, 
August 6-19, 1931. 
Atlantic City, N. J. 

The Executive Council was informed that the application of the Upholsterers 
for change of title to include linoleum mechanics has been withdrawn. 

After the submission of these documents the Painters did not have much to 
say. 

However, as the Upholsterers gave away the laying of certain types of flooring 
to the Painters that means they relinquished all claims to that work, and the 
Upholsterers can not lay claim now to the laying of any kinds of floors. 

President Green ruled that as far as the A. F. of L. is concerned there is no 
agreement between the Painters and Upholsterers. 

Signed, 

M. A. HUTCHESON, 
FRANK DUFFY, 
WM. J. KELLY, 
HARRY SCHWARZER.. 

The report of the Committee was unanimously approved. 

^ ^ :i: ^ :^ 

Audits of books and accounts of the Home continued. 

January 25, 1939. 

Norwich, Conn., L. U. 137. — Movement for an increase in wages from. 80c to 
$1.00 per hour and the 40 hour work week to take effect April 1, 1939. OQicial 
sanction granted. 

Beacon, N. Y., L. U. 323. — Movement for an increase in wages from |10.00 
to $11.00 per day and the 7 hour work day to take effect April 1, 1939. Official 
sanction granted. 

Audits of books and accounts of the Home continued. 



THE CARPENTER 39 

January 26, 19 39. 
Harrisburg, Pa., L. U. 28 7. — Movement for an increase in wages from $1.00 
to $1.25 per hour to take effect January 1, 1939. The laws must first be complied 
with before the General Executive Board can sanction a trade movement. 
Audit of books and accounts of the Home continued. 

January 27, 1939. 
Audit of books and accounts of the Home completed. 

In auditing the Books and Accounts of our Home at Lakeland, Florida the 
Board found the Superintendent of the Home, Harry Allen, was short in his ac- 
counts. He acknowledged his shortage. 

The United States Fidelity and Guarantee Company under which, he (Allen) 
is bonded was immediately notified and claim was made for the shortage. He was 
then discharged. 

There being no further business to come before the Board the minutes were 
read and approved and the meeting adjourned. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FRANK DUFFY, Secretary. 



Our Hidden Taxes 

AN INVESTIGATION by the Illinois Federation of Retail Asso- 
ciations disclose that 28 cents of every $1 spent for retail pur- 
chases goes to the government in hidden taxes. Its survey shows 
that 125 different taxes are paid on such purchases as new over- 
alls, dresses, dishes, furniture and other retail items. Thc}^ are levied 
on the raw products, on the manufacturers and in other ways all along 
the line to the ultimate consumer. Those who make and handle the goods 
have no alternative except to add the tax to the cost price and the ulti- 
mate consumer pays the Ijill. 

The association's survey report says, for example, "When your fav- 
orite shops sells you a new cotton dress at $7.85 yoti get about $5.65 worth 
of dress and about $2.20 worth of government." The automobilist who 
drives up to a filling station and gets 10 gallons of gasoline knows he is 
paying 50 cents in taxes, if he stops to think. He does not know, even if 
he stops to think, how^ much he is paying to the cost of government when 
he makes the other purchases that are necessary every day. 

The billions that are expended annually by governmental agencies, 
much of it expenditures unknown to public departments a few years ago, 
is not picked from bushes. It comes from the pockets of the people. The 
Social Security Board, for example, has reported that governmental aid 
to the needy last year totaled $2,995,705,000. That is approximately $23 
for every man, woman and child in the countr}-. 

The board estimates that 20.900.000 shared in the benefits of those 
expenditures. Obviously they would not be able to bear their full share 
of the per capita burden of ^2t^, so the cost was proportionately greater to 
other citizens. And that item of aid to the needy is only one of many that 
go to make up the total of public expenditures, all of which is either 
advanced by tlie consumers of today, or borrowed and loaded onto pos- 
terity as a burden that must be carried until paid. 

• 

Canadian Labor Congress Suspends All CIO Unions 

R. J. Tallon, acting president of the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress, 
officially advised the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor that 
the Congress had suspended all CIO unions in Canada. 





txnxxxxBxn 



Not lost to those that love them, They still live iii our memory, 

Not dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



BROTHER EDWARD S. FEENEY, LOCAL 377, ALTON, ILL. 

Brother Edward S. Feeney of Local 377, Alton, 111., passed away January 1. 
Brother Feeney was born in Bunker Hill, 111. 

During his years of membership, extending over a period of 38 years, Brother 
Feeney distinguished himself by outstanding active interests in many problems 
that must be overcome in furthering the growth of organized labor. 

Brother Feeney held various offices in Local 377 over a long period of years, 
as well as various offices in Local Central Bodies. He Avas known for his loyalty 
to organized labor from the time of its infancy in Alton until the time of his 
death. 

It was through the help and unfailing courage of Brother Feeney and men 
like him that enabled the trade labor movement in Alton to grow into the sub- 
stantial and beneficial movement that it is today. A resolution in tribute to the 
memory of Brother Feeney was passed by Local 377, and the Charter ordered 
draped for thirty days, with the resolution being made a record in the minutes 
of Local 377. 

e 

ODE GRUBB, YOUNGSTOWX LABOR LEADER, PASSES ON 

Organized labor throughout the state of Ohio and particularly of Youngstown 
has lost one of its staunchest supporters in the death of Ode Grubb. 

Brother Grubb was business agent for Carpenters' Union 171 for 17 years 
He was born in Enon Valley, Pa., March 6, 18 78, and came to Youngstown when 
7 years of age. 

Initiated May 3, 19 03, Brother Grubb held office as president of the Ohio 
State Council of Carpenters the last 10 years, and also former president of the 
United Labor Congress of Mahoning County. 

In 1929 he was appointed a special investigator for the Ohio State Industrial 
Commission in the Department of Safety and Hygiene, a position he held until 
his death Saturday, January 7, 19 39. He was always active in the trade union 
movement in Youngstown and all over the State and was responsible for many 
of the improved conditions won for the workers. 

He Avas a member of the Masonic Order Western Star Lodge, Youngstown 
Odd FelloAvs and Junior Order of American Mechanics. 

A delegation headed by Anthony Hubbard, Business Agent and Financial Sec- 
retary and President of the United Labor Congress attended the funeral and offi^ 
ciated as pall bearers. 

The following labor leaders over the state attended the funeral to pay their 
last respects to Brother Grubb: 

Neil Collins, Bricklayers, Akron; Pete.' Janns, Carpenters, Akron; Fred Wat- 
son, Carpenters, Toledo; Thomas Murry, Carpenters, Cincinnati; Harry SchAvarzer, 
Indianapolis; Scott Bowen, Carpenter, Steubenville; R. O. Morrison, Carpenters, 
Dayton; John Jockel, Bricklayers, Ohio State Building Trades; Arnold Bill, State 
Carpenters, Financial Secretary; Thomas Kerns, Factory & Workshop Inspection 
Industrial Commission; Ben Godfrey, Carpenters, Columbus; John Rowen, 
Carpenters, Steubenville; Earl Spencer, Bricklayers, Cleveland; D. Cook, 
and R. Bowen, Youngstown Building Trades; and M. J. Lyden President of the 
Ohio State Federation of Labor. 

A letter of condolence was received from Honorable Michael J. Kirwin, United 
States Congressman for the 19th District. 

Resolutions were passed by: Local Union 437^ Portsmouth; Local Union 716, 
Zanesville; Trumball County Trades Council and the State Industrial Commission. 



THE CARPENTER 41 

BROTHER AVILLIAM GRAY, LOCAL 2127, CEXTRALIA, WASH. 

With deepest regret members of Local 2127 of Centralia, Wash., report the 
death of Brother William H. Gray. 

Brother Gray had long been an active worker in the order and had filled all 
offices of the Local. He was born November 29, 1867 and died at the age of 69. 
Brother Gray was held in high esteem by all who knew him. 

BROTHER SLMOX J. REXME, LOCAL 540, A\ ALTHAM, MASS. 

Local 5 40 of Waltham, Mass., mourns the passing of its last charter member, 
Brother Simon J. Rennie. Brother Rennie died January 19. He had been an ac- 
tive member and officer of Local 5 40 for thirty-six years and had held the office 
of financial secretary for the last twenty-eight years. 

His loyalty and honesty to his Local won him a host of friends. 

Local 540 ordered its charter draped for thirty days in honor to Brother 
Rennie. 

BROTHER H. H. THORNTON, PRESIDENT OF LOCAL, 2261, FT. MYERS, FLA. 

Brother Harry H. Thornton, president of Local 2261, of Fort Myers, Fla., 
died in October of pneumonia. 

He was a member of the American Legion and Navy Club and was very popu- 
lar as president of Local 2261. The Local draped its charter for sixty days in his 
memory. 

BROTHER J. J. LINDSEY, LOCAL 465, .IRDMORE, PA. 

Brother J. J. Lindsey, an active member for thirty-eight years in the Brothei'- 
hood, passed away last December. He held the office of financial secretary of Local 
46 5 for many years. He was initiated into the Brotherhood, May 19, 190 0. 

LOCAL 393,. CAMDEN, N. J. MOURNS BROTHER WM. FRANZEN 

Brother William Franzen, a devoted veteran member of Local 3 9 3, died Jan- 
uary 22. When death removed from our ranks Brother Franzen it took from the 
labor movement a man who spent his life serving his brother workers. A man of 
sterling character and loyal devotion to our cause, his passing leaves a vacancy 
in the ranks of organized labor which will be hard to fill. 

He was initiated into Local 1532 of Camden, N. J. on December 6, 1905 and 
until the time of his death was a very active member of Local 393. During 
his many years of membership he was never in arrears and Local 39 3 points with 
pride to the distinguished record of one of its most devoted members. 

A Resolution was passed by 3 93 in tribute to the memory of Brother Franzen 
ordering the Charter draped for thirty days. The Resolution will also be in- 
scribed on the permanent records of the Local. 

* * * * * 

LOCAL ,564, JERSEY CITY, LOSES TWO LONG TIME MEMBERS 

Brother Peter Fernie of Local 564. Jersey City, N. J., was initiated into that 
Local May 9, 1916. His date of birth was January 9, 1893. Brother Fernie died 
January 19, 1939 with more than 22 years continuous membership to his credit. 

The members of Local Union 564 feel keenly the loss of this member. For 
many years he held the olfice of President of Local Union 564, and was also Dele- 
gate to the District Council. He gave unselfish devotion to the local trade move- 
ment, and at all times responded to any call for his services. 

Brother Adolph Klarman of Local Union 56 4 was initiated into that Local, 
February 20, 1906. His date of birth was March S, 1869. He died on January 
IS, 19 39, with more than 3 2 years continuous membership to his credit, and held 
the office of Warden until illness prevented him from continuing in this office a 
year ago. 



42 THE CARPENTER 

DEATH TAKES TREASURER OF LOCAL, 246, NEW YORK CITY 

William L. Stuart, faithful treasurer of Local 246, New York City for many 
years, passed away February 4, 19 39, after an eight days illness of pneumonia. 

Born in Elmira, N. Y. in 186 6 he came to New York in 1900. He was a thirty- 
second degree Mason of Irma Lodge, New York and a gold card life member of 
Lodge 15, Loyal Order of Moose. He had many friends besides Lodge and Union 
members and was never known to say "no" to anyone in distress. 

Many lodge members, union members and others attended the impressive cere- 
monies before the funeral. His Masonic Lodge ceremony was very beautiful and 
impressive. Floral pieces were in abundance from organizations and friends. 

CINCINNATI LOCAL MOURNS LOSS OF TWO BROTHERS 

Two highly esteemed members of Cincinnati Local 224 passed away in Jan- 
uary. They were Paul Hartfield and George Wilkens. 

Brother Hartfield was born April 10, 1854 and Avas initiated into the Brother- 
hood July 18, 1882. He died January 18. 

Brother Hartfield had held the office of warden of Local 22 4 for many years. 

Brother Wilkens was born November 12, 1851 and was initiated October 18, 
1899. He died January 8. 

BROTHER GEORGE P. FIRST, LOCAL 1007, HUNTINGTON, IND. 

Brother George P. First, an employe of the Caswell-Runyan factory of Hunt- 
ington, Ind., and member of Local 100 7, died suddenly at his work January 30. 
He had been an employe of the factory for twenty-three years. 

Brother First was born February 27, 1882, in Huntington County. 

Nathan First, twin brother of George and Asher Lee, a half brother are also 
members of Local 1007. 

DEATH REMOVES TWO VETERAN IMEMBERS OF LOCAL 119, NEWARK, N. J. 

January and February saw the deaths of two long time members of Local 
119, Newark, N. J. 

January 25, Brother Samuel R. Fleming, a pension member of the Local, 
died and February 7 he was followed in death by Brother Charles Hermann. 

Brother Fleming joined Local 119 February 12, 1902. His advice was often 
sought on the steel square, a tool that he had made a complete study of and 
could answer any question pertaining to it. 

Brother Herrmann, 8 5 at the time of his death, was the oldest member of 119. 

BROTHER HARRY C. FRENCH, LOCAL 249, IRVINGTON, N. Y. 

Local 249, of Irvington, N. Y., lost one of its most highly respected members 
when death took Brother Harry C. French, December 2 7. A resolution passed in 
memory of Brother French remembered him as a "good citizen, upright and 
honest and deserving the respect of all who knew him." 

The resolution called for the charter of Local 249 to be draped in mourning for 
a period of thirty days and the resolution be spread on the minutes as a tribute 
of respect by his Brother members of Local 249. 

• 

"Padlock" Law to Stay, Says Quebec's Premier 

Quebec's "padlock" law will stay, as far as Premier Maurice Duplessis is con- 
cerned, according to a declaration made by him before a Montreal club recently. 

The padlocking of a house Avhere communism is propagated, he said, is paral- 
lel to the quarantining of a house where smallpox exists. 

He insisted the law has checked definitely the danger of communism in the 
Province of Quebec. 



CorrospondoncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 

Local Starts Class to Train Apprentices 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

I am writing you in reference to the class started December 14, 1938, by the 
Carpenters Local Union 543, in Mamaroneck, New York, for the training of ap- 
prentice carpenters. The class meets every Wednesday night at 631 Mamaroneck 
Avenue and it not only instructs young apprentice carpenters in doing better Avork 
but also plans their reading and teaches them how to do estimating. 

In the class at the present time are twenty ambitious young men. They are 
now working on a plan and drawing of a six room house. In the four weeks that 
they have worked, they have already accomplished the down-stairs rooms and are 
now attempting the second floor. 

We felt that in starting a class of this kind not only would we help the young 
men, but also make the people in Mamaroneck labor conscious. The question has 
come up if there is any such class present in any other part of the country. If 
not the notice of our progress might start other Local Unions along the same lines. 
I have started the class here in Mamaroneck, and naturally am desirous of seeing 
the idea spread. I am enclosing an editorial from our paper. 

The instructor of the class is a member of our Local, William Lagaui of 
Mamaroneck. 

On the whole our Local has been quite active. At Christmas time we delivered 
baskets of food to our sick and old members. As a celebration for the holidays we 
had a dinner for the men, which was put up by Brother Bernardo Fraiolo. 

With best wishes to you in the New Year, 

Fraternally yours, 

Louis R. Tolve, Business Agent. 

He :{( ^ ^ ^ 

Helping Young Men 

We shall watch with exceeding interest a new undertaking which 
Carpenter's Local Union No. 543 of Mamaroneck is now 
engaging in. We refer to the class which was started for the 
training of apprentice carpenters. It is to meet every Wednesday 
night at 631 Mamaroneck Avenue and it will not only instruct 
young apprentice carpenters in doing better work but also will plan 
their reading and teach them how to do estimating. 

This seems like an excellent work and one which may help young 
men to get permanent jobs or, at least, part-time work. We are told 
that this is the only carpenter Local Union in the state which has 
such a class for apprentices. Well, Mamaroneck has been first in a 
lot of Avorthwhile things before and it looks as though Local No. 
543 has added another to the list. 



Local 1939 Marks 15th Anniversary 

On January 28, 1939, Local Union 1939, of Clifton, New Jersey celebrated its 
15th anniversary with the attendance of all members, including charter members. 

Charles Belli, president, spoke for the organization, and Adolph Zanetti, ex- 
president, spoke on the organization of the Local. He presented Joseph De Sandre, 
father of the Local. 

This Local was chartered January 24, 1924. 



44 THECARPEXTER 

Crosley Corporation Lauded for Labor Fairness 

To All Affiliates of the American Federation of Labor 

The Crosley Corporation is one outstanding manufacturer in the radio and 
refrigeration industry that operates under a closed shop contract with our Broth- 
erhood. Our wage scale is among the highest in the industry and working condi- 
tions are excellent. 

The Crosley Corporation has heen very cooperative by participating in Union 
Label exhibits and advertising the Union Label extensively. All our radios and 
refrigerators bear the "Mark of Distinction," the International Brotherhood of 
Electrical Workers Label. We feel that great material benefit will inure to labor 
generally if we are successful in making this appeal to labor for support, so that 
the label will be a definite selling point to the extent that our competitors will 
ask the right to use the Union Label. 

We respectfully request your local to actively support us in helping to spread 
the gospel of "Buy Products Avith the Union Label." We believe that each and 
every member of your local will be willing to ask his family and friends to look 
at a Crosley when thinking of a refrigerator or radio, knowing that when they buy 
a Crosley they are buying a quality product that proudly bears the Union Label. 

This letter has the wholehearted approval of the Cincinnati Central Labor 
Council. Jack Hurst, its president and Regional Director of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor, especially appeals to you as he aided our organization with our 
first contract and feels that the Crosley products should be in every American 
Federation of Labor home in appreciation of their cooperation. Will you do this 
local and the entire Brotherhood a favor by calling this message to the attention 
of your members and posting it on your bulletin board? 

Fraternally yours, 

LOCAL B-1061, I.B.E.W., 

Harold R. Latimer, President. 



Canadian Brother Member of Organization 67 Years! 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

In the last two or three issues of The Carpenter, I have read accounts of en- 
viable records of long unbroken memberships in the Brotherhood, but I think we 
in Winnipeg, Canada, can boast of a member who has a record that beats all that 
I have read of up to now. 

He is Brother John Rossie, of Local 343. Brother John was born in Kirkwall, 
which is the main town of the Orkney Islands, situated on the extreme north coast 
of Scotland. When a youth he went south to Glasgow, where he joined the Asso- 
ciated Carpenters and Joiners November 13, 1871. 

In 1911, he came to Winnipeg and deposited his clearance card with 2655, 
and in March, 1924, he became a member of Local 343 when Local 2655 amal- 
gamated with us. 

Brother John Rossie has then a continuous membership of 6 7 years and 3 
months to date. Surely this is a record that one can be justly proud. 

It might be of interest to our membership to know that Brother Rossie, up to 
ten years ago, was an active worker in the organization of our craft. Before com- 
ing to Canada he was for many years a member of the General Executive Board 
of the Associated Carpenters and Joiners. If there was a difficult job of organizing 
to be done, John was always sent, and generally accomplished his task success- 
fully. During the time he was a member of Local 2 655, he represented that Local 
on the District Council,, besides being a member of the Executive. 

Brother John Rossie is now 87 years and 3 months old, with a mind as keen 
and clear as a younger man. Recently he moved nearer the center of the city 
and one of his first acts was to get in touch with me to have his address changed 
at the General Office so that he should not miss a copy of The Carpenter. 

Fraternally yours, 

Frank H. Chambers, Financial Secretary. 

Local 3 4 3, 



THE CARPENTER 45 

Shamokin, Pa., Local Marks Its Fiftieth Year 

The fiftieth anniversary of Shamokin, Pa., Local 3 7, United Brotherhoood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America, was celebrated with 125 members and guests 
participating. In addition to the local membership, guests were present from 
Shenandoah, Tamaqua, Mahanoy City and Lansford. 

Dana Young, supervisor of industrial arts of the Shamokin High School faculty, 
presided as toastmaster at the program presented subsequent to the banquet. 
Francis and Elmer Welker, oldest living members of the charter organization, 
were honor guests at the anniversary celebration as was Doc Baughner. 

A feature of the meeting was the reading of the minutes of the first meeting of 
50 years ago, held in Bennet's Hall, North Market Street, with 28 charter mem- 
bers present. D. K. Lockard, president, and W. C. Ogden, vice-president, veteran 
carpenters, were the first officers of Local 3 7. The minutes of later years showed 
Ihat carpenter work was dull in Shamokin, especially in 188 8, when wages varied 
from $1.75 to |2.25 a day. Employment improved slightly the following year, 
with carpenters working nine to 12 hours a day. 

]\L J. McDermott, national organizer from international headquarters at Indi- 
anapolis delivered the principal address of the evening, speaking on the new 
agreement to be entered into before April 1 with contractors and builders. The 
sddress was followed by a general discussion of the major topic by the following 
speakers: Dana Young, William Rhoades, Benamin F. Snyder, Joseph H. Fry, 
thirty-eighth member of the original local; William Reed, Peter Schley, Elysburg, 
and Roy Yost, Mahanoy City. The entertainment program was concluded with the 
showing of motion pictures. 

OflScers of Local 3 7, Carpenters and Joiners, are: Robert Johnson, president; 
William Reed, vice-president; Joseph H. Fry, treasurer; Benjamin Snyder, finan- 
cial secretary; H. G. Bender, recording secretary; Fred Kohler, warden; William 
Zimmerman, conductor; Hurd Geist, Frank Schweitzer, C. E. Raker, trustees; 
William Rhoades, delegate to district council. 

The following members of Local 3 7 composed the anniversary banquet com- 
mittee: Dana Young, chairman; Benjamin F. Snyder, William Reed, Herbert 
Bender, Robert Johnson and Wm. Rhodes. 



CIO Must Restore Funds Taken From L. S. W. Unions 

The Supreme Court of the State of Washington, in an important decision, has 
upheld all the contentions of the Lumber and Sawmill Workers Union, of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, in three suits against 
the LW.A., an affiliate of the CIO, over union funds and other union property. In 
all three cases the Lumber and Sawmill Workers Union won complete victories. 

The cases arose over the action of certain members of three A. F. of L. unions 
who seceded and confiscated the funds and properties of the unions. 

The court held that although at the time the seceding members constituted 
a majority of the membership in the A. F. of L. unions their withdrawal did not 
constitute a dissolution, because more than ten members of each local remained 
loyal. 

The court held that the locals which remained loyal to the U. B. of C. and J. 
were the legal custodians of the funds and properties of the locals and ordered the 
CIO secessionists to return such funds and properties to the union involved. 

Officials of the Lumber and Sawmill Workers Union said the decision of the 
Supreme Court will require the CIO unions involved to restore around $12,000 
to the A. F. of L. Lumber and Sawmill Workers Union which is directly affiliated 
with the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

• — 

When a man tires at the "slow progress" of the labor movement a good recipe 
is to stand off a bit and survey the work actually accomplished. 




Auxiliary 122, Kansas City, Mo. 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

Ladies Auxiliary 122 just celebrated another birthday with a dinner for all 
its members and families, about 250 in all. 

Since last we wrote we have taken in 38 members. 

We have appointed two new committees — The Courtesy Committee to call on 
applicants before they are initiated and the Hospitality Committee to extend a 
most gracious welcome to the newly initiated members and any kindness they see 
fit to render to any member at a regular meeting or party. 

The drill team thought it would enjoy being self-supporting. The members 
have given several card parties and dinner dances which have proved very en- 
joyable and profitable. 

The Auxiliary members had a very enjoyable Christmas season. A lovely 
party with a beautifully trimmed tree, Santa Claus and a nice program with gifts 
for all. There were five baskets sent out and several members dues paid who 
have been less fortunate within the past year. 

Our secret pal party will be a Valentine party. Our pals for the past year will 
be revealed at this party. 

We are just starting the traveling basket. We trust we shall enjoy it. We have 
placed a box on the President's desk where pennies may be placed to go towards 
dues for members Avho are unable to keep dues paid up. 

It has been suggested each member get one new member and we Avould double 
our membership. This seems a worthy suggestion. 

We are looking into 19 39 for a most enjoyable and profitable year. We extend 
this sincere wish for all. 

Fraternally, 

Mrs. J. W.McMillan, Scribe, 
Auxiliary 122, Kansas City, Mo. 
• 

Auxiliary 303 of Toronto, Canada 

Greetings from Toronto Ladies Auxiliary of Carpenters 30 3. We are writing 
at this time to tell of our first birthday, which was celebrated January 26, with a 
banquet and dance. 

Members and Brothers enjoyed the program arranged by the social and execu- 
tive committees. 

Our table decorations were pink and white, with a lovely birthday cake donat- 
ed by Sister Sinclair. 

We are one year old and have 79 members. In spite of the fact that we are 
not a large organization we do our best to help our members. 

We have Ladies who attend as delegates at the Trades and Labor Council and 
report back. Those who study the emblem of our organization realize that we 
must endeavor to surround our members with better conditions, socially and 
morally. The day is gone for the old adage which says that "Woman's place is in 
the home." Women should take part in the labor movement and learn the way 
to help their husbands. 

We as women must help to keep that light burning which means a good trade 
union and a good trade unionist. 

Fraternally, 

Alice Trenehard, Secretary. 



THE CARPEXTER 47 

Auxiliary 266 to Celebrate Third Birthday 

Just a bit of yarn to tuck into "The Yarnin' Basket." 

In Marcli we will celebrate our third anniversary. Reaching that date we 
shall look back and see the good Ave have accomplished. Also think of the many 
things, we could have done, but for some unknown reason neglected. We have 
progressed during the past year, so are not discouraged »nd feel we shall accom- 
plish more during 19 39. 

Our meeting nights are the second and fourth Fridays of each month. We 
extend best wishes to all Sister Auxiliaries and welcome visiting Sister.s to our 
meetings. 

Christmas we spent a considerable sum toward charity work, supplying food, 
( lothing and good cheer to those in needy circumstances. 

The past two months we have held a social after each meeting playing Bingo. 
(Members bringing Avhite elephants for prizes.) This social hour is creating a new 
interest. 

Our membership keeps grooving, with plenty of capable and willing workers. 

Now this bit of yarn is in the Basket with the following epigram, "There is an 
idea abroad among moral people that they should make their neighbors good. 
One person I love to make good: Myself. But my duty to my neighbor is much 
more nearly expressed by saying that I love to make him happy if I may be" — 
Robert Lewis Stephenson. 

Fraternally yours, 

Julia Downie, Recording Secretary, 

Ladies Auxiliary No. 266 Wheeler, Ore. 

© 

New Auxiliary Boosts Membership 100 Per Cent 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

We are a new Auxiliary here in Council Bluffs, Iowa, just started last May 
Av'ith just the required ten members to get our charter. We now have twenty-one 
active members. We meet the first Thursday of each month for our Business meet- 
ing and the third Thursday of each month for a family party with the Local 
members. 

We held a dance the first part of February to raise more funds for our Aux- 
iliary. 

I am sending a clipping of our Christmas party for the Yarnin' Basket and to 
it I would like to add that Ave gaA^e out a feAV Christmas baskets to members of the 
Local Union here. 

Fraternally yours, 

Local Ladies Auxiliary Union 316 

Mrs. Chas. Lausen, Recording Secretary. 

Members of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America 
No. 364 and families and Local Ladies Auxiliary Union No. 316 held their Christ- 
mas party Saturday evening December 17, at the Railroad Y. M. C. A. Avith 100 
present. 

The program Avas opened Avith Avords of Avelcome by i\Irs. A. E. Larsen. Aux- 
iliary President, folloAved, by Mr. E. P. Miles, president of Local No. 364 Avho 
l)resented to each Auxiliary Lady a ribbon of light blue and dark red bearing 
llieir letters and number in gold, and the official emblem of their organization. 

As it Avas the Avish of the Auxiliary No. 316 members to open their business 
and social meetings Avith a pledge to the flag, Ave Avere very happy to have the 
flag presented to us at this party, by Grenville M. Dodge Post No. 73 7, Veterans 
of Foreign Wars. 

Participating in the presentation Avere Mrs. Hazel Brazelton, patriotic instruc- 
tor, color bearers Mesdames Lucille Rogers, Cora Farrow, Florence Mintum and 
Anna Sauers. 

Mrs. A. E. Larsen in behalf of the Auxiliary No. 316 gave response to accep- 
tance of the flag. 



48 THE CARPENTER 

Newly formed Local Asks for Suggestions 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

The Ladies' Auxiliary, Local 3 28, of Sweet Home, Oregon was organized De- 
cember 6, 1938, and we already have a substantial membership. 

"We hold a business meeting the second Friday of each month, and a social 
meeting the fourth Friday of each month. 

We are at present planning a social meeting to include all members of the 
Union and their families, at which time entertainment and refreshments will be 
furnished. We hope in this manner to increase our membership until it includes 
everyone eligible to join our Auxiliary. 

We would welcome suggestions from Sister Auxiliaries toward the better 
maintenance of our newly formed Local. 

Yours very truly, 

Margaret Rogers, SecretarJ^ 



Auxiliary 247, of Lawton, Oklahoma 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

Ladies Auxiliary 247 of Lawton, Oklahoma, held a Christmas party for its 
members and their families on December 22. The evening was spent in playing 
games. A Christmas tree from which presents and a treat were, distributed to 
everyone, was enjoyed, after which refreshments of coffee and cake were served. 

We meet the first and third Tuesday of each month. Several new members 
have been added to our list the past year. We also meet twice each month and 
quilt for members of the Auxiliary and at Christmas time several baskets were 
sent out to the poor. 

Fraternally yours, 

Mrs. George Skinner, Recording Secretary. 



New Auxiliary Sends A Word About Activities 

Ladies Auxiliary 322 of Wausau, Wisconsin, was organized October, 1938. 
We gave a Bingo party December 4 which netted our treasury a good sum. 
On December 19 we had a Christmas party for the children and gave 170 
sacks of candy, nuts and fruit. The children sure had a very enjoyable time. 

We have one meeting a month, and have about 15 members who are working 
very hard for a bigger and better Auxiliary. 

We would like to hear from other Auxiliaries, and would like to see you all 
in Wausau at the Wisconsin State Federation of Labor and the State Council of 
Carpenters convention In 1939. 

Fraternally yours, 

Mrs. August Griggel, 
2409 6th St., Wausau, Wis. 
♦ 

The Editor Stands Corrected 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

I wish to make a correction in the article written in the December, 19 38, issue 
of The Carpenter. In that article it states that Mrs. V. R. Leek of Tacoma, W^ash., 
was President of her own Auxiliary as well as State President. 

She is State President of the Council of Auxiliaries but is not President of her 
own Auxiliary. 

We are gaining new members here and are being backed by our Local 
Union 36. 

We have also changed our meeting date to the second and fourth Friday 
evenings of the months. Meetings are still held at Carpenters Headuarters, 76 3- 
61 Twelfth Streets, Oakland. 

Fraternally yours 

Mrs. Ruth Thompson, 

5764 Adeline St., Oakland, Calif, 



THE CARPENTER 49 

Auxiliary 268 Gives Christmas Party for Children 

Carpenters Union and Auxiliary 26S of Kenoslia, Wis., gave a Christmas party 
lor the wives and carpenters and their children on Thursday, December 29 at the 
Labor Temple. One hundred and eleven Children were present and all received a 
gift, candy, nuts and fruit. 

The children provided the entertainment with recitations and songs. 
Sandwiches, cookies, orange drink and coffee were served to the kiddies and 
their parents. 

The Committee which planned the party had as its members, Mrs. Hilda 
Birchard, Mrs. Johana Mauthey, Mrs. Margaret Hartle, Mrs. Susan Bern, Mrs. 
Ida Anderson and Mrs. Marion Quandt. 

Fraternally yours, 

Carpenters' Ladies Auxiliary No. 2 6 8. 
Mrs. Ida Anderson, Recording Secretary. 
• 

Lumber Company Ballot Won By L. S. W. Union 

The Lumber and Sawmill Workers Union, Local No. 2,5 4 5. of Snoqualmie 
Falls, Wash., unit of the Oregon-Washington Council of Lumber and Sawmill 
Workers, affiliated with the Brotherhood of Carpenters, won an overwhelming 
victory over the CIO Woodworkers Association in the election held by the Na- 
tional Labor Relations Board to determine the collective bargaining representa- 
tive desired by the employes of the Snoqualmie Falls Lumber Company. When 
the ballots were counted there were 510 votes for the A. F. of L. union against 
33 for the CIO. 

The election was ordered following a hearing held by the Labor Board last 
Summer. The employes of both the woods operation and the mill voted as one 
unit. 

Large quantities of literature containing false statements were distributed to 
the Snoqualmie employes on election day by the CIO union, but the workers, im- 
mune to flabbergasting tactics, registered an outstanding victory for bona fide 
trade unionism. 

Local 2 5 4 5 has included between five and six hundred men in the mill as paid- 
up members for many months. 



Nearly 6,000,000 Social Security 
Account Numbers Assigned in 1938 

Social Security account numbers assigned in 1938 totaled 5,938,890, accord- 
ing to Mr. H. L. McCarthy, Director of the Social Security Board's Regional 
OQice in Chicago, which serves the States of Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin. 
This represents an increase from 36,688, 339 on December 31, 1937, to 42,627,- 
229 on the same date in 1938. 

During December, 1938, 442,920 numbers were assigned. The Regional Di- 
rector said an analysis of applications made by the Board's Bureau of Old-Age 
Insurance in Washington showed that fewer numbers were issued last November 
than in any recent month. This analysis revealed, I\Ir. MCarthy said, that States 
in which applications for account numbers had fallen off toward the end of the 
year were mainly those in the Northeast; the Southwestern States, and those 
west of the Mississippi, accounting for an increased proportion of the numbers 
issued in November and December. This, he added, indicates that registration is 
more nearly complete in the highly industrialized and more thickly populated 
States. 

The Bureau, he stated, anticipates a normal increase of about 2,000,000 a 
year, as young wage earners enter the labor market for the first time. If the 
old-age insurance program should be extended to cover agricultural and domestic 
workers and other groups excluded under the present law, the number of appli- 
cations would, of course, take a sharp but temporary upward turn. 



IMPORTANT 

The Federal Postoffice Department now requires 
extra postal charges when they notify International 
Headquarters of any change in address of members 
on The Carpenter mailing list. 

These changes are literally coming in by the hun- 
dreds and the expense is a considerable item. This 
expense can be avoided if all members use the form 
below, to notify us of change of address. Just fill out 
the form and drop it in the mail addressed to Editor, 
The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 
Ind. 

This is an important matter and it is requested 
that all members notify International Headquarters 
of change of address IMMEDIATELY. 



(Date) 



Editor, The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Please change my address on Journal file. 

From Street 

City State 

To Street 

City State 

Name in full 

L. U. Xo , City State 



It is suggested that you cut out blank if you have changed your 
address and paste it on a one cent postcard to save postage. 

Members are not entitled to the Journal if they or their Local 
are in arrears. Honorary members required to pay one dollar j^early 
subscrijition rate. 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 

LESSON 125 

We have been dealing with wood 
shingles, asphalt shingles, roll roofing 
and corrugated metal roofing in several 
of the preceding lessons. We did not 
take up tile, slate and asbestos shin- 
gles, nor did we take up built-up, tin 
or cooper roofing. These roofings are 




Fig. 1 



usually put on by specialists and for 
that reason we are not treating them 
here. This much, however, should be 
said: The carpenter must build the 
supporting part of such roofs and con- 
sequently should know something about 
them. Tile roofing (that is tile shin- 
gles) by reason of its Aveight, must 
have a stronger supporting skeleton 



under it than any of the other roofings. 
Slate and asbestos shingles are not so 
heavy, yet they are heavier than either 
asphalt or wood shingles. Tin, copper 
and the built-up roofs require about 
the same amount of support, with 
other requirements running the same. 

In this lesson we are taking up 
screening. This subject is of universal 
interest, although it is a rather modern 
requirement. Few homes in these days, 
are left unprovided with screens. Where 
the old-style home had blinds for the 
windows, the modern home has screens. 
(The last few years has brought a sort 
of revival of the blinds, without elimi- 
nating the screens.) 

We are showing by Fig. 1 a screen 
for a 30"x24" glass, double-hung win- 
dow. This is the same size window as 
we used when we were dealing with 
window frames. Such a window frame 
is shown on page 59 of the January, 
19 3S, issue of the The Carpenter. 

A careful observation of Fig. 1 will 
reveal that the upper panel is smaller 
than the bottom one. The reason for 
this is that the center cross bar must 
be on the same elevation as the meet- 
ing rail of the window sash. The dif- 
ference is caused by the slope of the 
window sill and the width of the bot- 
tom rail of the lower sash. 

Figure 2 shows details of a mortise- 
and-tenon joint for screen frames. This 
joint is a good one, but it should be 
well painted before it is put together, 
especially if the screen is to be exposed 
to the weather. Water will get into the 
joint, and if no provision is made to 
protect it, the wood will rot and in due 
time the joint will come apart. This is 
the only objection to a mortise-and- 
teuon joint for screen frames. 

Figure 3 .shows details of a mortise- 
and-tenon joint which we believe is 
better than the joint shown in the pre- 
vious figure. Here the mortise is not 
cut through the stile as in the other 
case. This joint, though, should have 
the same paint protection against water 
as the other. 



52 



THE CARPEXTER 



Screen doors, as a rule, are made at 
the mills, but if they are made on the 
job, the joint shown in Fig. 3 should 
be used. 

Figure 4 shows two joints made with 
dowels. These are both good, although. 



bored, into which the nails are driven. 
This will prevent splitting. The nail 
joint is better than the one shown to 
the right, where corrugated fasteners 
are used. Excepting where the screens 
are protected against moisture, this is 




the one to the left is better and could 
be used in making screen doors. White 
lead and oil should be used on the 
dowels instead of glue when the screen 
frames are to be exposed to the weath- 



a rather unsatisfactory way of fastening 
joints of screen frames. The metal fas- 
teners will not last long where they are 
exposed to wet and dry conditions. 
When corrugated fasteners are used for 




er. The holes for the dowels must be 
accurately bored and the dowels must 
fit into them tightly, otherwise the 
joint will he loose. 

Figure 5 shows to the left a joint 
held together with casing nails. Holes 
a little smaller than the nails should be 



this kind of work, they should be of 
the %-inch size. The greatest objection 
to corrugated fasteners is that they cut 
the wood in two and quite frequently 
chunks of wood so cut, split away from 
the stile and drop out. 

Figure 6 shows to the left a miter 
joint fastened together with corrugated 



THE CARPENTER 



53 



fasteners. In this joint the corrugated 
fasteners play a more legitimate part 
than they do in the joint shown in Fig- 
ure 5. We do not like the miter 
joint for screen frames, but sometimes 
frames are made that way. Such a 
joint, it seems to us, would be better 
where the screens are protected against 




Fi5 



wet and dry conditions. To the right in 
this figure, Ave are showing the lap 
joint, which is also sometimes used for 
screens. An edge view of this joint is 
shown at the center, with its relation- 
ship to the face view indicated by dot- 




Fig. 5 

ted lines. We are not recommending 
either of these joints for screen frames. 

Figure 7 shows how the screen hinges 
should be fastened to reinforce the 
joint. It will be noticed that one screw 
is set into the upper rail and the other 
into the upper end of the stile. 

Figure 8 shows two designs of the 
bottom rail of screen frames. The rail 




Fig. 6 

shown at A is beveled to fit the sill of 
the window frame, while the rail 
shown at B is not beveled. The extra 
open space between the rail and the 
window sill here, gives the wind a 



chance to blow the accumulating dust 
out of the joint. Another advantage is 
that it drains better than the joint 
shown to the left. The bottom fasten- 
ing is shown on the right drawing. 




Fig. 7 



which consists of a short hook and eye. 
Half-Screens for windows with the 
upper sash stationary are made the 
same as full screens having the upper 
panel cut off. A cross section of the 
upper rail of a half-screen is shown 
by Figure 9, joining the meeting rail 




Fig. 8 



of the upper sash by means of the 
heavily-shaded fillet. 

We have seen screens with the joints 
reinforced with brackets (.both metal 
and wood). This precaution, we think, 
is all unnecessary, since screens are 
practically stationary, and therefore 
have little strain on the joints, except- 
ing when they are taken down or put 



54 



THE CARPETSTTER 



up. Besides the waste of time and ma- 
terial, sucli brackets detract from the 
appearance of the screens, and if the 



Rbil 




Fig. 



brackets are of wood, they reduce the 
ventilation capacity of the screens. 



THE 



EXCHANGE 

D DESK n 



L. Perth 
CORNER WINDOWS 

Since the establishment of this sec- 
tion of our Journal we have received a 
number of contributions which while 
being highly meritorious in their na- 
ture Avould not, however, justify the 
time required for their preparation for 
publication, nor the space in the maga- 
zine due to the fact that they represent 
rather isolated cases occurring once in 
a long time during the experience of a 
builder. And then, too, some of these 
represent methods which are more com- 
plicated than those already in use at 
present by the members of the trade. 

The purpose of the Exchange Desk 
has been explained. It was established 
with an end in view of affording the 



representation of the trade to exchange 
their ideas pertaining to methods of 
performing a certain kind of work, time 
saving schemes, the use of materials, 
in fact everything which affects the 
efficiency and progress of those who are 
connected with the building industry. 

It is a noble purpose, and one which 
Avould accomplish a wealth of good if 
the reader of the Journal would only 
cooperate with us in sending in their 
ideas freely. By "freely" we mean that 
one should not hesitate to express his 
thought because he may think it has 
no great significance. Send it in any 
Avay. All great accomplishments are the 
result of small ideas. There is no doubt 
in our mind that the large member- 
ship of this organization could supply 
sufficient new material to enable one 
to write volumes. For every carpenter 
certainly has in his mind some sort of 
an original idea or perhaps an idea he 
has observed in the work of some one 
else. Nothing is so trivial or insignifi- 
cant as not to merit a postage stamp. 

Therefore we urge you again to co- 
operate with us as much as you can and 
it will not be very long before you will 
note that the results will be more than 
gratifying. 

This writer suggests "Corner Win- 
dows" as the topic of the present paper, 
and cordially invites everyone to join 
in the discussion of this rather inter- 
esting subject. 

Corner windows have become a very 
prominent feature in the design of 
buildings whether residential, commer- 
cial or industrial. The advantages of 
this method of locating openings are 
only too obvious. 

With the advent of the modern style 
of architecture the ration of window 
openings is constantly increasing in pro- 
portion to the wall areas, and the time 
is not very far off when walls will be 
constructed entirely of glass. In many 
European countries this tendency is 
even more noticeable than in our coun- 
try. 

The design of windows is also under- 
going a tremendous change. Architects 
are getting away from the heavy, cum- 
bersome frames, mullions, stiles, rails 
and muntins. In order to provide more 
light these members must be trimmed 
down in thickness and width as much 
as possible, which results in very grace- 
ful and pleasing window designs. 



THE CARPENTER 



55 



In corner windoAVs a slim, thin cor- 
ner post is a very essential and outstand- 
ing feature. This means that in order 
to carry out the general scheme of Avin- 
dow construction the usual heavy corn- 



There is no necessity of explaining 
what happens when the corner post of a 
building is reduced in its cross sectional 
area or still worse when the middle por- 
tion of same is entirely removed and 




c/7sr//?o/y p/pe. 



CORNER WINDOWS. 

posite corner post must be eliminated 
or at least that portion of it which rep- 
resents the height of the two adjoining- 
windows and substituted with a corner 
post which will be in harmony with the 
prevailing architectural style. 






Pi. 




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substituted by a member whose out- 
standing feature should be sleuderness, 
minimum thickness. If this cornerpost 
is not properly designed, or the ma- 
terial it is made of does not insure the 
requisite strength and rigidity, the sta- 



56 



THE CARPENTER 



MUty of the structure is greatly im- 
paired. 

This is the problem of the builder 
which must be solved in each individ- 
ual case. It is more serious in residen- 
tial construction than in monumental 
structure where reinforced concrete and 
structural steel supply the necessary re- 
quisites and minimum thickness. 

In home building the corner post usu- 
ally consists of two or more 2" x 4" 
studs and after the installation of the 
v\'indow frames the thickness reaches 
undesirable proportions. 

There are several ways of correcting 
this condition which have been success- 
fully applied in building practice and 
two of them are shown in the accom- 
panying drawing. 

Figure 1 represents a corner post 
built of a 2" extra strong pipe. Stand- 
ard flanges are either welded or screwed 
to the ends of the pipe, the flanges be- 
ing provided with holes to receive lag 
screws. The overall length of the pipe 
post from face of flanges should be ex- 
actly the clearance between the header 
and subsill of the window opening. The 
headers and subsills should be substan- 
tially framed and when the pipe is in- 
stalled in its place and properly se- 
cured at the bottom and top it makes 
perhaps a better corner post than one 
built up of wooden studs. 

In Figure 2 another method is shown 
employing a structural angle which 
after being cut to the required length 
receives two base plates at each end. 
These plates are drilled for lag screws 
and welded to the ends of the angle as 
shown in Section "B-B." 

This also makes a A^ery substantial 
corner post, the size of the angle de- 
pending upon the individual condition. 
The angles illustrated in the drawing is 
a 21/2" x 21/2" X 14" angle with % " 
plates welded to the end. The holes are 
to receive the proper size of lag screAVS. 

However, the method of using metal 
corner posts is not always available 
and the builder is confronted with the 
problem of constructing a corner post 
of wood and yet make it look slender. 

No doubt there are many ways of 
doing this and if any of our readers 
should happen to get an idea, or has 
observed how someone else has been 
meeting this problem please send it in 
to the Exchange Desk and we assure 



you if it has any merit whatever it 
will be published in the Journal. 

A rough sketch and a description is 
all that is necessary. You are not ex- 
pected to make a finished drawing. 
Show it as well as you can and supple- 
ment it with sufficient descriptive ma- 
terial, explain plainly how it is to be 
done and that is all that is necessary. 

Please address all communications to 
L. Perth, P. O. Box No. 2 8 7, Tujunga, 
California. 



Restoring Antique Drawers 

Lip drawers in an Early American 
chest of drawers, a highboy or a chest 
on chest are evidence, though not con- 
clusive, that the piece Avas built before 
1770. The flush draAver front of select- 
ed grain, perhaps inlaid, often Avith 
beaded edges or fitted Avithin a beaded 
drawer opening, did not come into com- 
mon use until just before the American 
Revolution. This does not mean that 
flush drawer front drawers ' were not 
occasionally built before that time for 
they were. Also lip drawers have never 
since been as commonly used as before 




Figure 1 — Repairing bruised lips of 
an antique drawer front. 

the last quarter of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. 

Always the construction of and fit- 
ting of drawers have been considered a 
test of craftsmanship. In the old days 
there were as now certain advantages 
in the use of lip drawers which need 
not be discussed' at this time but the 
fact that flush draAvers have almost en- 
tirely displaced lip draAvers upon the 



THE CARPENTER 



57 



finest work indicates that the foi'mer is 
considered more desirable by people of 
discriminating taste. 

Any of the old lip draws that have 
survived the vicissitudes of a centui'y 
and a half or more are liKely to be in 
rather senile condition from careless 
handling or unavoidable accidents. The 
lips have broken or been badly bruised, 
the bottom edges of the sides have worn 
away from years of friction and often 
the wood of the sides below the drawer 
bottom has split off leaving the bottom 
unsupported. Such was the condition of 
the drawers of a pine blanket chest, 
probably made during the early part 
of the eighteenth century, which are 
shown here. In repairing this drawer 
front, all surface patches were of care- 
fully .selected old wood that nearly as 




Figure 2 — Repairing worn and brok- 
en edges of antique drawer sides. 

possible matched the color, grain and 
texture of the piece it joined. Note that 
the long tapering patch ends with a 
short straight undercut to hold it, for 
the thin run-out end of such a patch 
seldom stays put. This patching and 
all other repair work was done before 
the paint was removed which process 
goes far toward toning the patch; if 
this does not bring the new wood to 
the tone of the rest of the drawer front 
it may be brought up with oil stains. 

In the case of this drawer the entire 
top lip and more of the drawer front 
had broken off; the broken piece of the 
original lip was badly mutilated by 
various attempts at repairing by would- 
be craftsmen who evidently could con- 
ceive of no other method of repairing 
such a place than by driving large nails 
through it, in this case, hand made 
nails, which split it badly, but it was 



all there. The nails were carefully re- 
moved, the piece and mutilated joint 
were repaired as well as possible, the 
broken lip glued in place with thick 
casein glue and held there with hand- 
screws and small iron clamps and 
straight edges as in Figure 1. Note the 
placing of these and the method of 
holding the piece in place and in line 
with the front, with small caul pieces 
well waxed on the under side to pre- 
vent the glue from sticking. Pieces of 
paper may be used for this purpose if 
preferred. 

The pine drawer sides were so badly 
worn they would not support the draw- 
er bottom efTiciently and the drawer had 
to be lifted to allow the front to go into 
its place. The sides were made practi- 
cally as good as new by straightening 
the bottom edge and gluing on pieces 
that made them flush with the bottom 
of the drawer front, using handscrews 
as shown in Figure 2. Where a side 
was broken away below the bottom 
groove a piece wide enough to bear 
upon the bottom itself was fitted and 
glued in place for otherwise the joint 
would not be strong enough to support 
the weight of the drawer bottom which 
was thus carried upon the supporting 
drawer run by the wide piece just men- 
tioned. 

Note that the bottom edge of the 
back of the drawer is flush with the 
bottom edges of the sides and that the 
drawer bottom is grooved into it. This 
is a specimen of ancient craftsmanship 
seldom seen in the work of later gener- 
ations and should be avoided in new 
work, for it does not make as good a 
drawer as if the bottom extended under 
the back; if repairs are necessary a 
grooved in bottom cannot be removed 
without taking the drawer apart. — 
Charles A. King. 



Half-Round Casing 

What is called knotty pine, is com- 
ing into use for inside finish, taking 
the place of plastering, wall-board or 
other wall-finishing material. In reality 
knotty pine is what could be called Ts- 
inch ceiling. It is provided with beads 
much as ceiling is, and is put into place 
in much the same way. 

One of the problems that the car- 
penter must solve when he uses this 
material, is the finishing of the window 



58 



THE CARPENTER 



and door openings. While the regular 
casing can be used, it does not alto- 




is what we are showing by the three 
accompanying drawings. 

Figure 1, B, shows a horizontal cut 
of the finish we used on a tourist camp. 
A little study of this cut will make 
further explanations unnecessar3^ At 
A, Vv^e are showing a front elevation of 
what is shown at B. These drawings 
will make clear the side construction, 
as well as the top. The bottom con- 
struction is a little different. It does 
not have a stool, but rather a %-inch 
stop takes the place of the stool. 

This whole construction is simple, in- 
expensive and at the same time artistic. 
When the job we used it on was done, 
the owner was highly pleased, notwith- 
standing the fact we substituted it in 
place of what he originally wanted. — 
H. H. Siegele. 



gether make the proper finish. The best 
solution of the problem we have found 



The Breakfast Nook 

By L. Perth 

"The dining room is the most useless 
room in the house of today," said a well 
known builder at a recent gathering of 
representatives of the building industry. 

This may seem to be a rather harsh 
statement, yet how often we find din- 
ing rooms which are being used for 
almost any other purpose. 

Isn't it true that in the average small 
home the dining room is used as a 
passageway? When you have to go 
from from the front to the back of the 
house you pass through the dining" room 
and this is also the main highway from 
the living room to the kitchen. And 
when you return from a shopping trip, 
bundles, books, hats and wraps are all 
dropped on the invitingly bare dining 
room table. 

A dining room in the true sense 
should be a room apart from the rest 
of the house, and under no circum- 
stances be made to lead from one place 
to another. It should be convenient to 
the kitchen and easily reached from the 
living room but it should never be 
made a connecting link between them. 

This may be accomplished by sacri- 
ficing some of the living room's size to 
provide a hallway so that the dining 
room may be entirely shut away from 
the rest of the house. 

But under these obviously ideal con- 
ditions the dining room becomes "lost 
space," a room which is used only dur- 



THE CARPENTER 



59 



ing hours of dining, and in a small 
house this is a rather serious condi- 
tion, from a financial standpoint. 

And so the builder of small houses 
which are very rapidly becoming the 
dwelling places for the average Ameri- 



not only for breakfast and luncheon 
but also for dining at night. The ad- 
vantages of such arrangement are only 
too obvious. It reduces the original 
cost of the house, there is one less 
room for the housewife to take care of, 



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S/L^VAT/O/V 



BREfl/f/'fJSr //OOK 



can family have met this problem in one 
way, at least, by eliminating the din- 
ing room altogether from the floor plan 
and giving over its space to a large 
living room. 

Where do you eat? This question is 
taken care of by a small breakfast nook 
located off the kitchen which is used 



there is no necessity to purchase dining 
room furniture, since the table and 
benches of the breakfast nook usually 
are built in when the house is being 
completed, and it reduces the taxes ou 
personal property since the equipment 
in the dining room becomes a part of 
the house. 



60 



THE CARPENTER 



A very popular and comfortable 
sized breakfast nook is shown on the 
accompanying drawing. It may fit in 
very snugly in the average small home 
and we sincerely trust that many of our 
readers will haA^e an occasion to utilize 
same in a practical way. 



Refreshment Tray Table 

By Charles A. King 

One of the main problems of social 
life is the serving and clearing away 
of refreshments with the least possible 
fuss and in the shortest time. The home 
worker will find this table an interest- 
ing project for his home shop and one 
that will bring a grateful smile to the 
face of the feminine member of his 
family while the craftsman, making sev- 
eral of them together during his spare 
time will find them a worthy motive for 
his skill and a source of profit, for not 




only homes, but clubs and lodges will 
find them a great help in entertaining. 

This table, or several of them, will 
simplify the serving and partaking of 
light refreshments for two or three is- 
dividual servings may be arranged on 
the tray and carried to the guests one 
or two at a time and be removed with 
equal ease. Guests quickly appreciate 
the convenience of the table and when 
not in use it will make a fine end or 
occasional table or low lamp stand. 



The table may be made of any mod- 
erately light hard wood, birch or ma- 
hogany for example. The tray should 
be V2" thick and 16" in diameter and 
made of quarter sawed wood to resist 
the tendency to warp and shrink or it 
may be made of plywood which may 
almost always be depended upon to be- 
have itself. The top should be a true 
circle, and unless made of plywood, tAvo 
%" X 2" cleats should be fitted as at A 
and fastened with screws. Make the 
rim E 3/16" x 1" and about 53" long; 
it must be free from blemishes and 
straight grained. Unless it bends easily, 
heat it over -a blow torch or similar heat 
and bend it carefully, or steam and 
bend it into a circle about 15" in diam- 
eter to allow for the tendency to 
straighten. Lay it aside until thorough- 
ly dry. 

Smooth and sandpaper the tray and 
with glue and brads fasten the lip 
around it. Make the joint at Fl by 
running the rim by and hold it with 
glue and handscrew. Make a bevel 
about 1" long at F. When hard, plane 
the outside of the lip down to form a 
true curve; make the top edge of the 
rim a flat round bead Avith sandpaper. 
Bore a % " hole in the center of the 
tray at CI and turn the top spindle 
1 % " X 6 1^ " plus chuck ends with a 
% " pin to fit the hole CI. 

Get out the leg 1%" x 16%" plus 
% " at the top and turn it the entire 
length; allow 1" for chuck waste. Cut 
the three feet from %" x 13/16" wood 
and shape by transferring the 1" 
squares or crosses and drawing curves 
as indicated. The bottom member of 
the leg may be fitted as at B or flat- 
tened to receive the foot if preferred 
with 2 V2 " number 9 round head screws 
driven from the opposite side of the leg 
as • suggested. Make the leg stand 
straight by trimming the bottom of the 
feet. Bore a V2" hole 21/2" deep in 
the top of the leg as at C and glue a 
dowel QV2" long in it; fit the dowel 
rather loosely and depend upon glue to 
hold it accurately and firmly. The col- 
lar D %" X 4" may be made upon a 
lathe face plate with a 1" hole in its 
center and glued and nailed to the 
top of the leg. Bore a V2" hole in the 
spindle for the dowel C, glue sparingly 
and drop over the dowel and press firm- 
ly in place being sure the spindle stands 
straight. Drill a %" hole through the 



THE CARPENTER 



61 



top at G and square with the axis of time. A heat resisting varnish may be 
the spindle; fit and glue a %" dowel used on the serving surface of the tray 




4- 




3" 



tTb K i ! / 
DETAIL OF 
COLLAR D 




REFRESHMENT 
TKI^ TABLE 



3" long- in this hole and with a round 
file and sandpaper shape the wood be- 
low to allow the fingers to grip the 
spindle top easily. 

Stain, or finish the wood as pre- 
ferred. Three light coats of shellac fin- 
ished with wax will make an excellent 
finish but if hot dishes are to be used 
upon the table it may be rubbed with 
boiled oil and turpentine, about Vs of 
the latter; apply this twice a week, 
rubbing it dry with a soft cloth each 



if quick results are desired. 



A New Tail 

It is not always good to follow the 
owner's ideas too closely, especially if 
he is a man with little or no architec- 
tural knowledge. Someone did that, and 
the results were bad. The building we 
have in mind, didn't just satisfy the 
fancy of the observer. The eaves of 
the building left the impression of be- 



62 



THE CARPENTER 



ing somewhat dehorned, which was em- 
phasized by the contrast of adjoining 




buildings. 

Figure A shows the barge rafter, in 




part, of the building just referred to — ■ 
it looked clumsy in comparison with 
the neighboring buildings, so we sug- 




gested adding a new tail. "All right — 
go ahead," said the man, and conse- 




B. The shaded part represents tin 
nailed to the tail, which extends back 
of the tin up to the dotted line. One of 
these tins were nailed to either side 
of the tail, and then the tail was fas- 
tened to the end of the barge rafter in 
the manner shown by Figure C. 

When the job Avas finished, painting 
and all, it appeared much on the order 
of what we are showing by Figure D. 
The tins were not noticeable from a 
little distance.. ..Now compare Figure D 
with Figure A. — H. H. Siegele. 



New Door Plane 
Introduced by Firm 

A new and improved door plane has 
just been introduced }jy the Mall Tool 
CompanJ^ 7 740 South Chicago Avenue, 
Chicago. This new plane incorporates 
a number of refinements such as a new 
power motor, faster adjustment for 
bevel cutting, a new and stronger ly- 
nite guide fence, and a faster and more 
positive lock on the adjusting shoe. 

The MALL electric door plane pro- 
vides an accurate method for fitting 
doors, sash, transoms, and for planing 
any wood surface 2-7/16" wide. The 
spiral cutter rotating at high speed 
planes any kind of wood with or across 
the grain, and leaves a finished sur- 
face that does not require sanding or 
scraping. It is provided with a conven- 
ient two hand grip, hairbreadth adjust- 
ment for cutting 0" to % ", and im- 
proved adjustable type beveling fence. 

A grinding attachment is furnished 
with each plane for sharpening the high 
speed spiral cutter. The cutter can be 
sharpened perfectly in just a few min- 
utes' time. 



quently we made tails for the barge 
rafters on the order shown by Figure 



TRIP HAMMER SAW SET 

Sets the saw at the 
tooth point in one- 
third the time. Oper- 
ated by foot power, 
leaving both liands to 
guide the saw. Will 
set any hand saw 
from 5 to 12 point, 
nnd 6 7 and 8 inch circuiai' saws. Eliminates 
all the faults of the old pincher type sets. 
All working parts hardened steel and rust 
proofed for lifetime use. Takes the guess 
work, the liard work and the tedious work 
out of saw setting. At your hardware 
dealers or sent postpaid direct for $1.7o. 
Money refunded if it does not do what we 
claim for it. 

TRADE TOOL COMPANY 

10904 Madison Avenue, Cleveland, O. 




MILLIONS 

wmmL^e 

By Amazing Long Wear, Tailored Fit 




Famous 

Lee 

Features 

. Wide, Swing Nail Pock- 
et ... 6 Handy Compart- 
ments — 2 for Nails (dou- 
ble ply); 2 for Brada: 
2 for Nail Sets. 

2. Double Knees. 

3. Lined Spike Pockets. 

4. Extra Heavy Material. 

Stout Hammer Loop. 

Self-Lockingr Rule and 
Pliers Pocket. 

Double Square Hanger. 

Saddle Crotch. 

9- Boat Sail Lined Hip 
Pockets. 



Copr. 1938 
THE H.D.LEE MERC. CO. 

Kansas City, Mo., Salina, 
Kang , Minneapolis. Minn., 
Trenton. N.. I., South Bend, 
Ind., San Francisco, Calif. 



TAI108E0 SIZES FOR PERFECT FIT 



ufioumn ciQTCK 




Make Big Money 

W( The American Way 



Tlie American method of noor sanding is 

pleasant inside work and fhcro arc always 

plenty of resurfacing jobs to be had in old 

homes when new building of homes Is slack. 

Here's a chance to bo your own boss 

and get into something for 

yourself. Send in the post 

card to-day asking for 

complete, free details 

and prices on this 

money-making Ameri 

can equipment. 



The American Floor Surfacing Mdchine Co. 

522 South St: Clair Street, • Toledo, Ohio 






It's Easy 

— to be a — 

Contractor 



Learn how to estimate, how 
to plan buildings so as to 
make money on them, learn all 
about remodeling problems and how to bid on any job. 
All these facts and thousands more are set forth clearly 
In a remarkably interesting way in these five wonderful 
boolis covering all phases of Architecture. Carpentry and 
Unildlng These books are complete and the new JIFFY 
INDEX makes It possible to find anything you want to 
Unow about building in a few seconds, 

*'Boss" Carpenters in Demand 

New public works jobs — Immense projects all over the 
country are requiring men who can "Boss the Job"— 
Men who know how. These books give you "QUICK 
training. With them you don't have to be afraid to 
tackle any job for you can find needed facta in a hurry. 
If you send now we will include without extra cost a big 
l''n page book "Blue Print Reading." IN ADDITION 
TO THF FIVE BIG BOOKS. 

Coupon Brings Books FREE for examination 

American Technical Society. Dept G 336, 
Drexe! at 58th St.. Chicago. III. 

You may ship the five big books on Architecture. Carpen- 
try and Building, include book on blue print reading. 
I will pay the few cents delivery charges only and If I am 
fully satisfied after 10 days I will send you $2. after that 
only $3.00 a month until the total reduced price of only 
$19.80 (former price $24.80) is paid. I am not obligated 
in any way unless I Ueep the books. 

Name 

Address 

Attach letter stating age. employer's name and address 
and that of at least one business man as a reference. 



Sharpened over 2^0 00 
la^wn moivers last season 




"I sharpened between 2,000 and IVAX G. LONG 
2.500 lawn mowers this season. I 
cover a territory of 50 miles around my home town 
and have all the work I cun handle. With the Foley 
I.awn Mower Shaniencr I ran handle up to 4ii mowers 
a day." — Ivan G. Long. Pcnii. 

JTnny other men like Mr. Long are Independent and 
making big niont-y in the fine ca.ih Inislncss of 
.sliarptiiini; lawn mowcis with the 

FOLEY Lawn Mower Sharpener 

No experience required — the Foley does a perfect 
job nuloniallcally. In 1.") or 20 minutes. You get $1.00 
or imuo for each job. Investigate NOW! 
P U p P .Mtachment for RrhuUng axes, hatchets, 
■ l^^^ knives, do., included FltEE. Brings you 
busiiu'ss the .Year 'rouiul. Sm;ill Investment, easy pay- 
ments. Write tmlay for FllEK plan — no obligation, 
no salesmen will call. 



FOLEY MFG. CO., h iviain St. N.E.,"iyipls.. Minn. 
S( )i<l I'rrc Plan and Sixcial Offer on 
Dharpeninff lawn moiceris. 

XAME 

.VDDUESS 




fH^,Caf^lellk^» 



YOU CAN DEPEND 
ON PLASTIC WOOD 

repairs I 



More and more carpenters are turning to 
PLASTIC WOOD to insure permanent re- 
pairs at a small cost. It is so easy to repair 
damaged wood, correct errors, seal cracks, 
fill screw holes, cover counter-sunk screws 
with this wood-in-cans. It is real wood in 
putty form, that, when hard, can be worked 
with any woodworking tools— can be sawed, 
planed, sanded— holds nails and screws— takes 
paint, varnish, lacquer perfectly. In cans oi 
tubes at paint, hardware, 10^ stores. Try it! 



pi.6secmo0cy 







Powerful handsaws That 
Will Speed Up Your Work! 

There is a MALL Handsaw for every job — 
2i", 2%", 3 13/16", or 41" capacity — saws 
that will help you turn out more work with 
savings in time, labor and material. 
Mail the coupon for complete data. Also, in- 
quire about door mortisers, door planes and 
drills. 



MALL TOOL COMPANY 

7751 South Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Please send additional information to 

NAME 

STREET 

CITY STATE 



SSSMSi 



andBOOIIPAYl 



No Dirt 
No Dust 




with the IMPROVED SCHLUETER V 

HEAVY DUTY FLOOR SANDER ^':^i^ 
The greatest opportunity ^^j *_ 
in years is yours if you' 
act at once. 



\/'^ -.■ 




Tliousands of liomes, stores, 
apartment buildings and off- 
ices in your territory need 
and want their floors refin- 
ished this year. You can get 
a big share of this ready 
money with this professional 
type Improved Schlueter San- 
der. Handles the biggest and 
toughest jobs at lower cost 
per square foot. 

See how the perfectly bal- 
anced, rubber covered sand- 
ing drum conforms to every floor irregularity. Sands right 
to the quarter-round, vacuums up all dirt and dust. 
Uses MO or 220 volts by merely turning switch. Uncondi- 
tionally guaranteed for 5 years. 

Get into this Extra Profit field. Keep 
busy the year round on floor sanding 
jobs. So simple and easy that anyone 
can operate it. So sturdily and hon- 
estly built that it is the carpenter's 
first choice over 43 years. 

This one-man Speed-0-Lite san 
right up to the baseboard picking 
all dirt and dust as it goes. Leaves 
a smooth ballroom finish on every 
floor. Ball-bearing equipped thr 
out. Fully dependable motor, 
Write TODAY for our gen- 
erous Free Trial Offer. Spec- 
ify the Speed-0-Lite or Im- 
proved Schlueter, and start for 
a long-run into rich earnings! 

THE NEW LINCOLN PORTABLE DUSTLESS DISC- 
SANDER WITH FLOODLIGHT 

A high speed professional disc sander 
whose streamlined design lets you get 
to hard-to-get-at places. It has dozens 
of different uses that a smart 
carpenter l<nows as sanding 
stair treads, window sills, 
floor edgings, cabinets, doors, 
'wood panel walls, trim, table 
and desl< tops, closets, etc. 
Light in weight but ruggedly 
built. Complete with powerful 
vacuum that picks up all 
wood dust and dirt. Powerful shielded floodlight illumi- 
nates work in dark corners. Hundreds of jobs right in 
your territory. 

YOU CAN RENT ONE OR ALL THESE MACHINES ON 
PARTIAL TIME BASIS WRITE FOR DETAILS NOW. 

LINCOLN-SCHLUETER 

FLOOR MACHINERY COMPANY, Inc. 
(230 W. Grand Ave., Chicago, 111. 



WEATHERSTRIP JOBS PAY EXTRA PROFITS! 

building and remodeling jobs create a big demand 
right now ... a source of profit 
you can easily casli in upon with 
ALLMETAL WEATHERSTRIP. 

Easy to install. Profitable. Al- 
ways efficient and satisfac- 
tory. Get your share of the 
weatherstrip business NOW 
. . . while the building sea- 
Bou is in full swing. Write 
for price lists and free dis- 
play ciiarts now. 







FOR EASIER FRAMING . USE A 

STANLEY STEEL SQUARE 

You'll be doing a lot of framing this Spring. Use a 
Stanley Steel Square for laying out work quickly, 
easily and accurately. 

The tables on a Stanley Rafter Square give the exact 
length of comon, hip, valley or jack rafters for any 
pitch of roof, and enable you to make accurate top, 
bottom or check cuts in any rafter. No figuring. No 
mistakes. 

Perhaps you have forgotten the meaning of some of 
the tables on a Stanley Square; perhaps you have shied 
away from using a Steel Square because it looked too 
complicated. If so, send for our FREE Steel Square 
Booklet No. 51. It takes all the mystery out of the 
square markings and, giyes you the sim- 
ple rules necessary foir' rafter or fram- 
ing work. 



STANLEY TOOLS 

Division of The Stanley Works 

New Britain^ Conn. 



(STANLEY] 

Trade Mark 

FREE BOOK 

Send for the FREE 
Steel Square Booklet 
No. 51, and Catalog 
No. 34 which shows 
the complete line of 
Stanley Tools. 




WUV.Your Regular Sawing Goes Faster 
and Easier 







with 



Shock-Proof Feature 



The Ohlen-Bishop ZEPHYR "44" 




FREE 
MANUAL 

Valuable facts about 
woods, snws, and 
sawing. 04 pages, ov- 
er 200 Illustrations 
and diagrams. 



; The OHLEN-BISHOP CO. 



I 907 Ingleside, Columbus, Ohio 

I Send me "SAW EFFICIENCY" and 

• more information about the ZEPHYR. 

I 

I Name 



Add res 



' City 
I-.. 



THE carpenter's average hand saw stroke is 
15 inches long. The average speed is 1 \z 
strokes j[)cr second. AVith an 8 point saw this 
means 180 "tooth blows" per second. 

In tlie ordinary hand saw these "tooth blows" 
strike dii-ectly through the handle screws to the 
hand, wrist, and arm of the operator. Xaturally 
these blows ai-e tiring and actually .slow down 
tlie work sooner than is realized. But in the 
handle of the Ohlen-Bishop ZKPHYK these 
"tooth blows" are absorbed by a thick LIVE 
RUBBER jacket around each of the five screws 
(see drawing above). 

That's why your regular sawing goes faster, eas- 
ier, and without tiring when you use the Ohlen- 
Bishop ZEPHYR "44." This sensational new 
saw is winning the acclaim of carpenters everj'- 
where. See it today at your hardware or supply 
dealer's. 



BOOK 

and 

PLANS 



FREE 

"HOW TO READ BLUE PRINTS" 

Free to CARPENTERS 
to Builders 
to Apprentices 




The hnWAine indiistrv iipetts prnctioal carpenters and 
builders with technical training. — men who can lay 
out and run iobs from the blue print plans and speci- 
fications. — estimate costs, etc. There is a real short- 
age of such men now. Here is your opportunity. 

LEARN IN SPARE TIME 

AT HOME 

Learn by Chicago Tech's spare-time plan right in 
your own home, — quickly and at small cost. To show 
you how easy it is to learn by this method we will 
send you a Free Trial Lesson and set of blue prints 
upon receipt of a postcard request or the Coupon 
below. 

Builders with this training advance to the top 
quickly — become foremen, guperintendenta, estimators, 
— contractors on their own account. Plenty of money 
will be made in building during the next few years 
with 600,000 homes alone needed each year. 

ACCEPT THIS OFFER 

MAIL COUPON TODAY! 

Just a few hours of spare-time study for a 
few months, is all you need to master this 
C.T.C. training in blue print reading and es- 
timating. No time lost from the job, — and it's 
easy because so practical. Grade school edu- 
cation is enough. Begin now to train for a 
better job and better income in building. Mail 
mupnn or a post card for Free 




CHICAGO 
TECHNICAL COLLEGE 
The School for Builders 

C-ICO Tech BIdg., 118 East 26th St., Chicago 

Please send at once — no obligation, — your FRliE 
TKIAL LESSON— "How To Bead Blue Prints" 
and a complete set of Blue Print Plans. 

Name 



Address 

P. O 

Occupation 




FOR THE CARI^ENTER WHO'S PROUD OF 

A CLEAN-CUT JOB 

A saw that cuts clean— keeps its sharpness 
— and is easy in action will help any carpen- 
ter build a reputation. Atkins Saws have 
these qualities because they are carefully 
hardened and tempered for remarkable edge- 
holding qualities. The saws are taper ground 
of a special tempered steel —"Silver Steel" — 
and this assures cleaner, smoother cuts. Buy 
an Atkins Saw^ and do a thorough.f inished job. 

E. C. ATKINS AND COMPANY 

401 S. lUiaois St. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 





CARP€NT€R 





7939 




Reports indicate the 
long awaited upturn in 
building has arrived. 
Every industry and 
worker in the nation 
will benefit. Building 
represents progress 
and expansion, the 
heartbeat of a nation's 
prosperity. 



u 



You can get more remodeling jobs when you know how to apply 

Recessed Edge SHEETROCK and Perf-A-Tape 

^THE FIREPROOF W:4LLB0ARD 



;j||||iip||||i|i|li^ 



'i \ 






HERE'S HOW II'S DO!^ 



Now you can give customers wallhoard walls 
and ceilings that take any type of decoration 



ALL over the country, hundreds of contractors 
-^*- like yourself are using the new Recessed 
Edge Sheetrock* and Perf-A-Tape* to give cus- 
tomers the kind of remodeling and repair jobs 
impossible just a few years ago. They've found 
that the strong, smooth, good-looking walls and 
ceilings possible with these two materials exactly 
fill customers' wants — encourage them to do more 
work than they'd originally planned. 

Recessed Edge Sheetrock and Perf-A-Tape are 
easy for you to apply. Sheetrock comes in big, 
light sheets. It does not warp or buckle — stays in 
place when nailed. It can be easily cut to odd sizes 
to fit around openings. 



USG will gladly help you line up Sheetrock re- 
modeling jobs. Write today for the big book show- 
ing its many uses and types of jobs on which 
Sheetrock may be used — and for information on 
how you can develop prospects into actual jobs. 



Now available to help you increase remodeling and 
repair sales 

THE USG MONTHLY-PAYMENT PLAN 

can be used to finance all types of remodeling — 

regardless of the USG materials used on an 

individual job. Write for complete details. 



United States Gvpsum Company 

300 WEST ADAMS ST. / X CHICAGO. ILLINOIS ^ ' 



PLASTERS . . ROCKLATH* . . METAL LATH 
SHEETROCK* . . FIBER WALLBOARD 
SHEATHING . . INSULATING BOARD 
INSULATING WOOL . . ACOUSTICAL MA- 
TERIALS . . PAINT PRODUCTS . . STEEL 
PRODUCTS . . ROOFING PRODUCTS 
SIDING PRODUCTS . . LIME PRODUCTS 
*Regislered trade-marks 




United States Gypsum Company 

300 West Adams Street, Chicago, Illinois 
Please send me the new 48-page Sheetrock book 

Name 

Address .., 

City State ..„ 



C-4 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24, 1912 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, act of 
October 3. 1917. authorized en July 8, 1918 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters. Sawmill and Timber "Workers. Furniture Workers. Stair 

Builders, Machine Wood Workers. Plarins Mill Men, IMillwrights. Shipwrights and 

Boat Builders. Piledrivers and Kindrrd Industries. Owned and Published by 

the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and .Toiners of Aniprira, at 
Carpenters' Bnilding, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 
Advertising Department, Rm. 250, Bible Honse, New York, N. Y. c^^^Bl 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LIX.— No. 4 



INDIANAPOLIS, APREL, 1939 



One Dollar Per Tear 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 

The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be. in their Judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated as 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 



A Job, Not a Gun, For Every Man! 

No true Aiuerican objects to a national defense program 
"ivithin reason. American citizens will cheerfully assume 
Avhatevcr the cost to attain it. 

Howevei', increasing our national defense program on 
such a vast scale as recently proposed and given approval 
in Wasliington will not solve the danger that is facing this 
nation now. The real danger in the United States today is 
AVITHIN. 

President K. Day of Cornell University, recently 
summed up this condition when he declared: 

"Stai-vation-in the midst of plenty, idleness in the face 
of need despite a desire and a capacity for work — these are 
lierils no nation can long withstand." 

Instead of a gun for every man, the goA'ernment should 
make its slogan "a job for every man." 



I 



THE CARPENTER 

Who Dictates The NLRB's Decisions? 

T IS high time that governmental authority take cognizance of the 
arbitrary methods as practiced by the National Labor Relations 
Board. 

Since its creation under the National Labor Relations Act, the 
Labor Board displayed bias and prejudice against the American Federa- 
of Labor. It has annulled agreements which A. F. of L. affiliates have ne- 
gotiated with emplo3'ers ; it has shown definite favoritism toward the CIO 
in its dealings; it has used its power to help further unionism under the 
CIO policy; it has purposely delayed balloting in plants where it was 
evident that A. F. of L. affiliates had a majority so that the CIO would 
profit by the dela)^; it has used every trick in and outside its power to 
defeat organizational purposes of the A. F. of L. where they conflicted 
with the CIO! 

One of the recent activities of the Labor Board in nullifying agree- 
ments is the voiding of an agreement between the Brotherhood of Railway 
Carmen of America and the Mount Vernon Car Manufacturing Company 
of Mount Vernon, Illinois, which had been in harmonious operation for 
a number of months. The board coupled its nullification with an order re- 
quiring the company to bargain collectively with the CIO Amalgamated 
Association of Iron, Steel and Tin Workers, one of the unions whose 
charters were revoked by the A. F. of L. for membership in the dual CIO 
organization. 

Following a careful study of this agreement nullification policy of the 
Labor Board, the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor 
made the following general indictment of this particular form of malad- 
ministration in its report to the 1938 A. F. of L. convention : 

"The National Labor Relations Board has in many cases built up a 
straw-man by the use of the word 'favoritism' by the employer, as a result 
of which, it has violated the sanctity of contractual obligations between 
employers and American Federation of Labor unions, has invalidated con- 
tracts and virtually disestablished existing American Federation of Labor 
unions." 

In amplifying this charge, the Executive Council made this significant 
statement, which was adopted by the convention as its own declaration: 

"Precedent-making decisions have been handed down in which con- 
tracts between employers and American Federation of Labor unions have 
been invalidated. This has been accomplished by the Board by adopting 
a rule termed 'favoritism' by the employer for the American Federation 
of Labor unions in the matter of organization. The Board has accom- 
plished this by rulings in which it ascribed to employers acts of 'favorit- 
ism' toward the American Federation of Labor unions in the matter of 
organization. 

"The Board has applied these rulings in such a way that if a foreman 
or a minor supervisory employe who has no right to hire or fire but who 
is eligible to membership in the CIO and A. F. of L. unions, makes, with- 
out authorization from any official of the employer, a statement favorable 
to the American Federation of Labor union of which the employe in ques- 
tion is a member, such statement is sufficient to invalidate contracts law- 
fully entered into between the employer and the A. F. of L. union. 

"The following cases, which which do not include all the cases on the 
subject, are proof of the foregoing charge: 



THECARPEXTER 3 

"Consolidated Edison Company; Serrick Corporation; National Motor 
Bearing Company; Zenite Metal Corporation; CarroUton Metal Products 
Company; National Electric Products Corporation; Electric Vacuum 
Cleaner Company. 

"It is interesting to note that in several instances, the United States 
Circuit Courts of Appeals have condemned this rule of the Board and 
failed to approve of it." 

The labor board was intended to help establish harmonious relations 
between labor and industry. Its results have been in the opposite extreme. 
Industry distrusts it as does the American Federation of Lal)or. \\'hy is 
clearl}' set forth in the preceding and following paragraphs. 

Incidentally, when the membership of the National Relations Board 
was announced following the passage of the National Labor Relations 
Act, the American Federation of Labor and other experts on labor matters 
were of the "off the record" opinion at the time that there was too much 
pro CIO background in its makeup. 

Could this have been due to the zealous ambitions of John L. Lewis 
for the perpetuation of the present administration? 

If the controlling appointees of the National Labor Relations Board 
were named because of their sympathy tov/ard CIO policies, is it not safe 
to assume that the membership of the board on down the line would be 
pro CIO? Do not the sub -executives and lesser officials reflect the lean- 
ings of their chiefs in command? 

Among the most recent charges made against the National Labor Re- 
lations Board are those accusing a regional director of fostering strife 
among workers in the fish cannery industry. 

These charges are made by Edward D. Vandeleur, secretary of the 
California State Federation of Labor. 

The charges were made following the calling of an election by Mrs. 
Alice M. Rosseter, regional director of the Labor Board to determine 
whether the A. F. of L. or the CIO shall represent the workers in collec- 
tive bargainmg. 

j\lr. A^andeleur's accusations against the regional director of the Labor 
I'.oard arc significant as they substantiate other protests made against 
Labor Board regional directors and officials in other parts. 

Mr. Vandeleur's charges are startling when one realizes that they are 
made against a board representing the United States government which is 
supposed to conduct unbiased and unprejudiced hearings and render like 
decisions. 

Every accusation made in the earlier part of this article is upheld in 
iMr. Vandeleur's charges against the Labor Board in the twentieth district 
centered around San Francisco. 

'Sir. A'andeleur's charges which follow could just as well include every 
other district and be made against any other regional director of the Na- 
tional Labor Relations Board. 

"The calling of an election in Monterey is another open indication that 
the Regional Labor Board is subjecting itself to the dictates of the CIO, 



4 THE CARPENTER 

and is one of the most brazen of attempts to assist a CIO 'muscle in' effort 
against a long existing A. F. of L. organization," Vandeleur said. 

"For several months illegitimate tactics have been encouraged by the 
Labor Board in the Monterey situation. Workers have been intimidated, 
turmoil has resulted in the industry, and even dynamite was used on the 
home of an A. F. of L. worker. 

"The fact is that the A. F. of L. has an indisputably legal contract in 
effect for several years covering the fish cannery workers at Monterey, 
and which does not expire until August i, 1939, as shown by evidence of 
record at a hearing before a Labor Board examiner last month. It was 
also testified to and not contradicted at the hearing that at least 90 per 
cent of the workers in the canneries involved belong to the A. F. of L., 
or a total of about 2,000 members. 

"Comparing facts in the Monterey case with those in the Westwood 
situation, it is apparent that the 20th Regional Labor Board is playing 
ball with the CIO, and encouraging industrial strife. 

"In the Monterey case a hearing was held before a Labor Board ev- 
aminer from January 9 to 12, 1939, and briefs were filed by January 20. On 
January 29 an order came down for an election. Prompt action because 
the CIO is seeking the election. 

"In the Westwood case a Labor Board hearing was completed late in 
October of last year. Although an election was agreed to at that time, or 
more than three months ago, no order for such an election has yet been 
forthcoming from the 20th Regional Labor Board. 

"And now Mrs. Rosseter, the regional director, states that an addi- 
tional delay of at least 60 days will be necessary before an election can 
possibly be held at Westwood, which is no assurance at all that an election 
will ever be held. It is significant that the A. F. of L. requests the election 
in this case. 

"It is also a matter of Labor Board record in the Monterey case that 
two so-called CIO organizers did not come into the area until late in 
October of 1938, nearly three months after the A. F. of L. contract was 
signed for 1939. 

"Immediately after their arrival intimidation of our workers began. 
More outside agitators arrived.. An attempt by these racketeers to 'sign 
up' the workers failed. An attempted strike sponsored by them failed. 

"In the face of all these facts the Regional Labor Board has the audac- 
ity to call for this election. The testimony before the Labor Board ex- 
aminer at the January hearing in Monterey is enough to convince any in- 
dependent and fair minded judge that the representatives of the Regional 
Labor Board are leaning strongly toward the CIO without justification. 

"There are so many inconsistencies in the action of the Board's con- 
duct of the Monterey case during the past few months that it would re- 
quire untold space to narrate them. 

"The Labor Board was created to eliminate disputes, and not to foster 
them. Such action as the Board's representatives are guilty of in the 
Monterey case can only foster industrial strife, bring chaos to the indus- 
try and create general unrest." 



THE CARPENTER 5 

CIO'S Favorite Weapon Outlawed 

THE sit-down strike, introduced into this countr}- 1)y the CIO and 
hailed by communists, anarchists, parlor pinks, political oppor- 
tunists and even upheld by the National Labor Relations Board 
as an advanced move to bring- industry to its knees and recognize 
labor, Avas definitely killed and rightly so, by the United States Supreme 
Court February 27, 1939. 

The high court's decision was rendered in the case of the National 
Labor Relations Board vs. the Fansteel Metallurgical Corporation. 

The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America and 
the American Federation have long contended that the sit-down strike 
was an illegal seizure of property and was a weapon which would array 
public opinion against labor. Public opinion was not long in condemn- 
ing the sit-down strike and now the supreme court has upheld the conten- 
tions of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and the A. F. of L. from 
a legal status. 

Two of the main points vigorously defended by the Labor Relations 
Board, and emphatically outlawed by the Supreme Court, hinged on the 
legal validity of the sit-down strike of the Fansteel Corporation em- 
ployes sponsored by the CIO Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel 
and Tin Workers, and the right of the corporation to discharge employes 
who participated in this practice. With regard to the sit-down strike the 
Supreme Court majority opinion, written by Chief Justice Hughes, said: 

"The employes had the right to strike but they had no license to 
commit acts of violence or to seize their employer's plant, 

"We may put on one side the contested questions as to the circum- 
stances and the extent of injury to the plant and its contents in the efforts 
of the men to resist eviction. 

"The seizure and holding of the buildings was itself a wrong apart 
from any acts of sabotage, but in its legal aspect the ousting of the owner 
from lawful possession is not essentially different from an assault upon 
the officers of an employing company, or the seizure and conversion of its 
goods, or the despoiling of its property or other unlawful acts in order to 
force compliance with demands. 

"To justify such conduct because of the existence of a labor dispute 
or of an unfair labor practice would be to put a premium on resort to force 
instead of legal remedies and to subvert the principles of law and order 
which lie at the foundations of society." 

Pointing out that the "true purpose" of Congress in enacting tjie Na- 
tional Labor Relations Act was "the protection of the right of employes 
to self-organization and to the selection to representatives of their own 
choosing for collective bargaining without restraint or coercion." the 
opinion continued: 

"Congress also recognized the right to strike — that the employes could 
lawfully cease work at their own volition because of the failure of the 
employer to meet their demands. 

"Section 13 provides that nothing in the act 'shall be construed so as to 
interfere with or impede or diminish in any way the right to strike." But 
this recognition of 'the right to strike' plainly contemplates a lawful 
strike — the exercise of the unquestioned right to quit work. 



6 THECARPENTER 

"As we said in National Labor Relations Board vs. Mackay Radio 
and Telegraph Compan}'^, 304 U. S. 333,347 •" 'If men strike in connection 
with a current labor dispute, their action is not to be construed as a re- 
nunciation of the employment relation and they remain employes for the 
remedial purpose specified in the act." 

There is thus abundant opportunity for the operation of Section 2 (3) 
without construing it as countenancing lawlessness or as intended to sup- 
port employes in acts of violence against the employer's property by mak- 
ing it impossible for the employer to terminate the relation upon that 
independent ground. 

"Here the strike was illegal in its inception and prosecution. As the 
board found, it was initiated by the decision of the union committee 'to 
take over and hold two of the respondent's key buildings.' It was pursu- 
ant to that decision that the men occupied the buildings and the work 
stopped. 

"This was not the exercise of 'the right to strike' to which the act re- 
ferred. It was not a mere quitting of work and statement of grievances in 
the exercise of pressure recognized as lawful. It was an illegal seizure 
of the buildings in order to prevent their use by the employer in a lawful 
manner and thus, by acts of force and violence, to compel the employer 
to submit. 

"When the employes resorted to that sort of compulsion they took a 
position outside the protection of the statute and accepted the risk of the 
termination of their employment upon grounds aside from the exercise 
of the legal rights which the statute was designed to conserve." 

Turning to the contentions of the Labor Board that the sit-down strike 
was justified because of the Fansteel Metallurgical Corporation's alleged 
violation of the Labor Relations Act and that the corporation did not have 
the right to discharge employes connected with the strike, the Court 
made this significant declaration: 

"As respondent's unfair labor practices afforded no excuse for the 
seizure and holding of its buildings, respondent had its normal rights of 
redress. Those rights, in their most obvious scope, included the right to 
discharge the wrongdoers from its employ. 

"To say that respondent could resort to the State court to recover 
damages or to procure punishment, but was powerless to discharge those 
responsible for the unlawful seizure would be to create an anomalous dis- 
tinction for which there is no warrant unless it can be found in the terms 
of the National Labor Relations Act." 

AVith regard to the Labor Board's argument that the Fansteel Corp- 
oration did not have the legal right under the labor act to discharge em- 
ployes because of sit-down strike activities, the Court declared: 

"We think that the argument misconstrues the statute. We are unable 
to conclude that Congress intended to compel employers to retain persons 
in their employ regardless of the unlawful conduct — to invest those who 
go on strike with an immunity from discharge for acts of trespass or 
violence against the employer's property, which they would not have en- 
joyed had they remained at work. 

"Apart from the question of the constitutional validity of an enact- 
ment of that sort, it is enough to say that such a legislative intention 
should be found in some definite and unmistakable expression. AVe find 
no such expression in the cited provision." 



THECARPENTER 7 

Evils of Private Police Systems Exposed 

THE report of the Civil Liberties Committee of the United States 
Senate on private police systems is a well documented study of 
the anti-labor functions performed by company police in the em- 
ploy of the Harlan County Coal Operators Association, of Ken- 
tucky, the activities of sheriff's deputies in that county, and the activities 
of the police force of the Republic Steel Corporation in its plants in 
Ohio, New York and Michigan. 

The Civil Liberties Committee consists of Senator Robert M. La Fol- 
lette, Jr., of Wisconsin, chairman, and Senator Elbert D. Thomas, of 
Utah. ' 

Proceeding- under its authority "to investigate violations of the right 
of free speech and assembly and interference with the right of labor to 
organize and bargain collectively," the committee, following a thorough 
inquiry, reached the following general conclusions regarding private po- 
lice systems : 

"The experiences in Harlan County, Ky., and in the industrial com- 
munities where Republic Steel Corporation operates, indicate clearly 
that where private police systems are used as instruments of anti-union 
]-)olicy, they (a) abridge and violate the civil liberties of workers and 
other individuals; (b) violate the rights of labor guaranteed by Federal 
statutes; (c) result in riots and bloodshed, causing loss of life and injury 
lo persons and property; and (d) endanger the public safety. 

"On the economic front, the use of private police systems as agents in 
employers' anti-union policy, cause disorganization of markets and inter- 
ruptions in the free How of commerce. The ruthless and brutal activities 
of armed private guards to prevent union organization (a) give unfair 
competitive advantage to those employers who oppress labor; (b) create 
bitterness between labor and management; (c) lead to strikes; and (d) 
cause interruptions in the How of commerce. 

"The use of private deputies in an anti-union campaign is inimical to 
the maintenance of orderly representative government. It leads to (a) 
private usurpation of public authority; (b) corruption of public officials; 
(c) oppression of large groups of citizens under the authority of the 
State; and (d) perversion of representative government." 

To remedy these evils the committee made the following legislative 
recommendations to Congress: 

"The functions of private ])olice systems must l)e restricted to the pro- 
tection of plant and propert}-. 

"Employers using the channels of interstate commerce should not be 
l)ermitted to spread and perpetuate a system of repressing the civil rights 
guaranteed by the Federal Constitution and Federal legislation. \\ hen 
company-controlled police systems cover several States aiul attect the 
acli\ities of thousands of workers, it is the place of the Federal Govern- 
ment lo intervene. 

"Tn the interest of industrial peace and the uninterrupted functioning 
of iho natural economic system, it is necessary that Federal action contine 
ciunpany police systems to their proper dutv of protecting plant and 
l)roperty. 



8 THE CARPENTER 

"In recommending legislation to correct the evils of company police 
systems the committee is scrupulous not to interfere with the right of the 
employer to police his premises or employ persons for the legitimate 
functions of protection. 

"The committee does not feel that at this time the Congress should 
undertake detailed regulation of the personnel and conduct of the police 
systems of employers. Rather it should define those practices which have 
led to the infringement of civil liberties and industrial disorder and make 
their commission an offense. 

"In only one respect does it seem advisable to regulate the personnel 
which employers may hire, and that is to prohibit the employment as 
armed guards of persons who have previous criminal records showing a 
tendency toward violence or the dangerous use of deadly weapons. 

"Legislative remedies, in the opinion of the committee, should be 
aimed to prohibit the practice of labor espionage and the shadowing, co- 
ercion, and intimidation of workers in ordinary times, and to restrict com- 
pany police to company propert}^ during times of strike. 

"A statutory prohibition of these practices by private systems, care- 
full}' defined, will also cover the similar practices of detective and strike- 
breaking agencies. To this end the committee is drafting appropriate 

legislation shortly to be introduced in Congress." 

9 

AUXILIARY FLOAT IN MOTOR FESTIVAL 





li^-. 



Above is the float which represented the Flint and Genesse County 
Building Trades, the Flint Federation of Labor and Ladies Auxiliary No. 
109 in the first annual Flint (Mich.) Motor Festival Parade. 

It is planned to make the event an annual affair. All businesses are 
represented by floats in the parade which is sponsored by the Chamber of 
Commerce. 

Members of Auxiliary 109 paid for the decoration of the float and the 
auto was loaned by Brother Besson of Local 1273. Julia Besson, secretary 
of Auxiliary 109 forwarded the information and the picture. 

• • 

Demand the Union Label 



THECAKPENTER 9 

Private Industry Key To Recovery 

THE importance of ending government spending to stimulate busi- 
ness recovery and substitute therefor a large expansion of private 
industry financed by investors is strongly recommended in the 
March issue of the Monthly Survey of Business published by the 
American Federation of Labor. 

Declaring that business conditions coupled with the continuance of a 
large unemployed army calls for "A New Objective," the Survey said: 

"The American nation needs a vigorous program on all fronts to ex- 
pand production by private industry. Such a program is urgent ; if we 
want to replace government spending by private investment, put the un- 
employed to work in private industry instead of WPA and prevent a 
business recession in 1940, accounting must be taken at once, 

"It will take time and coordinated effort to change from government 
spending to private initiative ; we have barely enough time to accom- 
plish it before the present government spending program loses its force. 
It is disheartening, therefore, to see so little recognition of this urgency 
in circles where action can be taken," 

Stressing the "controls and agencies for orderly conduct of business 
in a democracy in the interest of all citizens" set up during the past six 
years, the Survey said "the time is now ripe for a national effort to reach 
the highest production levels in histor3\" 

Answering its own question, "What arc the next steps to expand pro- 
duction?" the Survey said that "government, business, farmers and labor" 
must work together through "regular channels," and that the problem of 
getting bank deposits into production must be solved. 

With regard to replacing government spending with private invest- 
ment, the Survey outlined the following four-point program: 

1, An "adequate" nation-wide, low-cost housing program, involving 
"some Federal and local government aid," 

2, "Congressional action," as suggested in the wage parleys last Fall 
to enable railroads to buy "much needed new equipment," 

3. General retooling- and re-equipment of industrial plants, "much" of 
which would automatically follow expansion. 

4. Purchase of new equipment by utilities and "Federal help" to ex- 
tend power lines into new areas. 

As prerequisites to such a program, "business needs the assistance of 
legislation and planning and some programs will require financial aid 
from the government," the Survey said, while "labor needs the assurance 
that wages will be increased through collective bargaining as profits rise" 
r.nd that rising prices will not cancel wage gains. 

On the international side, the Survey said that "war scares have de- 
layed business expansion this Spring" though "optimism continues" and 
it gives this warning: 

"■\Yc in America need to guard against an emotional approach to for- 
i ign problems, which would magnify war scares, create hatred and fear, 
;uid serve as a background for large armament expenditures. 

"Wc are now a world power with full responsibility for weighing con- 
.^equenccs»of our declarations and policies upon world peace and welfare." 



10 THE CARPENTER 

U. S. Lumber Exports Lowest In 40 Years 

Ample proof that the Northwest lumber industry has suf- 
fered serious losses during the past few years due to the dis- 
astrous effects of recent reciprocal trade agreements is con- 
tained in the following article reprinted from the Seattle 
Post-Intelligencer : 

WASHINGTON — The lumber survey committee reported to Secre- 
tary Hopkins today that American lumber exports in 1938 were the lowest 
in forty years. The report added that the reciprocal trade agreement 
program had been disappointing to the trade. 

The committee of five experts said the United States had dropped 
from first place in the world's lumber trade to fifth place despite "the 
superiority and diversity of its lumber and timber products available for 
export." 

"The general retardants to world trade have been accentuated, in 
American lumber and timber products, by the results so far of reciprocal 
trade agreements, which are generally regarded by the lumber trade as 
adverse," the committee said. 

The committee said use of lumber in building, especially in small 
homes, was the principal support of the lumber trade during 1938. 

"The lumber industry feels," the committee asserted, "that the recent 
trade ag-reements with Great Britain and Canada have been generally dis- 
appointing to the lumber and plywood industries." 

The committee said domestic consumption through home building 
had been aided by "lower loan rates, facilitated b}^ the Federal Housing 
Administration insured mortgage system." 

The members are Thomas S. Holden, New York City; M. W. Stark, 
Columbus, O. ; Calvin Fentress, Chicago; Phillips A. Hayward, chief of 
the forest products division, commerce department, and Wilson Compton, 
secretary and manager of the National Lumber Manufacturers Associa- 
tion. 

• 

U. B. of C. Certified For Two Lumber Firms 

Tlie National Labor Relations Board announced the certification of the Lum- 
ber and Sawmill Workers Union, United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America, affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, as the collective 
bargaining agency for the production and maintenance employes of the Grays 
Harbor Company, Hoquiam, Washington, and the employes of Anderson & Middle- 
ton, Aberdeen, Washington. 

The certification was made following secret ballot elections conducted by the 
board January 19 and 20. 

In the Grays Harbor Company election 143 out of 2 61 ballots cast were for 

the U. B. of C. and J. In the Anderson & Middleton election 156 of the 26 6 ballots 

cast favored the U. B. of C. and J. 

o 

Drive On To Compel All Unionists To Vote 

The Federated Trades Council, A. F. of L. central body of Milwaukee, Wis., 
has urged every affiliated union to require members over 21 to become registered 
voters. 

The council also recommended that, as a condition of membership, non-citizens 
be obligated to take out first naturalization papers. 



THE CARPENTER 11 

Fort Wayne Housing Plan Condemned 

A STRONGLY worded condemnation of the so-called "Fort Wayne 
Plan" for cheap housing for families on relief rolls sponsored 
b}'^ the Federal Housing Administration featured a report of the 
A. F. of L. Housing- Committee on this scheme submitted to the 
President and Congress by the Executive Council of the American Fed- 
rration of Labor and made public by William Green, president of the A. 
F. of L. 

According to the report, which was adopted by the A. F. of L. Execu- 
ti\"e Council at its recent meeting in Miami, Florida, the cheap one-family 
portable houses under the Fort Wayne Plan lack most of the usual hous- 
ing conveniences, are constructed of shoddy material, promote unemploy- 
uient among building mechanics, infringe on the sound slum clearance 
and low-rent housing for small income groups developed by the United 
States Housing Authority, and create new slums which are but slight if 
any improvement on the old slums now universally condemned. 

"Under the Fort Wayne Plan," Mr. Green said, "the FHA has supple- 
mented its mortgage insurance by Federal and local subsidies in order to 
build small, one-family houses on tax-exempt vacant land to house fami- 
lies on relief rolls. 

"These houses are constructed on land 'borrowed' from private owners 
for a period of years in return for tax exemption. The houses are pre- 
fabricated throughout, assembled at the site and can be removed from one 
location to another when the landowner desires to obtain the return of 
his land. 

"The pre-fabrication and construction is carried out by unskilled re- 
lief labor paid b}- the Federal Government from WPA funds." 

As a result of its study of the FLLV-Fort A\'aync Plan the Housing 
CommiUee of the A. F. of L. reached the following conclusions: 

"r. The land acquisition method underlying the plan is highly objec- 
tionable as it will inevitably lead to tiagrant land speculation due to the 
repurchase feature of the plan and coni]:)lete tax exemption of the land 
while it is held and developed by the municipal housing authority. 

"2. The i)ractice of moving houses around from one place to another 
is uneconomical, enhances the sense of insecurity and impermanence 
among the families thus subjected to floating, makes rehabilitation of such 
families imptxssible and is therefore objectionable from the social point of 
view. 

"\^. The plan will serve to undermine the already precarious structure 
(if municipal linance in the communities which undertake it. 

"4. Tt will tend to perpetuate and cause further widespread uncmpU)y- 
nient among the building mechanics and labm'ers, deprixing ihcm i>i 
normal employment. 

"5. P)}- ])cing limited to relief labor it will perpetuate the relief status 
of the workers. 

"6. By being limited to relief tenants it \\\\\ provide an incentive ior 
families to remain on relief. 

"7. Substandard design utilized under the plan is a real threat to the 
development of good housing. Failure lo meet minimum size require- 
ments and lack of adequate heating facilities, laundry facilities, kitchen 



la THE CARPENTER 

facilities and complete absence of storage space, condemns the design as 
utterly inadequate and unsatisfactory. This is especially true of mixing 
in one room the functions of cooking, laundering and eating and general 
living. The design of the house will serve in a very real sense as a deter- 
rent to, the development of the higher standard of living. 

"8. The substandard construction of the houses and the flimsy mate- 
rial utilized make the houses structures of doubtful durability. While 
the construction of such houses deprives labor of normal employment, the 
net effect of the operation is to inflict upon our communities nothing 
better than new slums. 

"g. Slum clearance and low-rent housing for slum dwellers can be and 
is being carried out more effectively and more economically under the 
United States Housing Act with full participation of private enterprise 
and with full observance of minimum standards of construction and de- 
sign, as well as of minimum labor standards in normal private employ- 
ment. The sound, permanent low-rent housing program of the USHA, 
designed to provide decent, livable and lasting homes to the ill-housed 
families, must not be jeoparidzed by turning low-rent housing into a 
proving ground for the unscrupulous land speculator and self-seeking pro- 
moter, willing to inflict upon us a nation-wide slum for private gain, at 
the expense of the taxpayer, as well as the slum dweller." 

In concluding the report, signed by Harry C. Bates and John Coefield, 
vice-presidents of the A. F. of L., the Housing Committee stated: 

"We have approached the study oi the plan without prejudice. We do 
not condemn the plan merely because it is new or because it embodies 
new ideas or methods. Our criticisms are speciBc and are directed against 
those phases of the plan which we feel convinced must be condemned be- 
cause they are uneconomical and because in practice they will result in a 
marked setback in our progress toward better housing and toward eco- 
nomic security. 

"It is our considered judgment that the plan is contrary to the public 
interest in many respects, that it should be condemned as such by the Fed- 
eral Government, and that all agencies of the Federal Government should 
be directed by the President to refrain from sponsorship of, and parti- 
cipation in , any phase of the plan." 

The report has been unanimously adopted by the Executive Council of 

the American Federation of Labor. 

• . 

Tenant Farmers Quit CIO Cannery Union 

J. R. Butler, president, and- H. L. Mitchell, executive secretary, of the South- 
ern Tenant Farmers Union, -announced the withdrawal of that organization from 
the "Communist-controlled United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing and Allied 
Workers of America," an affiliate of John L. Lewis's Congress of Industrial Or- 
ganizations. The withdrawal was ordered by the executive committee of the S. 
T. F. U. following a referendum vote, among the 35,000 members with 200 locals 
in five Southern States. 

Mr. Butler and Mr. Mitchell charged Donald Henderson, president of the 
CIO Cannery Workers Union, with arbitrary actions featured by attempts to dis- 
rupt the Tenant Farmers Union, suspending its officers, and attempting to set up 
a dual organization. In addition, Butler and Mitchell said Henderson acted direct- 
ly for the Communist party in his efforts to split the Tenant Farmers Union. 

» 

An effort made for the happiness of others lifts us above ourselves. 



THE CARPENTER 13 

High Court Upholds Sawmill Local 

TliE Supreme Court of the State of Oregon, in a decision handed 
down, ruled that Lumber and Sawmill Workers Local No. 2573 
of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, affiliated 
with the American Federation of Lal:)or, is the rig'litful owner of 
all books, moneys, records and paraphernalia Avhich were usurped when a 
small minority of the Local's 2,573 members, including- the officers, seced- 
ed from the Local to join the CIO secessionist and dual group known as 
the Liternational Woodworkers of America. 

A similar ruling was handed down by the Circuit Court of Appeals 
some weeks ago. The I\\"A appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, 
which upheld the decision of the lower court. 

The case arose out of the action taken at a meeting of Local 2573 at 
Marshfield, Oregon, on August 8, 1937. The membership of the Local 
exceeded 2,500. According to the minutes of the meeting, a motion to 
sever connection with the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America was adopted 1)}- a vote of 159 to 142. The CIO secessionists 
thereupon took control of the Local's property and treasury, including 
S5,ooo. 

The following" excerpts from the Supreme Court's ruling in the Marsh- 
field case definitely defines the rights of loyal union members to retain 
union property : 

"Like all other unincorporated associatioifs, by becoming a member, 
unless the articles or laws of the association provide otherwise, a person 
acquires not a severable right to any of its property or funds, but merely 
a right to the joint use and enjoyment thereof so long as he continues to 
be a member. 

"* * * So long as he remains a member of the association, however, 
he has an absolute right, which the courts will protect, to have its prop- 
erty and funds controlled and administered according to its organic plan, 
and to participate in its affairs in harmony therewith. C. J. S., p. 69, 
sec. 27a. 

"/Vnd, upon the dissolution of a \'olunlary association, 'one who ceased 
to be a member prior to the dissolution is not entitled to share in the dis- 
tribution since the interest of a meml)er in the property of the associa- 
tion ceases on llie termination of his memliersliip.' " 5 C. J., p. 1339, 
Sec. 22. 

"When a person ceases to be a member of a voluntary association, his 
interest in its funds and property likewise ceases, and remaining mem- 
bers become jointly entitled thereto, whether his memJ)ership is terminat- 
ed by his own act or omission or by the act of the society. This rule ap- 
plies e\en where a number of members secede in a bod}', and although 
they constitute a majority, and organize a new association. In such case 
the remaining members, and only they, are entitled to the entire funds and 
property of the association, so long as they continue to keep it alive and 

adhere to its purposes." 

• 

Three Brothers Picked to Head A. F. of L. Unions 

There are three brothers in the St. Oiige family and each has just been elected 
president of an A. F. of L. Local Union. Archie heads the Letter Carriers and 
Louis, the Teamsters, of Brockton, Mass., while Roland presides over the Carpen- 
ters' Local in Manchester, N. PI. Their father, Adelard St. Onge, was an old-time 
Massachusetts union man. 



14 THE CARPENTER 

Withdrawal from CIO ''Out of Order^' 

FALSIFYING the facts regarding its membership seems to be a 
favorite and very necessary pastime these days in John L. Lewis' 
Congress for Industrial Organization. 

Time and again the CIO has been tripped up sharply regarding 
its figures for public consumption concerning its membership. 

The International Ladies Garment Workers recently left the CIO 
and the United Textile Workers will soon pull out. The Steel Workers 
Organizing Committee is nothing more than a paper organization and 
the United Automobile Workers are now torn with dissension. One fac- 
tion, resenting the communistic and dictatorial policies of Lewis and hi^s 
lieutenants, has withdrawn to form an independent group. 

Proof that the dues paying members of the CIO are dwindling rapid- 
ly is Mr. Lewis's special assessment of one dollar on his United Mine 
Workers last February. The miners for the six months ended November, 
1938, collected $1,250,000 in dues and during the same period contributed 
$1,400,000 to the CIO ! The special assessment of one dollar brought $400,- 
000 more into the CIO. 

The other organization forming the fast weakening back bone of the 
CIO is the Amalgamated Clothing Workers but it's the United Mine 
Workers who are supplying the cash. 

Further proof of the abm^e indications that the CIO is rapidly heading 
toward membership bankruptcy is the attempted action of the National 
Marine Engineers Beneficial Association to withdraw from the CIO. 

Several units of that organization conducted a secret poll of its mem- 
bership and found that an overwhelming majority was in favor of with- 
drawing from the CIO. 

A resolution presented at the recent annual convention in W^ashington, 
D. C. asked for a referendum on the cjuestion of whether the members 
were in favor of the National M.E.B.A. remaining affiliated with the CIO. 

The resolution pointed out that it was ''the belief that the National 
M.E.B.A. has lost prestige due to its present affiliation with the CIO." 

On a point of order in convention procedure the resolution was ruled 
out of order. 

Following the convention the CIO publicit}^ bureau in a deliberate 
misstatement of the facts, reported that the National Marine Engineers 
Beneficial Association had "by unanimous vote" decided to retain affilia- 
tion with the CIO. 

The following resolution shows just how "unanimous" the seagoing 
engineeers are for CIO affiliation. To keep the record complete, the reso- 
lution was introduced January 19, 1939, the fourth day's session of the 
convention. 

The resolution : 

Resolution No. 39. Jan. 19, 1939. 
To the officers and representatives of the 6 3rd convention assembled: 

WHEREAS, M. E. B. A. No. 79 (San Pedro, Calif.), by a secret refer- 
endum ballot circulated to determine the wishes of its membership on the 
question of affiliation with the CIO found the membership 9 6 per cent op- 
posed to such affiliation; and 

WHEREAS, M. E. B. A. No. 41 (Portland, Ore.), also by a secret refer- 
endum ballot voted overwhelmingly against affiliation with the CIO; and 



T 11 E C A K P E X T F R 15 

WHEREAS, M. E. B. A. No. 9 7 fSan Francisco, Calif.), in a recent 
secret referendum voted by majority against affiliation with the CIO; and 

WHEREAS, I can truthfully say we have found practically no member 
of the M. E. B. A. arriving at this port during the past year, whether from 
the East coast, Gulf, or other Pacific coast ports, who has not voiced op- 
position to our CIO aifiliation when the question was put to him; and 

WHEREAS, it is our belief the National M. E. B. A. has lost prestige 
due to its present affiliation with the CIO, now therefore be it 

RESOLVED, This 6 3rd Convention of the National M. E. B. A. go on 
record in favor of a national secret referendum ballot on the question "Are 
you in favor of the National M. E. B. A. remaining with the CIO"; and be 
it further 

RESOLVED, The members of the National M. E. B. A. be mailed ballots 
on this question within 3 days after the convention adjourns and the bal- 
loting shall continue for a period of four months. 

Fraternally submitted, 

DEANE CURTIS, 

M.E.B.A. No. 41, Portland, Oregon. 

On a point of order by Representative Trainer in convention procedure, 
the Chair ruled the resolution out of order. 

The fourth part of the resolution is partictilarly enlightening. AVith- 
out doubt it is the reason that the ]Marine Engineers' high command re- 
fused to even consider a membership referendum. 

Tt is therefore obvious that the only reason the Marine Engineers are 
-lill attiliatcd with the CIO is because a membership referendum was 
ruled "out of order." 



Pot Calling The Kettle Black! 

A RECENT protest by the CIO Industrial Union Council of San 
Francisco which fimctions imder the supervision of the notorious 
alien, Harry Bridges, is remindftil of the old adage, "It's the pot 
calling the 'kettle black." 

1 larry Bridges, by -way of a reminder, is a known ci^immunist and 
alien. The American Legion has petitioned Secretary of Labor Francis 
Perkins to deport him and he has been the target of many other patriotic 
organizations who believe firmly in Americanism. 

Despite the efforts of these various organizations who believe in the 
American form of government, Harry Bridges, for reasons, best known 
to Madame Perkins, has been given the protection of her office. 

The ])rotest of the CIO council concerns the appointment of Frii;^ 
W'iedman as (icrman counsel general in San Francisco. In the protest t«> 
the state department Mr. W'iedman is called "an undesirable alien." 

The difference in the alien status of ]\Iessrs. Wiedman and Bridges is 
noteworthy. Mr. W'iedman does not profess to be anything but a German 
temporaril}- employed in the consular service of his cotmtrv. Mr. 
bridges, on the other hand, is an Australian who seemingly enjoys his 
flatus as an alien. He has earned his livelihood in the United States for 
nearl}' twenty }ears l)ut refuses to become a citizen of the land that feeds 
him. 

Anyone is entitled to judge wiiich (tf these two aliens is really "unde- 
sirable." 



16 THE CARPENTER 

Appalling Conditions of the Tiff Miners 

IN the hills of southeast Missouri, not more than 65 miles from the 
city of St. Louis, there live, under the most primitive conditions in 
the United States, some 2,500 miners Vhose plight is nigh on to being- 
hopeless. 

Located in that part of Missouri known the world over for its lead 
production there is also mined the snow white mineral rock, Barite, more 
commonly known in the area as "Tiff." 

A^^ashington County, Missouri, in which the mines are located, pro- 
duces 67 per cent of the Tiff used in our country in the manufacture of 
rubber tires, linoleum, oil cloth, cosmetics, paint base. X-ray plates, oil 
well drilling slush and other kindred products. 

The Tiff miners in this county are the descendants of earl}^ French 
pioneers who settled the western shores of the Mississippi more than 
150 years ago. In this mining community many of the old French Cath- 
olic customs and traditions are still being practiced. 

It is well that these people still possess much of the ruggedness of 
their pioneer forefathers because of the hardships they are constantly 
called upon to face. 

The 2,500 miners and their families in this locality present a social 
and economic problem unequalled anywhere in our nation. 

The problem is one of long standing and has become more acute with 
the 3^ears. Tift' mining in the early days was confined to gathering the 
mineral from the surface of the ground. Later years, however, have made 
it necessary to dig in an effort to locate veins of Tiff. 

These Tiff "diggins" often reach the depth of 30 to 40 feet, which has 
made the plight of the miner harder and more precarious. The conditions 
under which the miner is compelled to work and find a market for his 
Tift" has been the contributing- factor to the destitution and hardship he 
has been called upon to face. 

The National Pigment Company, together with a number of Indepen- 
dent Tiff buyers, conceived the plan under which the miner must operate 
his mine and sell his mineral. The method adopted by the company and 
the buyers absolve them of all responsibilit}^ to the miner, yet by this 
method the miner is helpless to help himself. The system now practiced 
is comparable to that of the sharecropper, cranberry pickers and commer- 
cial farmer, with economic and social results that put to shame any of 
the other named industries. 

Two plans are in operation by which the miner is permitted to mine 
and while both are basically alike, the}^ offer a diff'erence in compensation 
received for the mined product. 

The sj^stems are alike insofar as housing is concerned. The Tiff land- 
owner grants permissio-n to the miner to mine on his ground. With this 
permit comes the use of shelter or living quarters for the miner and his 
family. 

The most deplorable housing to be found anywhere is furnished these 
people. Shacks of rough cut boards, man}^ without floors. Log cabins 
without window panes, old salvaged lumber thrown together in an efl'ort 
to keep out the elements. These huts are never over two rooms and house 
families with as many as ten children, all of whom must of necessity sleep 
in one room. 



THE CARPENTER 17 

Sanitation is unknown in the communities. The inside of these shacks 
are papered with old newspapers, bits of corrugated boxes, fragments of 
posters or anything that can be salvaged, in an effort to keep out the 
cold and rain. 

It is impossible to describe the filth and disease-infested hovels in 
which these people are recjuired to live. The water supply usually comes 
from the community well, where all must go for water for cooking and 
bathing purposes. Surveys made in this area prove that the housing is 
not fit for raising hardy live-stock, much less families of human beings. 

Sickness of all descriptions prevails, chronic illness due to vears of 
neglected medical attention rules the miners. Medical care does not come 
within the reach of the miners' budget. Child birth is attended by com- 
munity mid-wives who receive little or nothing for their services. 

Uneducated, these people, most of whom cannot read or write, are 
conseciuently unable to leave this environment to compete for a better 
position in life. For fifty years they have struggled -for existence under 
the most adverse conditions imaginable. 

Tiff miners' children are the only children exempt from the ^lissouri 
Child Labor Act. Such legislation could only be sponsored by those who 
would benefit 'from continued peonage. 

Schools are few and inadequate and compulsory education is unheard 
of. Children seldom have the opportunity to obtain an education and it is 
not unusual for children of 12 to 14 years of age, hungry for school "lar- 
nin," to be in the first and second grade of school. 

This situation is brought about through the necessity of whole fam- 
ilies digging Tiff to earn from $2 to $2.50 per week. This meager income 
does not allow for clothing "fitten" for children in school. This svstem 
of destitution and starvation prevails alike under both systems of work 
in the count}' and those who dig on the land of independent landowners. 

The only dift'erence in the plan of operation is that the miner work- 
ing on the land of the independent owners must pay the landowner a 
royalty of from 75 cents to $1 per ton for the privilege. Those mining on 
the property of the National Pigment Companv are exempt from rovalty 
charges. 

To the miner working on the land of independent owners comes also 
the burden of hauling charges, for the hauling of Tift" to the processing 
mill. These charges are based on the distance required to reach the mill 
and range from $1.25 to $1.75 per ton. The prevailing price of Tiff at the 
mill is $7 per ton, gross. From this is deducted the royalty and hauling 
charges, leaving the miner Avith a not of from $4.50 to $5 per ton for his 
efforts. 

Even under these condtions the miner could provide for himself if 
he were permitted to sell all the Tiff he could mine. His problem now is 
more acute than ever because quotas have been instituted under which 
a miner only averages 500 pounds per week, which cuts his income to a 
$2.25 to $2.50 average, with whicli to supply food and clothing for fam- 
ilies of as many as ten. 

With this controlled income it is easy to understand win- children 
cannot go to school, why they are denied medical attention and why sick- 
ness and malnutrition and stark poverty attend at every Tiff" miner's door. 
It is little wonder that shacks are without floors or window panes and 
ignorance and illiteracy prevail among these people. 



18 THECARPENTER 

There were strikes in the Tiff mines in 1935 and 1936 that were suc- 
cessful in raising the price of Tiff to the mills $1.50 per ton. These 
strikes raised the price of Tift' to its present price of $7 per ton. After 
the strike victor}^ the National Pigment Company introduced mechanized 
mining into the area as a competitor to the individual hand miner. 

Steam shovels and washers now are active competitors of the miner 
and further his hardship and dull the future outlook. Prior to the strikes 
machine mining could not compete with the hand miner. Low prices paid 
to the miner prior to the strikes made mechanized mining unprofitable to 
the company. 

When the price reached $7, the large Tift* interests saw the oppor- 
tunity of liquidating the cost of machine mining and installation of mod- 
ern methods has steadily increased. Steam shovels and washers have taken 
their toll of the miners' income. Modern methods of production developed 
overproduction, which in turn has fathered the quota system now being 
practiced. 

The situation confronting these people of Washington Count}^ is a 
blot on the state of Missouri. The population in the Tift' areas are 
stranded and destituted. These people who, through their ancestors, have 
contributed much of the history, tradition and French culture in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley find themselves faced with a problem that seems without 
solution. 

Ever}^ advantage to which every American has a right has been denied 
these people. 

Reduced to serfdom and peonage by the operators, every attempt to 
assist the miner has for mysterious reasons met with failure. The welfare 
of the county lies in the hands of a few who sway political power and 
pressure in their effort to maintain the continued low standards of living 
among the miners. 

Attempts to render assistance have been frustrated or met with cold 
indifference by those who could be of assistance. The National Pigment 
Company, the largest single landowner in the county, has turned a deaf 
ear to any attempt to help the miner in his plight. 

The county with its 14,500 inhabitants is unable to meet its relief 
problem. It has 800 men on the AVPA rolls and 900 unemployables are 
eligible for relief. Years of hardship have left their mark, and the un- 
employable ratio is high. Malnutrition and lack of medical care has pro- 
duced blindness and many forms of permanent illness for whom the 
county must now provide. 

Relief is sorely inadequate because of the extreme poverty of the 
county and inadequate taxation on the interests that control the fate of 
the people. Washington County cannot meet its quota of funds to the 
state of Missouri for relief purposes, hence W^ashington County does 
not receive its allotment from the state to carry on its relief program. 

For the 900 unemployables, many of them bed-ridden, only $2,500 per 
month is available. On a pro-rata basis this means less than $3 per month 
on which they must live and provide medical aid and attention. This in 
itself is hopeless insofar as relief is concerned. 

• 

Courage consists not in hazarding witliout fear, but being resolutely minded 
in a just cause. — Plutarcli. 



THE CARPENTER 19 

Beware of Fake Labor Promoters 

AROUSED l)y continuous unauthorized use of the name of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor and affiliated bodies by unscrupulous 
and racketeering promoters, the California State Federation of 
Labor has declared war on their "chiseling" practices. 

The campaign was authorized at a recent meeting of the executive 
council of the Federation, at which a proposal that unionists give better 
support to official labor publications was also acclaimed. 

"For years a certain t3'pe of promoters have been bilking the public, 
I)articularly bttsiness and professional men, by high-pressure, sales meth- 
ods in connection with alleged 'benefit' dances, entertainments, picnics 
and other affairs, 'official' Union directories, programs and other pul:)li- 
cations," said Edward D. Vandeleur, secretary of the Federation. 

"The practice is steadih^ increasing and Labor itself must do its part 
in exposing and curbing such rackets for the protection of its OAvn organ- 
izations, as well as our friends who conscientioush^ desire to aid worthy 
causes. 

"First, we warn the public ag"ainst contributing to an}' purported 'ofh- 
cial' ])roject or ptiblication in connection with which the name of the 
American Federation of Labor or the California State Federation of 
Labor, or any affiliated council or union is used, unless the solicitors pre- 
sent written credentials properly authenticated by officers of the Central 
Labor Council of the district in which they are operating. 

"Second, all local unions are ttrged to exercise precaution in accepting 
promoter's schemes which appear to be potential money makers for the 
organization at the time, but frequently develop into boomerangs after 
the racketeers have left town, and to check all promotion proposals with 
their Central Labor Council first. 

"Third, we urge every Central Labor Council to designate a committee 
of its officers to function as a sanctioning body for any activities in which 
the name of tlie Council, or affiliated tmions is used in their community, 
in order to curlj this type of racketeering. 

"Fourth, it is urged that all local unions adopt a polic}- of agreeing 
that the committee set-up by their Central Labor Council shall be re- 
sponsible for the careful policing of activities in their community, and 
that all proposals, regardless of the amounts involved, shall be submitted 
to such committee for sanction. 

"Fifth, the ])ublic is asked to cooperate by demanding official creden- 
tials of any solicitor they do not know, particularl}^ in coiuicction with 
telephone solicitations, and to report any proposals not backed bv proper 
credentials to the Secretary of the Central Labor Council in their com- 
munity." 

Mr. Vatulcleur cited numerous incidents where promoters had mulcted 
unions, their members and friends, business and professional men, and 
others. A racket during the holiday season was benefits to buv food for 
wives and kiddies of unemployed union members. 

"These practices," he said, "must be stopped in the interest of all con- 
cerned, and the California State Federation of Labor, with the coopera- 
tion of the officers of the various Central Labor Councils, proposes to do 
everything possible to end these abuses. 

"Better Business Bureaus and similar bona fide organizations will co- 
operate, and we need only the aid of industry, business and the general 
public who are victims of these schemes to end the nefarious practices of 
unscrtipulous promoters." 



20 THE CARPENTER 

Child Welfare Makes Many Gains 

WHAT the year 1938 meant in advancing the welfare of American 
children, particularly under the Social Security Act and the 
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, was analyzed by Katherine 
F. Lenroot, Chief of the Children's Bureau, in her annual report. 

"As the fiscal 3^ear 1938 drew to a close, the third anniversary of the 
passage of the Social Security Act was approaching and the Fair Labor 
Standards Act had just been signed," said Miss Lenroot. "By these two 
measures the responsibilities of the Children's Bureau have been extend- 
ed beyond research, consultation service, and dissemination of informa- 
tion, to include joint undertakings with the States for advancement of the 
well-being of children and youth." 

Miss Lenroot reported that 1938 marked the end of the initial period 
of setting up Federal and State administrative organizations, and the be- 
gining of a period of increasing effectiveness in extending the services 
throughout the country, particularly in rural districts and needy areas. 
All the States and Territories to which the Act applies were cooperating 
in maternal and child-health services; all except Louisiana, in services for 
crippled children; all except Wyoming, in Child-welfare services. 

Fourth Federal law to recognize child labor as a national problem, 
the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 forbids shipment of goods in inter- 
state commerce from establishments in which children under 16 years of 
age are employed, or in which children under 18 years of age are em- 
ployed in occupations declared by the Chief of the Children's Bureau to 
be particularly hazardous or detrimental to their health or well-being-. 
Two previous Federal child-labor laws and the child-labor provisions of 
the N.R.A. codes were rendered ineffective by Supreme Court decisions. 

The 1937 birth rate was 17.0 per 1,000 estimated population, slightly 
higher than the rates for 1936 and 1935, 16.7 and 16.9, respectively, but 
lower, than that for 1934, which was 17. i. Since 1915, when the birth rate 
was 25.1, the rate has been declining. 

The 1937 infant mortality rate of 54 deaths per 1,000 live births was the 
lowest on record in the United States. 

Definite maternal life-saving efforts under the Social Security Act 
were under way in all the States in the year 1937. The same year saw a 
significant drop in the maternal mortality rate from the 1936 previous all- 
time low figure of 57 maternal death per 10,000 live births to 49 such 
deaths per 10,000 live births. These figures, which have been made avail- 
able since Miss Lenroot's report was prepared, show that for each of the 
important types of causes — infection, toxemia, and hemorrhage — the 1937 
rate is the lowest recorded in the expanding birth registration area. 

In closing the report. Miss Lenroot made eight specific recommenda- 
tions as follows : 

1. Expansion of research and advisory work in the fields of (a) ma- 
ternal care, (b) child care and infant mortality, (c) treatment of crippled 
children, (d) medical and social care of children suffering from chronic 
disabilities, (e) social and institutional care of mentally deficient children, 
(f) studies of dependent, neglected, and delinquent children, and (g) 
Federal and State cooperation in child-welfare services in both rural and 
urban areas. 

2. Expanded resources for advisory and consultative service to the 
States. 



THE CARPENTER 21 

3. Adequate appropriations for effective administration of the child- 
labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. 

4. Extension of field and office services in the development of current 
reporting- on juvenile employment, juvenile-court statistics, and health 
and social services to children. 

5. Amendment of title V, parts i and 2 of the Social Security Act to 
provide a gradualh' expanding- program of maternal and child-health 
services. 

6. Completion of ratification of the child-labor amendment if the 
United States Supreme Court holds that it is still pending. 

7. Extension to Puerto Rico of the material and child-welfare pro- 
visions of the Social Security Act. 

8. Continued focusing- of public and professional interest on problems 
of maternal and child care and child welfare, and on qualified personnel 
for these services. 



Green Warns Against Non-Partisan League 

Unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor which ac- 
cept membership in Labor's Non-Partisan League, the political wing of 
the CIO render themselves liable to have their A, F. of L. charters re- 
voked. 

This was made clear in a letter sent b}- AVilliam Green, president of 
the American Federation of Labor, to all A. F. of L. affiliates, including 
National and International Unions, State Federations of Labor, City Cen- 
tral Bodies, and directly affiliated Local Unions. 

The text of JNIr. Green's letter, which was sent by direction of the Ex- 
ecutive Council of the American Federation of Labor, follows: 

''The Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor at a 
meeting- held in Miami, Florida, recently directed me to communicate 
with you calling attention to the fact that the so-called 'Labor's Non- 
Partisan League' is a CIO organization and is in no way regarded as a 
labor organization by the American Federation of Labor. The Executive 
Council regards it as a purely political organization. 

"Because the American Federation of Labor follows a non-partisan 
political policy and formulates said non-partisan policies from time to 
time as circumstances Avarrant and conditions require. I am writing to call 
upon you to refrain from accepting membership in this so-called 'Labor's 
Non-Partisan League.' 

"If any American Federation of Labor Unions, Central Labor Bodies 
or State Federations of Labor have accepted membership in Labor's Non- 
Partisan l^eaguc they are directed by the Executive Council to immediate- 
ly with draw and sever all connections with Labor's Non-Partisan League. 

"The American Federation of Labor cannot submit to the formula- 
tion of its political policies by the CIO organizations or any other politi- 
cal organizatio»n. 

"Central Bodies, State Federations of Labor or Federal Labor Unions 
which refuse to carry out these instructions sent by direction of the Ex- 
ecutive Council, subject themselves to the revocation of the charters for 
insubordination to the rulings, laws and principles of the American Fed- 
eration of Labo.r." 



Live to do good and you will never tire of your employment. 



22 THE CARPENTER 

Extension of Old Age Pensions Asked 

A SIX-POINT program to bring an additional six million persons 
under the old-age pension system of the Social Security Act was 
presented to the House Ways and Means Committee by Arthur J. 
Altmeyer, chairman of the Social Security Board. Unemployment 
compensation for jobless workers, he said, should be similarly expanded. 

Appearing as the first witness as the AVays and Means Committee 
opened hearings on proposals to amend the social security program, Mr. 
Altmeyer recommended : 

1. Start monthly benefits under old-age insurance plan in 1940 in- 
stead of 1942. 

2. Pa}^ supplementary benefits for aged wives; also orphans. 

3. Bring agricultural labor employed on big-scale farms and domestic 
workers into system. 

4. Strengthen legislation giving aid to aged, blind and dependent 
children. 

5. Increase present grants to needy aged by States and permit the 
board to differentiate between "poorer" and "richer" States in apportion- 
ing Federal cash aid. 

6. Avoid financing problems. (Altmeyer said that the Treasury De- 
partment will present a report on this phase of the expansion program.) 

Declaring the social security program to be sound, Altmeyer urged 
that revision of the act should be made with in the existing framework. 
He said : 

"The Social Security Board believes that it is administratively feasible 
to bring into the system large numbers of persons not yet covered — in- 
cluding employes of non-profit organizations, employes of National banks, 
and similar so-called Federal instrumentalities, seamen, domestic Avorkers 
and agricultural laborers. 

"All told, these groups include some 6,000,000 men and women who 
would thus be assured of old-age protection which there can be no doubt 
the vast majortity of them sorel}^ need. 

"AVith respect to non-profit organizations and Federal instrumentali- 
ties such as national banks, the Board foresees no administrative difficul- 
ties ; we therefore recommend their immediate inclusion. 

"We also suggest that old-age insurance might well be extended to 
all Federal employes, taking into account, of course, the necessity for 
making an adjustment between this protection and that offered b}^ other 
Federal retirement systems. 

The present exclusion of maritime employment was due to the anti- 
cipated administrative difficulties of covering foreign crews on American 
vessels engaged in foreign trade. AVe believe that the law can now be 
redrawn so as to exclude only this type of employment on American 
vessels." 

AVith regard to liberalizing the unemployment compensation provi- 
sions of the Social Security Act, Mr. Altmeyer said the Social Security 
Board believed "they should be extended along the same lines as those 
proposed for old-age insurance." 

Pointing out that the largest number of workers without the protec- 
tion of unemployment compensation are in the agricultural and domestic 



THE CARPENTER 23 

fields, Mr. vVltmeyer said their inclusion presented certain complex prob- 
lems which could be solved by co-operation between the Federal Go\-ern- 
ment and the State Governments. 

"One other change in coverage might well be made.'' he added. "It has 
the double advantage of bringing in more people and of coordinating un- 
employment couipensation more closel}- with old-age insurance. This is 
to make Federal unem]:)loyment compensation provisions apply to em- 
ployers of one or more, instead of limiting them as at present to those 
with eight or more employes. Many of the States have already moved in 

this direction." 

• 

Bret Harte Musing Up-to-date 

It was Bret Harte who said that: 

"For ways that are dark and for tricks that are vain the heathen 
Chinee is peculiar." 

Bret Harte did not live to learn about the National Labor Relations 
Board. If he had, he would doubtless agree that the Chinese had no mo- 
nopoly on ways that are dark and tricks that are \ain. 

The Board, in giving reasons for one of its peculiar orders said : 

"As a result of the filing of the charge (by a CIO lawyer) the neces- 
sary investigation thereof, and the consideration of the appeal, a period 
of seventeen months has elapsed since the direction of election was is- 
sued and almost fifteen months since balloting was conducted. 

"Because of this lapse of time, we deem it inadvisable to count these 
ballots and issue a certification based thereon, lest such certification mis- 
represent the choice of .the crews employed on the vessels of the company 
at the present time." 

To translate this order into plain language: -\n election was held fif- 
teen months ago aboard the ships of the Seatrain lines to determine 
whether the crews Avanted an A. F. of L. or a CIO Union. The results 
evidently favored A. F. of L. affiliation because a CIO lawyer filed a pro- 
test. So the Board, in its usual accommodating manner (whenever CIO 
lawyers file a protest) held up the counting of the ballots for fifteen 
months and finally decided not to count them at all but give the CIO boys 

another chance in a second election. 

• 

1,600 To Get Jobs on *'Hanover Acres" Project 

The United States Housing Authority has started construction on "Hanover 
Acres," the 320 dwelling units slum-clearance and low-rent project at Allentown, 
Pennsylvania. 

It is estimated that jobs will be provided for 1,600 workmen at the site, dur- 
ing the construction of the 3 7 buildings in the project, with total wages for direct 
labor totaling about $522,200. 



Census Will Provide Juicy Political Plum 

Census taking, has always been a juicy political plum, and the enumeration 
next year will not be an exception. 

William L. Austin, director of the census, discloses that 150,000 new employes 
will be taken on and that the cost of the job will be $45,000,000. 

If the 1930 procedure is followed, members of Congress will recommend a 
supervisor for each district, Avho will name the enumerators. 



24 THE CARPENTER 

Priests' Duty to Preach Unionism, Says Prelate 

IT IS the duty of the clergy of the Catholic Church to not only approve 
trade unionism "in principle," but to urge the workers in their con- 
gregations to join unions, familiarize themselves M^ith the philosophy 
of trade unionism, and actively participate in the affairs of the 
unions. 

This was the central thought of a remarkable address delivered by 
Archbishop Edward Mooney at the meeting of the Catholic Conference 
on Industrial Problems held in Detroit recently. 

Industrial relations, according to the Catholic view, are group rela- 
tions," the archbishop declared. "Let there be no doubt of this. 

"Labor organization, sound and responsible organization on demo- 
cratic principles, is not merely something which the Catholic Church ac- 
cepts as an inevitable development of our industrial society, it is some- 
thing which she whole-heartedly approves; something for which she has 
a definite set of moral principles; something for which her Popes have 
been crying for generations, like a voice of a prophet in a wilderness ; 
something which she earnestly commends to worker and management 
alike as a remed}^ for the evils of industrial life which press upon us and 
as a preventive for greater evils which threaten. 

"This view imposes upon the Catholic worker, and commends to every 
worker who prefers American freedom to Communist, Nazi or Fascist 
regimentation, the duty of active interest in his labor organization. 

"If the worker who loves his religion, his home and his country stands 
idly by while agents of destruction gain control of the union and direct 
its power to subversive ends, then one of three things will happen. 

"We shall see here what we see in Russia, leftist dictatorship; we shall 
see here what we see in Germany and Italy, rightist dictatorship; or, if 
the good sense of our people somehow or other averts either of these 
calamities, at least the cause of unionism will receive a check from which 
it will not recover in our generation. 

"This last eventually is, I know, not displeasing to some men who are 
upright in their own private lives and who are loud in their praise of what 
they like to call American free enterprise. 

"But surely we can see that they are either shortsighted or unthinking: 
that they are strangely unaware of the forces that are stirring in the 
world today; that they are, in effect if not in intent, committed to the 
philosophy summed up in the selfish and defeatist phrase: 'After us, the 
deluge.' 

"Surely, they cannot pretend to find in this attitude a solution of the 
difficulties which we all recognize. 

"Again, if our priests, by action or apathy, encourage the members of 
their parishes to stand off from active and constructive participation in 
the affairs of their union, they are derelict in a duty which the highest 
authority of the church misses no occasion to emphasize." 

Monsignor John A. Ryan of the Catholic University in Washington 
denounced Communism, but warned those who attended 'the conference — - 
which, by the way, filled two large hotel ballrooms— against confusing 
Communism with economic reform. 

"Some think that Communism is the same as public ownership of pub- 
lic utilities, or that the National Labor Relations Act is Communism, or 



THE CARPENTER 25 

that the Wages and Hours Act is out-and-out Communism," said Father 
Ryan. 

"Such persons use the term 'Communist' and particularly 'communis- 
tic' very freely, having regard neither to the seriousness of using such 
misleading language nor to the injury which the}' might do to human 
reputations or to the cause of social reform."' 

As an example of what he had in mind. Father Ryan cited the reckless 
testimony given by certain witnesses before the Dies committee. 

"The number of uncritical persons who have been deluded and de- 
ceived by these perfg)rmers is very large, and the responsibility of the de- 
ceivers is very great, indeed," he declared. 

# 

Unemployment Censuses in England 

The number of unemployed in the United States is determined by esti- 
mates which vary according to the basis used by estimators. With this 
in mind it is instructive to note the method used in Great Britain where 
the unemployment insurance law covers a larger number of occupations 
than are included in the unemployment compensation provisions of our 
vSocial Security Act. 

In Britain the insured jobless are required to register at the employ- 
ment exchanges, where each worker is given an unemployment book. At 
the beginning of each insurance year these unemployment books must be 
lodged at the employment exchanges, where they are used as the basis 
for an unemployment census. 

There were altogether 14,992,500 workers (aged 14 to 64) insured 
against unemployment in the latest insurance year, including those in the 
special schemes, and also the 221.270 brought with the scheme in April, 
T938. Leaving these latter out of the count, the comparable ligures for 
this year and last are 14.771,230 for 1937-1938 against 14,611,000 in 1936-37; 
roughly an increase of i.i per cent on the total. 

Of this year's total of 14,992,500, those actuall}- in employment in mid- 
October numbered approximately 12,294,000. This is the estimated total 
after deducting the registered applicants for employment and making the 
customary allowance for workers absent from employment through sick- 
ness and other unrecorded forms of unemployment. The total at work is 
less by 210,000 than a year ago. 

The number of workless persons on the registers of the employment 
exchanges in mid-October was 1.781,227. This is 390.978 more than a ycar 
ago. Including the unemployed in Northern Ireland the actual number of 
registered applicants for work in mid-October was 1,880,575, as compared 
with 1,460,080 on the corresponding date last year, an increase of prac- 
tically 420.000 in the twelve months. 

• 

Two Sides of the Picture 

An employer \vill sign an agreement to employ none but union men — a closed 
shop agreement. That is one side of the picture. On the other hand, some of these 
same employes will take the money this fair employer pays them and spend it 
for non-union made goods, thus giving employment to non-union workers in 
places that are on the unfair list of organized labor. That is what is going on 
continuously, and you can't get away with it.. A trade unionist who will do this 
may call himself a union man, but he isn't — not by a long long shot. Check up 
on yourself and see whether or not this applies to YOU. 



26 TIIECARPENTER 

Enforcing the Fair Labor Standards Act 

Gradually employers throughout the United States are learning that 
the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 means what it says when it stipu- 
lates that employers subject to the act shall pay their emplo3^es not less 
than 25 cents an hour and shall limit their employment to 44 hours per 
week. 

Most employers obey the act without governmental pressure. Others, 
however, seem to be unduly intoxicated in their subversive belief that the 
])olicy of paying low wages is their private and personal right guaranteed 
by the Constitution of the United States against which statute law must 
not prevail. 

The Powers Manufacturing Company of AVaterloo, Iowa, is evidently 
one of the concerns which require legal pressure to convince them of 
the error of their illegal low- wage policy and the advisabilit}^ of obeying 
the very reasonable wage stipulations imposed upon employers by Fed- 
eral statute. 

Following adequate evidence that the Powers Company was paying its 
employes less than the 25 cents an hour prescribed by the Fair Labor 
Standards Act, Elmer F. Andrews, Administrator of the Department of 
Labor Wage and Hour Division, informed Federal District Judge George 
C. Scott of the delinquency of the Waterloo company. Judge Scott there- 
upon issued an injunction permanently restraining the company from pay- 
ing employes less than 25 cents an hour and from shipping its products in 
interstate commerce until the legal minimum wage is paid. 

Announcing that this was the first permanent injunction restraining an 
employer from alleged violation of the Fair Labor Standards Act which 
has been in effect since October 24, 1938, officials of the Wage and Hour 
Division estimated that the company, which has approximately 175 em- 
ployes on its payroll, would be required to pa}^ in the neighborhood of 
$2,200 in back wages, this amount representing the difference between 
what the workers got and what they would have gotten under the legal 

rate of pay under the act since it became effective. 

• 

California Solons Reject CIO Man For Harbor Board 

Governor Olson of California recently appointed a new Board of State Har- 
bor Commissioners. Among the three new appointees was Germaine Bulcke, 
president of the San Francisco CIO Longshoremen's Union and a henchman of 
Harry Bridges, leader of the CIO forces on the Pacific Coast. 

The California State Senate, on March 6, by a vote of 2 6 to 12 refused to 
confirm the appointment of Bulcke. There was no opposition to the confirmation 
of the other two appointees. 



Milk Trust Termed Real and It Robs Everyone 

There is a "Milk Trust" and it "determines what 70,000,000 people shall pay 
for milk, as well as what 3,000,000 farmers shall receive for their labor," Senator 
Joseph C. O'Mahoney's "Anti-Monopoly" Investigating Committee was told by 
Frederic C. Howe, former consumers' counsel of the Agricultural Adjustment 
Administration. 

He said the Borden and National Dairy Products companies have interposed 
themselves between farmers and consumers, and fix the price at both ends. 

The average price for milk, Howe said, is 12 1/4 cents a quart, but in some 
cities independent dealers are selling it for "6, 7 and 8 cents and making hand- 
some profits." 



THE CARP EXTER 27 

Dictators Responsible for Armaments 

The peace-loving instincts of the masses everywhere and the responsi- 
bility of the Nazi and Fascist dictatorships for the tremendous sum being- 
spent by democratic nations for defensive armaments are emphasized by 
the the New Zealand Transport Worker, the official organ of the New 
Zealand Federated Waterside Workers. 

"Ninety per cent of the people of the world desire to live in peace and 
harmony," the Transport A\'orker says. "Ninety per cent are opposed to 
war, and the same ninety per cent do not see any reason whv thev should 
quarrel with their fellow man. 

"What then is the cause of all the trouble? AMiy is it that we have a 
v/eekly war scare and an international crisis daily: A\'hy is it that the 
newspapers of the world are so busy in this matter? Why is it that thou- 
sands of millions of pounds are spent each month nowadays in the manu- 
facture of machinery and weapons for the sole purpose of destruction of 
defenseless jjeople and possibly of ci\'ilization altogether? 

"There are but few men in the world who would attempt to justify this 
huge expenditure, this terrible waste of labor and money. There are fewer 
still who could justify war and wholesale destruction of human beings. 
War was never a necessary adjunct to progress, and today war can only 
have one result — the further enslavement of mankind or the destroying of 
our present civilization. 

"During the last world war, we were told that it was a fight to save 
democracy. The democratic countries won the war, yet democracy is in 
greater peril today than ever. It seems to prove the statement made by 
the pacifists the years down that wars never won anything either for the 
conqueror or those who were defeated. 

"Yet the fact remains that the peaceful nations of the world are com- 
pelled to arm willy nilly. This, of course, is due to the threat of power 
politics made by European dictators. * * * Democrac}', therefore, real- 
izes the fact that its liberties must be defended and is agreed that the re- 
spective nations that are defending democracy should arm for their own 

defense and protection." 

» 

A. F. of L. Membership Nears 4 Million Mark 

The growing strength of the American Federation of Labor was revealed in 
the quarterly report made by Secretary-Treasurer Frank Morrison to the Execu- 
tive Council of the A. F. of L. at its recent Winter meeting at Miami, Florida. 

The membership of the Federation, Mr. Morrison said, shows a substantial 
increase in the last quarter and is rapidly approaching the 4,000,000 mark. 



A. & P. Company Signs Building Trades Pact in Georgia 

W. Lee Sorrells, president of the Atlanta Building Trades Council, representing 
the Building Trades, announced the negotiation of an agreement with the A. & 
P. Company and the building trades of Georgia, in which the company agrees 
to use union men exclusively on all building and construction work done by the 
company in that state. 

The agreement also provides that where the A. & P. Company leases a building- 
it shall be stipulated in the lease that all repair work and alterations shall be 
done by union building tradesmen. 

Charles Schimmat. national personnel director of the A. & P. Company, rep- 
resented the company' in the negotiations which resulted in the agreement. 



28 THE CARPENTER 



TOO LATE? 



"It is too late!" Ah, nothing is too late — ■ 

Cato learned Greek at eighty, Sophocles 

Wrote his grand "AEdipus," and Simonides 

Bore off the prize of verse from his compeers 

When each had numbered more than fourscore years; 

And Theophratus at fourscore and ten 

Had begun his "Characters of Men." 

Chaucer at Woodstock, with the nightingales. 

At sixty wrote the "Canterbury Tales." 

Goethe at Weimar, toiling to the last, 

Completed "Faust" when eighty years were past. 

What then, shall we sit idly down and say. 

The night hath come; it is no longer day? 

For age is opportunity no less 

Than youth itself, though in another dress. 

And as the evening twilight fades away, 

The sky is filled with stars invisible by day. 

— Henry W. Longfellow. 



Editorial 




FRANK DUFFY, Editor 



"RED" AVINE IN A NEW BOTTLE! 

A COMPARISON of the so-called "peace" plan proposed to the American Fed- 
eration of Labor by John L. Lewis's CIO and the Communist party program 
for labor unity shows a deadly parallel. 
CIO propagandists have been referring to their plan as "daring" and "breath- 
taking" but a careful study of the CIO "peace" scheme and the Communist 
scheme below will prove that it's the same old "Red" wine, but in a new bottle! 



THE CIO SCHEME 

The CIO proposals read, in part: 

"Not later than June 1, 1939, there shall assemble in the city of 
Washington, D. C, in the hall owned by the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, a convention of representatives of cooperation (a) the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor, (b) the Congress of Industrial Organizations 
and (c) the four brotherhoods in the railroad transportation field, here- 
tofore independent. 

"This convention is to organize and dedicate the American Congress 
of Labor, designed to supersede and embrace the membership of the CIO 
and the A. F. of L., and to include the membership of the before-men- 
tioned railroad organizations. The convention will outline its objectives, 
adopt a constitution and elect officers for a term of one year." 



THE COMMUNIST SCHEME 

From the New York Daily Worker, the official organ of the Commun- 
ist Party, July, 1937, on page 6, a resolution adopted at the plenum of 
the Central Committee of the Communist Party June 17-20, 1937: 

"We must never cease to demand the unification of the trade union 
movement. In line with this policy, the Party has raised the question of 
the convocation of a trade union unity congress of the unions of the CIO, 
A. F. of L., Railroad Brotherhoods, and other unaffiliated unions. Let all 
those who stand for unity and solidarity come to such a congress. As 
for those who refuse to come, they would by this very action place them- 
selves outside the movement." 



From the New York Daily Worker for October 20, 1937, on page 3, 
an article by William Z. Foster, chairman of the Communist Party, on 
"Trade Union Unity": 

"Provision might be made for the holding of a special broad represen- 
tative trade union unity convention, to which the Railroad Brotherhoods 
and other independents should be invited. In fact the Brotherhoods 
might well be drawn into the unity negotiations from the outset. This 
convention could complete the unification process by the adoption of 
necessary constitutional provisions, elections of officers, etc." 



30 THE CARPENTER 

UNION LABEL IS SACRED 

4 4-^yOTHING can be more sacred than the Union Emblem," says a Balti- 
r^U more minister. 

The union label will come into place in the public mind which was 
intended by its creators and advocates as fast as new converts are made to the 
truth it represents. 

By far the strongest utterance on the subject of the union label is found in a 
sermon delivered by a prominent Baltimore devine, which goes far to justify the 
claims of the most ardent supporters of the label. After a discussion of the labor 
question, in all of its various aspects, the reverend gentleman said: "What can be 
more sacred, more holy or more deserving of the reverence of men or angels than 
the union label, which signifies that human life has been more highly valued in 
the production of commodities than mere profit sought for by greed. The label is 
an emblem of justice, of fi^aternity, or humanity. 

"When you find a label on a garment or on a box of cigars or a loaf of bread, 
you can be sure that neither was made in a sweat shop; that no children were 
compelled to sort the tobacco in the hours of the night intended for healthful 
childish sleep. 

"When you see this label on any commodity, you can buy it with a clear con- 
science, knowing that in doing so you are not becoming a partner to any insti- 
tution that degrades humanity for private profit. You can sleep soundly also and 
not be worried with thoughts of typhus fever, smallpox or leprosy, which are often 
scattered, broadcast from Chinese opium joints, penitentiary convict cells and 
tenant sweat shops, where the most degraded specimens of humanity put their 
life blood into marketable goods. 

"The union label is a religious emblem; it is a religious act to buy goods to 
which this label is attached, and an act blessed on earth and honored in heaven, 
while it is a sin to buy a cigar, a piece of clothing, a pair of shoes or a loaf of 
bread without this label; for then you do not know but what you are building- 
up the business of some heartless tyrant, who is exacting a fortune from the 
drugery and degradation of his fellow man, at the risk of the public health. 

"God bless the label! and I hope that all of you who read this, will carry in- 
delibly impressed upon your mind, the picture of the union label surrounded by 
angels and that you will always know that the favorite banner in heaven is that 
banner which represents justice to labor, fresh air and sunshine and healthful 
conditions for those who toil, and the trvith that human life is of greater moment 
than the gain of gold." — Bakers' Journal. 

• 

NO REDS IN LITTLE RED SCHOOLHOUSB 

THE American Federation of Labor will have no Reds in "the Little Red 
Schoolhouse." 

Labor leaders assembled in Miami for the winter meeting of the A. F. of 
L. Executive Council fiatly warned the American Federation of Teachers that it 
will have to clean out Communists in the organization or be ousted from A. F. 
of L. affiliation. 

This is not the first warning to the teacher group from federation officials. 
Evidently past threats have fallen on deaf ears, for today all New York City local 
unions of teachers have been suspended by the New York Central Trades and 
Labor Council because of alleged Communistic activities, domination and control. 

Communism has no place in the A. F. of L. It has no place above all in the 
teaching profession of our public schools. The federation should forthwith bounce 
from afialiation all teachers who so misunderstand the character of their ofiice 
in relation to American life as to prostitute it to the spread of so alien a thing 
as Communism. 

However; the warning given the teacher unions should not unduly upset 
Americans generally. Fortunately under the circumstances teacher unions repre- 



TIIECAKPEXTER 31 

sent a negligible part of the profession and Communism is not a besetting sin of 
teachers. 

There may be Commxinist public school teachers not only in New York but 
elsewhere. There are fools among teachers as there are in other professions. But 
lated against the army of loyal, hard-working, patriotic teachers of the country 
Communists are the great exception. 

Congratulations to the A. F. of L. for fighting Communism in all its affiliates 
— teacher or otherwise. Yet the public should not conclude that the profession is 
smeared with the stick of Stalin. On the contrary, so far as the body of school 
teachers is concerned, the Red menace will get no footing in American public 
schools. — Exchange. 



HOAV FAR SHALL AVE ALLOW THEM TO GO? 

TO what extent should Communists and Fascists and other enemies of democ- 
racy be permitted to publicly advocate their doctrines in America? 

That's an extremely serious question. Mayor LaGuardia of New York 
City is plagued by it to a greater extent than the chief executive of any other 
American city. Up to date we believe he has acted with admirable judgment. He 
has permitted them to talk, and he has provided an army of police to protect them 
from those who do not agree with them. 

Since the near-riots which marked the demonstration of the German Bund 
in Madison Square Garden, he has adopted one precaution. The task of preserv- 
ing order, inside as well as outside the meeting hall, Avill devolve on the munici- 
pal authorities. Neither the Fascists nor the Communists will be permitted to 
exercise police authority at any time or anywhere. 

Thus LaGuardia has vindicated the ancient American theory of free speech. 
However, we cannot overlook the fact that the problem has another aspect. It is 
all right to permit those Avho would destroy the institutions we cherish to assemble 
in public and give voice to their ideas. But how about their secret plottings — 
their effort to do underground what they would not dare attempt on the surface? 

The day is rapidly approaching when Ave must face that problem. So far as 
the anti-democratic alien is concerned, Fascist or Communist, he should be 
kicked out of America without ceremony. Those of American blood or citizenship 
must not be permitted to get out of hand. 

Tens of thousands of men and women suffered and died in order that we might 
have democracy in this country. We must not permit it to be destroyed by either 
domestic traitors or foreign foes. — Labor. 



COJIE OUT OF TILE TRENCHES: 

AT the risk of being told to go way back and sit down, we would like to 
make the simple plea to newspaper special writers and columnists, radio 
commentators and news experts, perspiring propagandists and jaw-weary 
politicians, to come out of the trenches for a little while and drop back to a rest 
camp. 

It has been a bitter battle ever since the Munich pact, and we have followed 
nearly every Avord of it Avith the indignation and revulsion which, no doubt, al- 
most every American feels. 

But spring is drawing near, and we are groAving a little tired emotionally. The 
dictators are still there and the democracies still stand. The kickoff may not take 
place until after the fall practice season. 

Until it does Ave hope to give our eoi'es and ears a little rest. "We may need 
'cm later. — Editor and Publisher. 



Fortune can take aAvay great riches, b\it not courage. 



Keep Your Dues Paid Up 



Official Information 




General Officers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



GEXERAr, President 

WM. L. HUTCHES ON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

M. A. HUTCHBSOX 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretakt 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Teeasuekk 

THOMAS NBALB 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, T. M. GUEBIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
1231 N. Winnetka St., Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
200 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
6375 Chambord St., Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 

4155 Lakeshore Blvd., Jacksonville, Fla. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 



NOTICE TO RECORDING SECRETARIES 

The quarterly cii'cular for the months of April, May and June, 1939, 
containing the quarterly password, has been forwarded to all liocal Unions of 
the United Brotherhood. Six blanks have been forwarded to the Financial Secre- 
tary, three of which are to be used for the reports to the General Office for the 
months of Ai^ril, May, and June. The extra ones are to be filled out in 
duplicate and kept on file for future reference. Enclosed also were six blanks 
for the Treasurer to be used in transmitting money to the General Office. Record- 
ing Secretaries not in receipt of this circular should immediately notify Franlc 
Duffy, Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Indiana. 





NEW CHARTERS 


ISSUED 




2230 


Greensboro, N. C. 


2656 


Newberry, Mich. 


2231 


Los Angeles, Calif. 


1338 


Texarkana, Ark. 


2232 


Delta, Colo. 


1346 


York, Pa. 


2233 


Coalinga, Calif. 


2652 


Standard, Calif. 


2234 


Yakima, "Wash. 


2654 


Merced Falls, Calif. 


2235 


Vancouver, B. C. 


2651 


Kapuskasing, Ont. 


2237 


McCall, Ida. 


2242 


Lufkin, Tex. 


2240 


Fordyce, Ark. 


2243 


Wilmington, Calif. 


2241 


Brooklyn, N. Y. 


1349 


Natchez, Miss. 



THE CARPENTER 33 

Labor's Non-Partisan League Sponsored by CIO 

To National and International Unions, State Federations of Labor, City Central 
Bodies and Directly Affiliated Local Unions. 

Dear Sirs and Brothers: 

The Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor at a meeting held 
in Miami, Florida, recently directed me to communicate with you calling attention 
to the fact that the so-called "Labor's Non-Partisan League" is a CIO organization 
and is in no way regarded as a labor organization by the American Federation of 
Labor. The Executive Council regards it as a purely political organization. 

Because the American Federation of Labor follows a non-partisan political 
poliC3" and formulates said non-partisan policies from time to time as circum- 
stances warrant and conditions require, I am writing to call upon you to refrain 
from accepting membership in this so-called "Labor's Non-Partisan League." 

If any American Federation of Labor Unions, Central Labor Bodies or State 
Federations of Labor have accepted membership in Labor's Non-Partisan League 
they are directed by the Executive Council to immediately withdraw and sever 
all connections with Labor's Non-Partisan League. 

The American Federation of Labor cannot submit to the formulation of its 
political policies by CIO organizations or any other political organizations. Central 
Bodies, State Federations of Labor or Federal Labor Unions which refuse to carry 
out these instructions sent by direction of the Executive Council, subject them- 
selves to the revocation of their charters for insubordination to the rulings, laws 
and principles of the American Federation of Labor. 

By Direction of the Executive Council, 
American Federation of Labor 

WM. GREEN, President, 
American Federation of Labor. 



STAYAWAY NOTICES 



This is to notify all traveling Brothers to stay away from Steubenville, Ohio, 
as conditions do not warrant any outside help because the work that is in progress 
is P.W.A., and approximately 40 per cent of the membership is idle. 

Karl Kaiser, Recording Secretary. 

Local 14o Canton, Ohio, wishes to advise Carpenters not to come to this town 
looking for work as the building game is at a standstill at the present time. 

William Neiss, Recording Secretary. 

Work in the jurisdiction of Local 4 4, Champaign and Urbana, 111., is not sufTi- 
cieut to employ all our own members. If you have been informed otherwise, 
please believe our statement and stay away. 

G. B. Jenkins, Secretary. 
• 

Local Sends Warning Regarding Dance Promoters 

Local 926 of Beloit, Wis., warns all Locals to beware of a man (alias Charles 
Royal) or men who contact Carpenters Locals to promote benefit dances and then 
abscond with the proceeds from the ticket sales before the dance takes place leav- 
ing the Local to pay expenses out of its treasury. 



34 THE CARPENTER 

OFFICIAL STATEMENT OF CHICAGO FEDERATION 

OF LABOR REGARDING GUILD STRIKE AGAINST 

THE HEARST PAPERS IN ITS TRUE COLORS 

Incontrovertible evidence that the American Nevi^spaper Guild, a CIO affiliate, 
is claiming jurisdiction over workers represented by A. F. of L. printing trades 
unions, is contained in testimony by official representatives of the Guild at hear- 
ings conducted by the National Labor Relations Board. 

Victor A. Olander, Secretary-Treasurer of the Illinois State Federation of 
Labor, recently led the A. F. of L. to a decisive victory in the complaint cases 
through which the Guild tried to outlaw the Newspaper Commercial Associates, 
Local No. 21662, A. F. of L., and the Newspaper Editorial Association, Local No. 
21690, A. F. of L., and, at the same time, to delay the representation case, in- 
volving employes on Hearst's two Chicago dailies, on which hearings were held 
last May and June. 

In the representation case, to decide the voting unit, Mr. Olander had the testi- 
mony of an official representative of the Guild, who frankly stated: 

"It would be possible right now to take into the Guild every worker in the 
plant under our constitution." 

The Guild constitution, according to testimony by Guild officials, had been 
amended for that purpose. 

Realizing that it had lost the case, even before the National Labor Relations 
Board issued its intermediary report denying the Guild petition that it be desig- 
nated as the bargaining agency for all employes, the Guild, although having a 
contract with the Hearst papers which did not expire until January 20, 1939, in 
desperation, on December 5, 1938, violated its contract with the Evening American 
and the Herald and Examiner and declared a strike. 

The strike was called for one and only one purpose — to establish a picket 
line in the hope and belief that the A. F. of L. printing trades unions would vio- 
late their contracts as had the Guild, and refuse to go through their picket lines. 

But the printing trades unions, adhering to the life-long tradition of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor that contracts mutually agreed to and in process of 
orderly execution will not be repudiated, voted unanimously to continue to fulfill 
their contractual obligations. 

Failing to trap our printing trades unions into breaking faith with a fair em- 
ployer, the Guild has resorted to a boycott. This boycott may be carried on 
through the medium of circulars, printed matter, letters, and talks, whenever 
they can get a listener. 

Occasionally, where the truth is not known or readily available, they are able 
to get some out-of-town newspaper publicity. 

They have gone to advertisers of the Evening American and the Herald and 
Examiner with representations that these papers are unfair to organized labor, 
and made threats to withdraw the patronage of labor unless they withhold adver- 
tising from these papers. 

We feel sure that the advertisers and the public will resent and condemn all 
such attempts at coercion and intimidation and ignore such un-American tactics. 

In the Chicago Federation of Labor we have 290 affiliated unions, representing 
upwards of 300,000 members. 

These are the loyal, conscientious union men and women of Chicago who 
honor their contracts and their trade obligatioiis. This vast army of true unionists 
are honor bound, duty bound and bound by their union obligations to stand by 
the printing trades and all other A. F. of L. unions who are for the moment the 
target of this most vicious, insidious and underhanded attack. No American 
worthy of the name could or would be a party to the methods employed in this 
controversy. 



THE CARPENTER 



35 



More than two thousand members of the following unions are employed by 
the Herald-Examiner and American: 

Newspaper Commercial Associates No. 21662. 

Chicago Editorial Association No. 21690. 

International Brotherhood Tearasters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen Helpers and Di- 
■vision Managers No. 70 6. 

Chicago Typographical Union No. 16. 

Chicago Web Pressmen's Union No. 7. 

Chicago Mailers Union No. 2, 

Paper Handlers Union No. 2. 

Chicago Photo Engravers Union No. 5. 

International Association of Machinists Union No. 126. 

Chicago Journeymen Plumbers No. 13 0. 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, Locals 13, 141 and 2174.' 

Building Laborers Union No. 4. 

International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers No. 13 4. 

Chicago Stereotypers Union No. 4. 

Elevator Operators and Starters Union No. 6 6. * 

When the American Newspaper Guild appeals to your union for financial or 
moral support, kindly place this information in the hands of your members previ- 
ous to their acting upon the request. 

Fraternally, 

CHICAGO FEDERATION OF LABOR. 
John Fitzpatrick, President. 
Joseph D. Keenan, Secretary. 



GRAND COULEE DAM AS IT APPEARS TODAY 



58 





Brother J. j\Ieade. business representative of Local 1332 of Grand Cou- 
lee. Wash., sent in the above photo of the Grand Coulee Dam as it appears 
today. In the foreground are the bays that will contain the generation for 
the power house, the walls of which will rise to the present elevation of 

the dam. The completed dam will be 120 feet above the present tresle. 



Jin 0i^xnxfxtHtn 

Not lost to those that love them, They still live in our memory, 

Not dead, just gone before; And will forever more. 



Charles L. Kimball 

1872 — 1939 





-This was the man we loved — are loving yet, 
And still shall love while longing eyes are wet 
With selfish tears that well were brushed away. 
Remembering his smile of yesterday. 



THE CARPENTER 37 

For, even as we knew him, smiling still, 
Somewhere heyond all earthly ache or ill, 
He waits with the old welcome — just as when 
We met him smiling, we shall meet again. 



How aptly the above expresses the sentiments of all those who knew and 
loved our departed Brother, Charles N. Kimball whose soul was wafted on the 
wings of night to that goal of everlasting peace and happiness for which all men 
of Charles Kimball's type aspire. 

The greater portion of our journal could be filled with all the resolutions 
adopted by various Local Unions and District Councils on the death of our pal 
and co-worker. The sentiment expressed in all of them were, to have known 
Charles Kimball M^as to have admired him for his many sterling qualities, as a 
brother member he was staunch and true — as a hubsand he was devout, loving 
and kind — as a father to his children, he was a companion and worthy of emula- 
tion. What more could be said of any man? 

Brother Kimball was born December 14, 1872 and on March 6, 1905 became 
a member of Local 1410 of Bostoii, Mass. He later held membership in Local 
547 and Local 1573. These Locals after consolidation formed Local 51, where 
he held membership from November 28, 1919 until the day of his death, January 
28, 1939. 

The ability of Brother Kimball was early recognized by the other members 
of his Local, as they selected him to represent their Local at the Niagara Falls 
Convention, held in 190 6, only a short time after his admittance to the organiza- 
tion. On May 19, 190 9, he was appointed as a representative of the General Office 
and that position was filled with dignity and diplomacy to the day of his death. 

The funeral took place on Tuesday, January 31, from the Immaculate Con- 
ception Church in Everett, and interment was at Holy Cross Cemetery, JNIalden, 
Mass. 

Beautiful floral offerings in great profusion were sent by officers and members 
of Local Unions, District Councils and the General Office, also telegrams and mes- 
sages of condolence were received by the members of his family, all of which 
Avas symbolic of the high esteem in which he was held by organized labor. 

Resolutions of condolence were adopted by the Boston Distinct Council, the 
Springfield, Mass. District Council expressing the sentiments of Locals 96, 177, 
222 and 685, also by Locals 867, Milford, Mass., 921 Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
and 348 Waterville, Maine. Many local unions have informed us that their char- 
ters have been draped in memory of our departed brother and the resolutions 
adopted have been spread upon the minutes in tribute to a man it was an honor 
to have known. 

To the family we wish to convey our sincere and heartfelt sympathy. 

— • 

In Remembrance of King D. Kelsey 

Brother King D. Kelsey, member of Local 365, Marion, Ind.. since June 4, 
1900, died February 28, 1939, at the age of 84 years and 10 months. 

Brother Kelsey, known for his untiring efforts for the good of the organization, 
leaves many members in Local 3 65 to mourn his departiire. 

Mere words cannot express our appreciation of his friendship and the loss we 
have sustained in his death. 

"And when the last Great Scorer comes 

to write against his name, 
He writes not that he won or lost, 

but how he played the game." 

Chas. Wainscott, R, S., 
L. U. 365, Marion, Ind. 



38 



THE CARPENTER 



William Loos 

1861 — 1939 

The many friends of William Loos in 
the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America, and especially those in 
the city of Chicago, mourn the loss of 
one of the most outstanding members of 
our organization. Brother Loos first be- 
came a member of the Brotherhood when 
he joined Local Union 433 of Bellville, 
Illinois in 18 90 and on April 26, 1892 
transferred his membership to Local One, 
Chicago, where he held continuous mem- 
bership until his death, February 19, 193 9. 

In his forty-nine years of service to 
this organization he held many offices, not 
only in his Local Union but the Chicago 
District Council as well. He was a busi- 
ness representative as well as President of 
the District Council. He also represented 
Local Union No. One at the Atlanta, Geor- 
gia, convention held in 1902 and at the 
Milwaukee, Wis., convention of 190 4. 

For a number of years he served the 
organization as a Representative of the 
General President, establishing a record 
for reliability and honesty in fulfilling 
whatever task was assigned to him in a 

manner that redounded to the credit of the organization. Brother Loos had the 
distinction of having served under three General Presidents of this organization, 
General Presidents, Ruber, Kirby and Hutcheson. 

During the month of July 19 32, his age together with the condition of his 
health, forced him to resign from active service. After seven years of inactivity 
he found eternal rest when his earthly remains were interred in Rosehill Ceme- 
tery on February 22. Brother Loos is survived by his loving wife, a son and 
daughter and to them we extend our, sincere and heartfelt sympathy. 

Although the Giver of life allowed him to spend with us, more than the al- 
lotted three score and ten years, we cannot think of him as gone forever. 

"We can not say, and we will not say 

That he is dead. He is just away! 

With a cheery smile, and a wave of the hand. 

He has wandered into an unknown land. 

And left us dreaming how very fair 

It needs must be, since he lingers there. 

And you — O you, who the wildest yearn 

For the old-time step and the glad return. 

Think of him faring on, as dear 

In the love of There and the love of Here; 

Think of him still as the same, we say, 

He is not dead, — he is just away!" 




Brother W. W. Keister, An Old Timer, Passes On 

Brother W. W. Keister, a charter member of Local Union 319, Roanoke, Vir- 
ginia, organized August 23rd, 1901, died on March 4th, 1939 at Fayetteville, North 
Carolina. He was born August 30th, 185G and was more than 82 years old. He 
held continuous membership in that Local for more than 37 years. He was Finan- 



THE CARPENTER 39 

rial Secretary for more than 15 years and took an active part and an active in- 
terest in all its doings. 

He was held in high esteem. In his passing, Local 319 suffers a great loss and 
will miss his kindly counsel and advice. He was buried in Salemburg, N. C. 

We sympathize with Local Union 319 in the loss they have sustained in the 
death of this faithful brother member. 




To the Memory of 
William B. Broughton 

With profound sorrow and deepest re- 
gret, Local 331 of Norfolk, Virginia an- 
nounces the death of Brother William B. 
Broughton January 21. It is an irrepar- 
able loss sustained by Local 3 31 as he 
rendered proficient service to that local 
for many years. He became a member of 
that local 33 years ago and served many 
years as Financial Secretary, and in addi- 
tion to that position he was also Secre- 
tary-Treasurer of the Tidewater District 
Council. 

He will be remembered for the faith- 
ful and untiring efforts put forth in be- 
half of his local union during the period 
of the war when the duties of a Financial 
Secretary called for almost superhuman 
effort due to the addition of thousands of 
new members. The services he rendered 
his local should be an inspiration to those 
members who will carrv on in his absence. 



Charles Thayer, President of Santa Fe Local 1353, Dies 

Charles Thayer, who held membership in the Brotherhood since January 17, 
190 7 and who last held membership in Local Union 13 53 of Santa Fe, New Mexico, 
died after a brief illness on February 24, 1939, at the age of 72. 

Brother Tayer was born February 12, 1867 at Titusville, Pennsylvania and 
joined the United Brotherhood at Harrisburg, Penn., January 17, 1907, and was 
a continuous member in good standing from that date up to the time of his 
death. 

Local Union 135 3 has sufi'ered a sad loss in the death of Brother Thayer as 
he was a man noted for his clean living and one devoted to his family and friends. 

Through his courageous ability and personality he became one of the most 
able officers in the Brotherhood, holding many important offices in the various 
local unions in which he held membership. At the time of his death he was serv- 
ing his third term as President of Local 1353. 

We wish to extend to Local 1353, Santa Fe, New Mexico, our sincere sympathy 
and also to the wife of our deceased brother, Mrs. Charles Thayer. 



Martin Zuern, Veteran of Local 422, San Francisco, Dies 

Martin Zuern, faithful member of the Brotherhood since August 27, 1887, 
fifty-two years, died in December. Word of his death and his record were sent to 
The Carpenter by his daughter. Rose W. iNIohr. 

Brother Zuern was born in Germany, Sept. 19, 1854. He was initiated into the 
Brotherhood, Local 42, San Francisco, August 27, 1887. 

Brother Zuern was ever a faithful member and a loyal worker in the cause of 
organized labor. It is with regret that we hear of his death. 




40 THE CARPENTEIl 

Brother H. K. Huffman, Veteran Hoosier, Dead 

Many of the old time members of Lafayette, Indiana, 
Local 215 will be sorry to learn of tlie death of one of 
their former members, H. K. Huffman, who first jointed 
the organization in Local 215, June .7, 18 89. He re- 
tained his membership in that Local until October 2 9, 
1909 when he transferred his membership to Local 6 65. 
January 13, 1912 he became a member of Local 810 of 
San Diego, California, later, through consolidation, Local 
129 6. He held his membership in that Local until the 
day of his death, February 2 4, 19 39. In 1916 he served 
as Financial Secretary. 

Brother Huffman, could well feel proud of his record 
in the organization. During the entire fifty j'^ears of 
membership, he was never reported in arrears. 

We wish to express our sympathy to Local 129 6 for the loss it has su^„.-— ~:1 
in the death of Brother Huffman, as well as to the family. As a further tribute to 
his memory, we quote from a letter received from his Local, which reads: 

"He will be remembered as a devoted Christian and a loyal union Brother." 

_ o 

Three Rivers, Mich., Local 1551, Loses 
Charter Member by Death 

Brother Isaac E. Wing, for manj" j'ears President of Loca.1 1551 of Three 
Rivers, Michigan, died February 22, 19 3 9, at the age of 74. He was a charter 
member of the Local, having been admitted to membership in the organization 
on April 8, 1903. 

Brother Wing died at the Bakeman nursing home after an illness of three 
years. He was born on the north shore of Long Lake, Fabius toY\ruship, Mich., 
September 17, 186 4, where he spent the early j^ears of his life. He learned the 
carpenter trade with his father and followed that work all his life. He became 
and was generally known as one of the finest cabinet makers and carpenters in 
the county and took great delight in doing fine work. By his strict honesty and 
splendid character he Avon the respect of all who knew him. He had only recently 
been made a life member of the F. and A. M. 

Surviving are three brothers, Carl, Arthur and Earl of Three Rivers and a 
number of nieces and nephews. 



Columbus, O., Local Loses Three Members by Death 

Local Union 200 of Columbus, mourns the loss of three of its members. 

I. D. Lanich, age 79, a member of the Local since July 5, 1917, died March 10. 
He was a former Business Agent of the Local and at the time of his death was a 
trustee of the Local, which office he had held for several years. He was very active 
in the affairs of his Local and was elected by his Local on several occasions as 
delegate to the conventions of the Ohio State Council of Carpenters. 

J. E. Runnion, age 60, Avho last became a member of Local 200 in October 
1936, died on February 14. 

R. P. Peterfish, age 79, who has been a member of the organization since April 
5, 190 2, died on February 2 3. 



Man has the addition of courage and virtue to defend his rights. — Civilis. 

God is glorified not by our groans, but by our thanksgivings; and all good 
thought and good action claim a natural alliance with good cheer. — Whipple. 



CorrospondoncQ 




This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



EIGHT OLD TIMERS HAVE AVERAGE MEMBERSHIP 

OF 33 YEARS 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

Here is a group picture of old timers who are members of Local Union 1098, 
of Phoenix, Ariz. 




Left to right, back row, Alf Madden, R. H. Gunter, Ge^orge North and W. H. 
Borden. Front row — L E. Morgan, J. C. Brown, J. W. Doane and R. E. Blundell. 

The oldest member in the group is Brother Alf Madden. He will be 90 iu 
August and will have been a member of the Bro^therhood 50 years next October. 
We claim he is the oldest member in the Brotherhood. (Editor's Note: Members 
of Local 34;?, Winnipeg, Can., claim a continuous membership of 67 years for their 
Brother John Kossie. See Page 4 4 of March issue of The Carpenter.) 

Brother Blundell joined Local 710 in Long Beach, Cal., November 16, 1S97, 
and has always been a faithful member. 

Brother Borden joined Local 575, Omaha, Nebraska, on September 7, 1S97. 
He filled one term as president of a millmen's Local and one term as liuancial 
secretary. A staunch union man, proud of his membership. 



42 THE CARPENTER 

Brother Judson C. Brown was born in Athens, Georgia, in 1868; was initiated 
at Galveston, Texas, Local 526, in 1893. He has been a faithful member of Local 
1089 for many years and has served the Local as trustee and warden. 

Brother George North was born in Lincolnshire, England, July 8, 1863 and 
was apprenticed to the carpenter trade in London. He came to our United States 
in 1885. He joined the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners on April 
11, 1896. Was president of Chicago 1st branch for two terms and trustee of the 
branch until the A. S. of C. and J. was absorbed into the United Brotherhood. 
He became a member of Local 2174 March 29, 1924; transferred to Local 1089 
March 1, 19 3 8. 

Brother J. W. (Bill) Doane was born in Des Moines, Iowa, August 1, 1870. 
After returning from the Spanish American War, he joined Local 4 in Kansas 
City, Mo. Transferred to Local 55 in Denver on August 17, 190 8, and back to 
Local 4 on October 29, 1908. He has been a member of Local 1089 since March 
26, 1924. Brother Doane's dues have never during his entire membership been 
delinquent. He believes strictly in craft unionism, and states that he wouldn't 
sell his card for any price. He has held every office except president and treasurer. 
He has, during his membership been a close friend of Brother I. E. Morgan, who 
was initiated June 14, 1902 in Local 1085; transferred to Local 4 in Kansas City, 
Mo., on September 2, 1904; transferred to Local 61 in October, 1911; was presi- 
dent of the Kansas City District Council for 5 years; was financial secretary of 
Local 61 for one term; transferred to Local 1319 on March 30, 1916 and then 
transferred to Local 1089, April 8, 1929. He is our financial secretary at present 
and has served in every office except recording secretary and treasurer. 

Brother R. H. Gunter was born March 30, 1873. He joined Local 511 Janu- 
ary 30, 1907. He filled every ofiice in that Local. He has been a faithful mem- 
ber of Local 1089 for many years and is held in high esteem by the entire mem- 
bership. 

J. E. Morgan, financial secretary of Local 10 89, has done some arithmetic 
regarding the eight old timers. His figures show that they have an avei-age age 
of 72.25 years and an average membership in the Brotherhood of thirty-three 
and a half years. 

Fraternally, 

Jerry Hofman, Recording Secretary, 
Local 1089, 2205 E. Portland St., 
Phoenix, Arizona. 



Regarding Recent Gallup Poll Concerning Labor Unions 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

In the March 2, editorial columns of the Louisville Courier Journal, reference 
is given to a recent Gallup Poll in which the general public was questioned con- 
cerning Federal Licensing of Labor Unions, and the people's attitude toward labor 
difiiculties. 

There was no reference made to the fact that the unorganized laborer was over- 
looked in this great attempt to settle Labor's problems, or that these men who, 
by virtue of their employer's policies, are not considered in Gallup Poll's or news- 
paper columns. 

"If there is such a thing as public opinion within Union ranks and a democratic 
method of giving its expression, it eventually will prevail," quotes the Courier, but 
where this generous concession is to be given support, is not clearly defined. 

It is evident that this Poll was not conducted to present the troubles of Labor 
to the Public, but to place before the people a limited reference of conditions con- 
cerning Organized Labor. 

It has been said, "it is a newspaper's business to print the news" but there is 
no news in a story in which only half of the facts are made known. 

Joe Oberhausen, 

Local No. 6 4, Louisville, Ky. 



THECARPEXTER 43 

Honolulu Local Asks Fair Play from Mainland Locals 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

It has come to our attention tliat a good many men come to Hawaii witli the 
impression that a building boom is under way. We know tliat most of tliese men 
carry their union cards and due boolis and Ignore our Local. They prefer to shop 
around for themselves instead of joining with us. 

We consider it unfair for a mainland Local to accept dues from any of their 
members who may be working in our district. 

For those who wish to come here Local 24 5 is glad to give information on 
wages, work and local conditions. 

We ask the cooperation of all who may be concerned in our welfare. 

Fraternally yours, 
Martin Higgins, Recording Secretary. 



Another Brother With a Record that Goes "Way Back When" 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

In the December, 1938, issue of The Carpenter is the record of Brother 
Coghlan of New York City who has a continuous membership of more than fifty 
years in the Brotherhood. He wonders how many are left in the Brotherhood 
with a record to match his. 

Local 1045 of Great Barrington, Mass., has a member with a record almost 
equal to Brother Coghlan's. He is Brother Philip Gibbins. Brother Gibbius was 
born June 13, 186 2 and was a member of another organization before joining the 
then Local 6 4 of New York City, Dec. 31, 1S8S and has been a member in good 
standing in the Brotherhood ever since. Brother Coghlan joined the Brotherhood 
August 29, 1888, Local 451, New York City. 

Brother Gibbins has always taken an active part in the Brotherhood and 
helped organize the carpenters in New York City. He has been a member of 
Local 10 45 since August 16, 1921. 

(We are indebted to Brother W. C. Morrison, recording secretary of Local 1045 
for sending us Brother Gibbins' fine record in the Brotherhood.) 

• 

Thanks, Brother Samuel White 

Samuel R. White, now considered an honorary member of Local Union 112, 
Butte, Montana, has for the last two years caused to be sent the General Office 
his personal check for $25 as a donation to the Home and pension fund. He was 
a charter member of Local 112 and held membership therein for many, many 
years. He has not been active at the trade for some time and is now in the 
undertaking business in the city of Butte, Montana. Despite the fact that he has 
laid aside his carpenter's tools, he still maintains an active interest in the affairs 
of the organized labor movement, and especially so of Local Union 112 and the 
Montana State Council of Carpenters. 

Several years ago while on a tour of the South he paid a visit to our Home 
at Lakeland, Fla., and was so much impressed with what he had seen that at the 
first opportunity he visited Local Union 112 and paid a glowing tribute to what 
had been accomplished by the United Brotherliood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America in the establishment of our wonderful Home at Lakeland. In fact he 
was so enthused that he wished to take a greater part in the affairs of the organi- 
zation and at that time, first tendered his check for $2 5 which was forwarded by 
Local 112 which he helped establish many years ago. The General Office takes 
this means to gratefully acknowledge his kindness and enthusiasm in this organ- 
ization knowing as we do that this thoughtfulness is greatly appreciated by those 
of our aged members who have taken advantage of our Home at Lakeland. 

A. J. Emmerton, the financial secretary of Local Union 112 when sending in 
the li!25 check advised it was presented during the 23rd Annual Convention of 
the Montana State Council of Carpenters held in the city of Butte on the 6th, 7th 
and Sth of February, 1939. 



44 THE CARPENTER 

Conshohocken, Pa., Local Marks 35th Anniversary 

Approximately 100 membei's of Local 159 5 of Conshohocken, Pa., their wives 
and friends gathered in T K Hall, Saturday, February 11, 193 9, to celebrate the 
Thirty-fifth Anniversary of the Organization. A delicious turkey dinner was 
served, followed by entertainment. 

At the end of the dinner John S. Derr, President of the Local, introduced O. 
W. Blaier, General Representative of Eastern Pennsylvania who complimented 
the Local for the interest maintained in the organization during the depression. 

Other visitors introduced included John J. Cregan, Secreteary- Treasurer of 
the Philadelphia District Council; Business Agents of the Philadelphia District 
Council, Brothers Edward A. Kane, David Shearn, and Samuel Turco; John Kelly, 
Business Representative of the Main Line District Council. 

After the introductions a delightful floor show was enjoyed and praised by 
all present. 

The Officers of Local Union 159 5 are: John S. Derr, President; Ralph Hill, 
Vice-President; William Loyd Earl, Financial Secretary; J. J. McCrudden, Record- 
ing Secretary; Mat Winners, Conductor, Joseph Morris, Warden; Oscar Holland, 
Trustee; Wm. Brook, Trustee; Thomas Smith, Treasurer. 

Brother John J. McCrudden was the General Chairman of the Banquet. He has 
been an active member of Local 1595 for nearly the thirty-five years the Local 
has been organized. 



Jersey City Local Celebrates Birthdays of Officers 

Following a regular meeting of Local 282, Jersey City, N. J., February 23rd, 
members held an informal celebration in honor of the birthdays of Treasurer 
Fred Just and Brother Paul Hafeman, financial secretary. President William 
Muier acted as toastmaster. 

Several Brothers made short talks. 

Brother Just is a veteran unionist, his membership in the Brotherhood dating 
back to 1886. He was a member of Local 467, Hoboken, before clearing to Local 
282, Avhere he has been treasurer for 3 7 years and also represents the Local in 
the District Council. 

Brother Hafeman succeeded his father as financial secretary and has held that 
oflice for six years. 

Local 282 was organized in 1899. 



Proposed Citizenship Bill is Termed Inadequate 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

In the March issue of The Carpenter is an article dealing with a bill that would 
make every alien apply for his first citizenship papers within a year after he be- 
comes eligible. Failure to do so would subject the alien to deportation. 

The proposed bill is inadequate and I believe I can prove this by recalling 
an incident to which I was a witness. 

Several years ago I had two neighbors who were British subjects and who lost 
no opportunity to belittle this country, yet were both employed at good jobs. They 
boasted that they would never renounce their allegiance to Britain. The world 
war came along and Britain needed men and sent a call to this and other lands 
at once for their loyal subjects. 

Immediately my two neighbors hurried to take out their first papers which pro- 
tected them from British conscription, but they refused to take out final citizen- 
ship papers. 

I believe this proves the futility of the proposed bill, which only requires first 
papers to be taken out and do not make an alien a citizen. 

S. L. McLane, 

Local 18 91, Marion Center, Pa. 




Auxiliary 232 Finds Frequent Get-Togethers Very Enjoyable 

Just a few lines to let other Auxiliaries know what we are doing. On January 
7 we celebrated our ninth anniversary with a turkey dinner for our families. We 
raised the money for the dinner from a Dresden plate quilt which we raffled off at 
a card party. 

Some time ago our United Sewing Club made a Yo Yo quilt which Avas sent to 
the Carpenters' Home in Lakeland, Fla. 

We have a very active sewing club that meets once a month to enjoy a pot 
luck luncheon and an afternoon of sewing. At present we are making a silk 
crazy quilt. We also help the Infants Friend League which donates layettes to 
needy mothers. In the last two years we have given $60 for the help of others 
including the Red Cross, Infantile Paralysis Fund, flood relief and our ovv-n 
families in need. 

We have a membership of thirty-three and meet the second and fourth Wed- 
nesday of each month. 

We have birthday parties for our members the first Wednesday of each month. 

At the start of the year twelve chairwomen were chosen and the rest of the 
membership divided to help in entertaining. We have pleasant parties at which 
tasty luncheons are served, gifts received and prizes won. Our parties are well 
attended and provide enjoyable get-togethers for all. 

Mrs. Cr. L. Wilkinson, Recording Sec, 
Auxiliary 23 2. Bakersfield, Cal. 



Young Auxiliary Increases Membership 100 Pet. 

Editor, The Carpenter: , 

Our Auxiliary, No. 326, of Ft. Frances, Ont., received its charter October 21, 
1938, and started with a membership of 25. Before the end of the year we had 
increased to 51 members. 

We hold two meetings each month. The first is a business meeting on the 
second Friday of the month. The second meeting is a social evening with our hus- 
bands of Local 2 558. 

And here, we wish to extend our thanks to our men's Local 2 558 who helped 
us get a real start and gave us a splendid donation of $25 as an initial fund. This 
was increased by another donation of $25 from the Ft. Frances Trades and Labor 
Council. To them Ave also extend our sincere thanks. 

In December at a joint meeting with Local 2558 we had the pleasure of being 
addressed by Brother Arthur Martel of the General Executive Board and also 
Brother A. Cooper, general representative from Toronto, Ont. Our Auxiliary con- 
tributed to the event by supplying lunch and a musical program. 

We have a Luncheon and Entertainment Committee. All members take turns in 
alpabetical order on this committee for our social evenings. 

Our dues are 10 cents a month. Each member supplies her own dues book 
which is stamped with our Union Label. 

At our next social evening we plan a basket lunch and we are leaving it to 
the men to choose the prettiest basket. 

Since we ai'e still a new organization we like to hear what other auxiliaries are 
doing. 

Best wishes to Sister Auxiliaries. 

Alexine Turgeon, Recording Secretary, Local 3 26. 



46 THE CARPENTER 

Greetings From Rockford, 111., Auxiliary 280 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

Auxiliary No. 280 of Rockford, 111., is now two years old. Greetings and salu- 
tations to all other Auxiliaries. We have two meetings a month, on the second and 
fourth Fridays. The second Friday is a business meeting and the fourth a social 
to which the Carpenters and their friends are invited. 

We consist of an Organization, Union Label,. and Legislative Committee. We 
also have a Ways and Means and Entertainment Committee. 

We have a card and bunco party every month which have been profitable. We 
also made a bedspread and raffled it off, which netted a large profit. 

If anyone wishes our assistance in organizational work we will be glad to be 
of service. 

We wish success and prosperity to Sister Auxiliaries and extend a cordial wel- 
come to them to visit us. 

Mrs. John Broo, Recording Secretary, 
Auxiliary 280, Rockford, 111. 
• 

Wichita Auxiliary Tells about its Recent Activities 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

Sincere greetings to all Auxiliaries from Ladies Auxiliary No. 217 of Wichita, 
Kansas. 

Our Auxiliary was organized in January, 19 29. We recently celebrated our 
tenth anniversary with a banquet. The husbands and children of the members 
were invited to enjoy a delicious chicken dinner and an evening of bingo. 

Our Auxiliar}'^ each j^ear has an afternoon tea and invites the wives and 
daughters of Carpenters' Local 201. We are happy to say our membership is in- 
creasing. We initiated twenty new members this last year. 

We meet in the Labor Temple club room for business meetings twice a month, 
second and fourth Thursday nights. 

We have rummage sales, sell chances on quilts and bed spreads as a means 
of raising funds. The rummage, lovely quilts, and bed spread were donated by 
, members. 

We have a Penny Drill fund that takes care of cards and flowers to the sick. 

Last year the Auxiliary gave two bingo parties for convalescing patients at the 
U. S. Veterans' Hospital which M^ere appreciated very much by the patients. 

Last year we sponsored a boy to the Sunflower Boys' State School and are 
planning on sponsoring another boy again this year. 

Our members dressed thirty-five dolls for the Salvation Army Christmas Partj'' 
Distribution. We had a little get-together and enjoyed dressing the dolls. We 
filled several nice Christmas baskets and delivered them to needy families of 
Carpenters' Local 201. 

We have some entertainment nearly every month, sometimes a social after our 
meeting, and invite our husbands. We have parties and picnics throughout the 
year at the different seasons and holidays, for members and their families, thus 
creating good will and interest as well. 

We have fonr delegates who work with the Federation of Auxiliaries. Once 
each year our Carpenters' Auxiliary entertains the Federation of all Labor Aux- 
iliaries. 

We patronize merchants who are fair to organized labor and buy Union labeled 
goods as much as possible. 

Wishing success and prosperity to Sister Auxiliaries and a cordial welcome for 
all to visit us. 

Fraternally yours, 

Mrs. C. M. Scott, Recording Secretary. 



THE CARPENTER 47 

Santa Ana, Cal., Auxiliary Moves Into New Quarters 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

It has been several months since Auxiliary No. 216 of Santa Ana, Cal., con- 
tributed to the Yarnin' Basket. Since then we have initiated four new members 
and have prospects of several more. We invite all the wives of the Carpenters 
Local 1815 to join us. Our meetings are held on second and fourth Tuesdays, in 
the new hall at 1432 Fourth St., West. February 14 we held a Pot-luck dinner and 
housewarming in the new quarters, entertaining with card games. 

In November the Auxiliary and husbands enjoyed a turkey dinner and cards. 

At Christmas time the Local and families had a dinner and Christmas tree 
gift exchange. Dancing was enjoyed the rest of the evening. 

We are planning a benefit card party in the near future. 

Our Ladies are all loyal, willing workers and we hope to increase our mem- 
bership. We extend a cordial welcome to visit us. 

Mrs. Mary Lambert, Secretary, 
Auxiliary 216, Santa Ana, Calif. 
• 

Auxiliary 4 of Des Moines, Iowa 

Ladle's Auxiliary No. 4 of Carpenters Local No. 106 of Des Moines, Iowa, cele- 
brated its twenty-seventh Anniversary of March 12, on Saturday evening, March 
11, by having a dinner and a social evening. The evening was enjoyed by a large 
crowd that included Auxiliary members and their families. 

The Auxiliary has a club, which meets the first and third Wednesdays of each 
month for quilting and pot luck. The club has made a number of quilts this year. 
Our regular Auxiliary meetings nights are the second and fourth Tuesdays of 
each month. On Tuesday the ladies come to the hall for an all day quilting and a 
few of the ladies cook the evening meal there, then the husbands come for sup- 
per and when it is time for their respective meetings they join their own place oi 
meeting. 

Our membership numbers forty-three. 

Best wishes to all our Sister Auxiliaries and a welcome to our meeting the 
second and fourth Tuesdays of each month if you are in our city visiting during 
those days. 

Mrs. Edna Magnuson, Recording Secretary. 
• • 

Mennonites Exempted from A. F. of L. Contract 

An unusual principle was promulgated in Philadelphia, Pa., when Local 4 6.3, 
Bakery and Milk Wagon Drivers Union, affiliated with the American Federation of 
Labor, excused three employes from membership in its organization because of 
their religious scruples. 

The union took this action in connection with the closed shop contract nego- 
tiated with the milk firm of Martin Century Farms, of Lansdale, Pa. 

The contract which ended a 10-day strike, affected three Mennonite employes 
of the company's Lansdale plant. It stipulated: 

"The employer and the union agree that members of Mennonite or other re- 
ligious faith, whose religious beliefs prohibit them from joining labor organiza- 
tions, may be employed and retained without becoming members of the union." 

The contract, however, specifies a closed shop for other workers. 

Mennonites own to no authority outside the Bible. Hence they feel they 
should join no organization. Some unions have an understanding they need not 
join, even in a closed shop. However, some do join, but avoid union activities. 

John Backhus. union business agent, said the union's agreement is in line 
Avith the United States Constitution's guarantee of religious freedom. 



The Federal Postoffice Department now requires 
extra postal charges when they notify International 
Headquarters of any change in address of members 
on The Carpenter mailing list. 

These changes are literally coming in by the hun- 
dreds and the expense is a considerable item. This 
expense can be avoided if ail members use the form 
below, to notify us of change of address. Just fill out 
the form and drop it in the mail addressed to Editor, 
The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 
Ind. 

This is an important matter and it is requested 
that all members notify International Headquarters 
of change of address IMMEDIATELY. 



(Date) 19. 

Editor, The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Please change my address on Joiirnal fiie. 

From Street 

City .' State 

To Street 

City State 

Name in full 

L, U. No. , City State 



It is suggested that you cut out blank if you have changed your 
address and paste it on a one cent postcard to save postage. 

Members are not entitled to the Journal if they or their Local 
are in arrears. Honorary members required to pay one dollar yearly 
subscriiJtion rate. 



1 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. Siegele 
LESSON 126 

In our last lesson we took up the 
various joints that can be used for mak- 
ing screen frames. In this lesson we 
are taking up the problems of putting 
on screen wire. We will also discuss 
screen moldings. 

The most commonly used screen 
wires are copper, galvanized and black. 
The last one named is the most popular, 
for if it is kept well painted it will last 
indefinitely. The galvanized wire will 
last somewhat longer than the black in 
an unpainted condition, but if painted 
is no better than the black. While the 
copper wire does not need paint to pre- 
serve it, after it is in use for some 




Fig. 1 

time it will bag a great deal more than 
either of the others. This is especially 
true if it must withstand impacts of 
any kind. We have used all three, but 
find the black to be the most satisfac- 



tory. Some fifteen or twenty years ago 
there was on the market a screen wire 
that was guaranteed to be "rust-proof." 
It did not exactly rust, but the deteri- 
oration caused by a kind of corrosion 
was more destructive than rust. 

Different workman have different 
methods of putting screen wire on the 




^^tiaiii 



Fi£ 



frame. This is particularly true in re- 
gard to stretching. The best method, 
though, is the most simple: The screen 
frame must be square. (If it is properly 
put together, it will be square.) Then 
the wire is applied in such a manner 
that it will have no buckling bulges in 
it, nailing it as indicated by the heavy 
dots in Fig. 1. The wire should not be 
stretched more than Avhat can be done 
with the hand, while the nailing is 
done. When the wire is on and nailed, 
put on the screen molding, Avhich will 
leave it about as shown by Fig. 2. The 
screen wire that projects beyond the 
molding, is cut off with the corner of a 
sharp chisel or a knife, holding it firm- 



50 



THE CARPENTER 



ly in the hand and running it along the 
edge of the molding, as we are pointing 
out on the drawing. 

A word more should be said relative 
to stretching screen wire. Most of the 




stretching devices that are employed by 
different workmen are harmful. Such 
devices usiially stretch the wire too 
much, resiilting in bent stiles or bent 
cross bars, and in tearing the wire 
Avhere it is nailed. At any rate, stretch- 
ing devices usually leave the wire in 
such a strained condition that it will 
prove harmful sooner or later. The wire 




Fig. 4 



should be put on the frame smoothly, 
but it should not be strained. 

To get the best results, the screen 
wire that laps onto the screen frame 



should be painted before the screen 
molding is put on. When the molding is 
on, the whole screen, wire and all, 
should receive two coats of good paint. 

There are many ways of cutting the 
miter for screen moldings employed by 
different workmen. Some use just an 
ordinary miter box, some use specially 
prepared miter boxes and some use 
other methods, such as we are illustrat- 
ing by Figs. 3 and 4. 

Figure 3 shows one of the most prac- 
tical methods that can be iised of cut- 
ting miters, especially for small mold- 
ings. The first requisites are a good 
eye and good judgment. Both of these 
can be trained so as to become so ac- 
curate that errors are almost eliminat- 
ed. The saw must be reasonably bright, 
then place it on the molding as we are 




Fig. 5 

showing by the drawing, keeping the 
blade in a perpendicular position. With 
the saw pivoted on the molding, with 
rotary movements, change the position 
of the saw back and forth until the 
reflection of the molding in the saw will 
form a perfect rightangle with the 
molding, as we are showing it. The im- 
portant thing is to keep the blade of 
the saw in a perpendicular position, 
then the miter will be as true as the 
rightangle you form by the reflection 
in the saw. 

The method shown by Fig. 4 is sim- 
ple. Here the moldings are nailed into 
placfe, with the corners lapped over in 
the order shown — B lapping over A. 
Then with a fine saw cut the moldings 
as indicated by the dotted line. After 
the cutting is done, the molding marked 



THE CARPENTER 



51 



B will fit the molding marked A, as 
shown in Fig. 5. Care must be taken 
in performing this trick so as not to 
tear the screen wire with the teeth of 
the saw. 

Figure 6 shows how the cross-bar 
molding joins the stile molding. Two 




joints are commonly used — the mitered 
joint, as shown at A, Fig. 7, and the 
coped joint as shown at B in the same 
figure. Both of these joints are good. 
The coped joint, however, drains better 




Fig. 7 

than the mitered joint and loaves the 
stile molding unimpaired. 

Figure 8 is an illustration showing 
how square-edged screen moldings can 
be ripped from scrap pieces of lumber. 



The upper drawing shows an end view 
of a piece of %-inch board 6% inches 
wide. If this board is ripped in the 
manner shown by the bottom drawing, 
it will result in 18 pieces of %" x %" 
strips that will make excellent screen 



h<- 



-6^- 






^^^^□□□□□□n 
^^^[^^□□□□□□L 



l-:5i^ 



Fig. 8 



moldings by dressing the edges. The 
square-edged molding is more in keep- 
ing with the modern trend of architec- 
ture. In fact the half-round and clover- 
leaf screen moldings belong to the "gin- 
ger-bread" period of architecture. 



Short Lengths 

By L. Perth 

One of the most perplexing problems 
confronting the builder of today is to 
find ways to reduce the cost of mate- 
rials which seems to be mounting high- 
er and higher as the spurt of building 
industry progresses. 

Lumber is one of the major mate- 
rials used in all building and especially 
in residential construction. A way to 
reduce the cost or a method suggest- 
ing a more economical use would mean 
much to the contractor and home 
builder. 

The National Committee on Wood 
Utilization, United States Department 
of Commerce, has mapped an extensive 
program dealing with the problems of 
proper utilization of forest products, 
and the West Coast Lumbermen's Asso- 
ciation, a body of progressive lumber 
manufacturers on the Pacific Coast, has 
lined up with the program of the Na- 
tional Committee in the belief that the 
cost of individual homes may be de- 
creased considerably through a more 
general use of shorter lengths of lum- 
ber. 

To demonstrate, the Lumber Trade 
Extension Bureau has worked out plans 
for a typical five room residence in 
Avhich short lengths are suggested 
wherever possible. 

The purpose of this discussion is to 
indicate the reasons for building with 



52 



THE CARPENTER 



short lengths and the advantages to 
the home builder, contractor, retailer 
and manufacturer. 

There are several types of short and 
odd lengths of lumber Avhich may be 

SHORT LENGTHS 



would come under this classification, 
but nevertheless the very problems of 
building demand them. 

These short lengths may be classified 
as: 

1. Fixed short lengths, governed by 
the size of openings, for example 
the studs below and above win- 



■S^ojer /£jyfr//^ 










® FRONT ELEVATION 



Sfipjer srs/^'s 



II r 




— 


— 


ri 




1' II 










1 


r 




1 


r 


- 


"I 









Sy/^jer sr 



(2) LEFT ELEVATION 



,(D RIGHT ELEVATIOH 




® 



PARTIAL FLOOR PIAN 



used, and in fact are used to a more or 
less extent in house building. 

It is true the builder may not buy 
them as such and may not realize they 



dows and doors, Fig. 2 and 3. 
2. Random short lengths — those 
governed in actual length by the 
spacing of the joists and stud- 



THE CARPEXTER 



53 



ding, such as subflooring which 
must break joints over joists. 
Sheathing, though it may be in 
random lengths, must break 
joints over studs and is also gov- 
erned in length by the size of 
window and door openings and 
breaks in elevation. 
Some of the random lengths such 
as flooring and siding on long 
unbroken wall spaces can be of 
any length, long or short. The 
subflooring and sheathing are 
limited somewhat in lengths be- 
cause they must break on joists 
and studding. 

"While it is rather impossible to de- 
termine definitely the short lengths 
which actually make up a part of the 
random lengths, it is reasonable to as- 
sume that at least one-third of the 
random lengths will have to be short 
lengths, another one-third can easily be, 
and all of them may be. 

It is desirable to use short lengths 
where possible and usually at a price 
advantage. Another feature worth- 
Avhile considering is that one can to 
some extent buy lower grade material 
in long lengths and by cutting out some 
of the defects can make shorter lengths 
of higher grade which are entirely suit- 
able as in the case of flooring or siding 
and in which the lower cost of the low- 
er grade will more than pay the cost 
of trimming and a slight waste. 

It should be kept in mind that to 
the consumer the use of short lengths 
would mean an appreciable saving, 
since it is the general practice of mills 
throughout the United States to quote 
short lengths 15 to 35 per cent below 
the prices asked for standard lengths of 
equal grades. 

There are, however, several problems 
involved in the marketing and use of 
short length lumber. Thus, if short 
lengths are to be used in building some 
practical means are required to make 
them readily identified for the places 
where they should properly l)e used. 

This naturally would necessitate the 
preparation by the architect of "Fram- 
ing plans" as shown on the accompany- 
ing drawing, in addition to the general 
set of architectural drawings required 
for the erection of the building. 

Each set of such "Framing plans" 
would be accompanied by a complete 
"Bill of material" worked out to actual 



lengths required and listing the near- 
est longer stock length of lumber. 

It is evident that the preparation of 
framing plans is essential in order to 
make it possible to determine the ex- 
tent to which short lengths may be 
used. But a study of this might rather 
be the function of the contractor than 
the architect because the contractor is 
the man who would profit while to the 
architect it would be an additional cost 
without increased return and the com- 
mission on the average house is too 
small to permit an architect to do any 
additional drafting. 

To the contractor, however, the cost 
of making such drawings will frequent- 
ly be saved in the difference in the cost 
of materials on one house. 



Duck Foot Table 
Worthy of Skill 

This sewing table is worthy of the 
skill of the professional craftsman as a 
piece of custom work or as a piece to 
make for the fun of it; also it is a 
challenging objective for the skill of the 
home craftsman for the table may be 
passed on to children's children. 

The table should be made of maple, 
curly maple preferred or of black birch, 
for these woods belong to the duck foot 
type rather than mahogany or oak. The 
drawer partitions and sides may be 
made of either whitewood or pine or 
of cherry or sycamore if best results are 
desired. 

The top %" X 171/2" X 16" and the 
leaves %" x 7" x 16" should be of 
quarter sawed wood to resist the tend- 
ency to warp; the grain should run 
from the front to the back of the table 
to coincide with the grain of the leaves. 
The hinge joint may be made square 
but the hinge joint shown is preferred 
for it takes the table out of the "barn 
joiner" class. The shaft of the turned 
legs should allow a 7" square at the 
top and a 2" square at the bottom 
Avhich will be made into the duck foot. 
The legs should be 1%" square and 
27V2" long plus ends for the lathe cen- 
ters. After turning the leg, glue 7k" 
piece 1, and M" pieces 2 on the sides 
of the bottom square as indicated and 
work to shape with gouge, rasp and 
scraper then sandpaper thoroughly. 

Make a hopper squaring box for cut- 
ting the back, ends and the drawer 



54 



THE CARPENTER 



fronts, sides and backs. Be sure the back either with small angle irons or 

reverse angles Z are equal. Also be drive screws slantingly through the top 

sure the distance at Y gives the piece edges of the rails into the top and at 

being sawed an angle equal to angle Z. the front drive screws through the top 




DUCK FOOT TABLE 



This distance, not the angle, varies with 
different widths of stock. Any square 
hopper cut may be made by this method 
or mitered if cuts Z are mitered. Join 
ends with dry dowel joints; measure 
% " drawer partitions, glue % " facing 
strip on each and work to length and 
width allowing 14 " on each end to fit 
grooves and rabbets in the ends. Make 
grooves and rabbets in ends and glue 
ends and legs. Cut notches at X in 
partitions to fit flaring legs, finish 
grooves for partitions across legs and 
assemble the entire frame of the table. 
Be sure the top of the table is out of 
Avind when it is set aside to dry. Plane 
tops of legs and rails flush and straight; 
join leaves and top with 1" table 
hinges and fasten top on ends and 



partition into the top. Make the shelf 
or leaf arm about as shown and fasten 
with 2 V2 " hinges. 







DOVETAILED DRAWERS 

The procedure of dovetailing bevelled 
drawers is the same as in square draw- 
ers only requiring some care to insure 



TIIK CARPEXTEIl 



55 



Uiat tlie bevels do not become mixed 
and that the gauge marks are accurate- 
ly placed. The cuts of the tails in the 
sides should be bevelled the same as 
the sides themselves to fit the straight 
cuts of the pins of the front and back 



Up-side Down 




•FACE 5TRIP-3/4-" 
SECTION CC 

which should be parallel with the edges 
of the front and back. The top edge of 
the 3/16" groove of the sides and 
fronts to ■ receive the Vi " plywood 
drawer bottom should be i/^ " from the 
bottom edge and the back made to rest 
upon the bottom. Be sure the groove is 
bevelled to fit the straight drawer bot- 
tom. Rabbet the drawer bottom to fit 
the grooves. 

In finishing, the table may be fin- 
ished light by giving three or four thin 
coats of white shellac, rubbing each 
Avith 6/0 sandpaper. If a darker tone 
is preferred, make an oil stain of boiled 




HOPPER 
CUTTING 



oil and turpentine 50/50 and add dry 
burnt umber gradually until the desired 
color is obtained. Usually maple ages 
to a warm brown color that may be 
matched closely with burnt umber. Fin- 
ish with thin white shellac as al)ovc 
and rub the last coat with pumice 
stone and oil, or with pumice stone and 
water if a dull finish is desired. Finish 
with dry rotten stone and soft cloth. 
Place two brass knobs in the front of 
each drawer making them parallel with 
the legs. — (C. A. King) 



Recently I was on a job on which 
one of the first carpenters I ever worked 
with was working. He was hanging 
doors, and as I was passing he said, 
"H. H., mark the bottom of my door." 
He had the door in its place, and I 
reached for my scribers to mark it % 
of an inch above the floor, but as I 
stooped over, he said, "The bottom is 
at the top!" Then I saw what he was 
doing. He had the door against the 
doorjamb up-side down and blocked up 
% of an inch to provide for clearance. 
I marked the door as I am indicating 







l)y the accompanying drawing, and 
when it was sawed off he was ready to 
begin fitting the door. 

This little trick is a product of the 
floor sanding machine; for whereas 
before its advent the finishing was usu- 
ally done before the floor was laid, it 
is now done afterward — or at any rate, 
it is not necessary now to let the floor 
laying go until the last, in order to 
keep the grit out of the floor. Grit does 
not make floor surfacing any harder 
when the sander is used, but it did in 
the days when fhe carpenter had to 
got down on his hands and knees to 
surface the floor with hand scrapers. 
. . . This is a little pick-up from one 
of my old associates, — mak<\ the best 
of it. — (H. H. Siegele.) 



56 



THE CARPENTER 



Blue Print Reading 
And Estimating 

By L. Perth 
CHAPTER 3 3 

Those who have diligently followed 
these studies have no doubt by this 
time acquired a working knowledge of 
the subject in its essentials. 

We feel, therefore, that the time is 
ripe for the more advanced stage 



as to the difficulty or inaccessability of 
the subject, T\rhich may be the result of 
conversation with others who may have 
tried to master the subject but have 
failed. Then, too, it is essential to 
make a complete review of all the pre- 
vious studies and make certain that all 
material has been properly assimilated, 
rules, definitions, methods of procedure, 
conventions and symbols committed to 
memory. If this has been done consci- 
entiously the student is ready to pro- 




6 


- 








</k/fO^J 


* 4-«i^^^-''w 


\ 

^ 


m 





FiOOf^ PLAN 



^YPICAL SECTION 




FRONT ELEVATIOtJ 



F/V£ ffOOM RESIDENCE 



CF7pr£/R rM.'.'?Tr- 7:v^£^^. 



which will embrace the province of es- 
timating. This will be treated in the 
same way as all other material which 
has appeared in The Carpenter by this 
writer. 

The subject matter will be laid 
down in plain language. What may 
seem to appear complicated will be 
simplified and presented in its simplest 
form. 

It is suggested that the student di- 
vest himself of any preconceived ideas 



ceed. 

The drawing entitled "Five-room 
residence" is a part of this lesson and 
the student should apply himself to its 
study. 

It represents a general plan and front 
elevation of a residence giving the prin- 
cipal dimensions and such essential in- 
formation which would enable one to 
prepare a set of working drawings and 
details from which the building could 
be rapidly erected. It also could be 



TlfK CARPENTER 



used by the experienced builder for di- 
rect erection purposes provided tlie de- 
tails were left to the discretion of the 
individual who is in charge of the 
building, or in other words — build as 
you go. 

The drawing contains sufficient in- 
formation as to enable one to prepare 
a fair estimate. 

With the knowledge already in the 
student's possession it is desirable that 
he follow the directions outlined be- 
low: 

1. Obtain the building area of the 
house. Under the term "building 
area" is understood — the surface of 
the structure covered by a roof. To 
do this the entire floor plan should 
be broken up in convenient rectan- 
gles and the length of each of these 
rectangles should be multiplied by 
its Avidth "in feet." This will give 
you the area in "square feet" of each 
rectangle. By adding the sums of 
these units you will obtain the total 
number of square feet or the total 
building area. 

In using dimensions it should be 
borne in mind that these are shown 
on drawing to the face of rough 
studding or to the face of rough ma- 
sonry. As for the partitions, these 
are always located on their center 
lines. 

All walls and partitions are as- 
sumed to be six inches thick. 

Dimensions not shown on the 
drawing must be obtained by the 
student by scaling. While it was 
frequently emphasized in the previ- 
ous lessons that drawings should not 
be scaled, it is perfectly permissible 
to use your scale in this instance. 

2. Obtain the total area of flat 
concrete work on the whole job. It 
will be noted that the house has a 
cement terrace in the front landing 
and steps from the service porch and 
rear bedroom. There also is a ce- 
ment patio IS'O" by 10'6". The same 
method should be used as in figuring 
the building area. Each item is com- 
puted separately and all sums added. 

.3. Obtain the number of lineal 
feet of foundation walls for the en- 
tire house. The typical section of 
the foundation wall is shown on the 



drawing to the right of the floor 
plan. What is required to begin with 
is only the number of "lineal feet." 
The cubical contents or the volume 
of concrete will be computed later. 

Since no foundation plan is shown 
on this drawing, we will assume that 
the foundation plan is identical with 
the floor plan, with the exception 
that there will be no foundation for 
the projection in the bathroom and 
there will be no foundation wall at 
the outer edge of the patio. Run 
solid walls under all main partitions 
as shown on the floor plan. Closet 
and hall partitions should be omit- 
ted. The proper way of doing this is 
to divide the building in various 
convenient sections. Compute the lin- 
eal feet in each section and then add 
all your figures. 

4. Prepare a "Schedule" for 
doors and windo.ws. This means the 
number, size and type of all doors 
and windows used in the building. 
All doors are 1 % " thick, interior 
doors are of the three panel type, 
the front door is of special design. 
The rear door is a combination sash 
and screen. All windows with the 
exception of those in the kitchen are 
double hung. The kitchen window is 
a single casement. It will be noted 
that no sizes are shown for door or 
windows. Consequently it will be 
necessary to scale them. All inter- 
communicating doors should be not 
less than 2'6". Closet doors may be 
2'4". All door heights shall be 6'S". 
A separate schedule should be made 
for each of these items. 

(Consult the previous lesson of 
this series, a complete paper was de- 
voted to this subject.) 

5. Locate all electric lights and 
the proper points of control. The 
electric lighting system was omitted 
purposely. You can locate all elec- 
tric outlets and switches wherever 
you think they should go. Provide a 
sufficient number of convenience out- 
lets for all electrical appliances us- 
ing heat, power and light. Consult 
your chart "Electrical Symbols" and 
the lesson which explicitly treats this 
subject. When all the electrical out- 
lets are spotted the student should 
prepare a list giving the nature, 
type, purpose and location of every 
fixture. 



58 



THE CARPENTER 



Details for Building 
A 12 Foot Counter 

By Charles A. King 

There are no indications that the 
limit of demand for all kinds of store 
fittings is in sight As business improves 
the building of store fittings both for 



bitious and venturesome craftsman has 
been hoping for as the fittings for a 
single store may be enough of a job 
to start himself in business in a modest 
way. 

Work of this type is an excellent 
starter for the material may be found 
in any well stocked lumber j'ard and if 




FRONT VIEW OF I2FT. COUNTER 



END VIEW 




DETAILS OF A 12PT COUNTER 



new stores and to extend the equip- 
ment of stores already established off- 
ers abundant opportunities for factor- 
ies specializing in store fittings and also 
for smaller shops in filling smaller or- 
ders. Here may be the chance an ani- 



machinery is not easily available the 
work may be done by hand by any 
competent wood worker. The dimen- 
sions given for this counter are only 
suggestive though they are common 
enough. Counters may be of any width, 



THE CARPENTER 



59 



length or height as their special use or 
location may require or as the prefer- 
ence of the customer may dictate. 
Many store keepers have notions of 
their own which they feel should be 
respected. Theoretically a counter 
should be 30 inches high or the height 
of an ordinary table but for doing up 
bundles and to suit most clerks who 
stand at it all day, two inches higher 
will be found more convenient. 

We will assume that this counter is 
to be built like the sketch. 

We will make the five frames first; 
each frame includes one top piece 1 % " 
X 3%" X 24". Cut recess A Ys " x 2%" 
wide 3 V2 " from the front end and re- 
cess B the same size at the other end. 
Two legs 1%" X 2%" X 2' 714" with 
recess % " x 3 % " on the top end of 
each. Also two cleats % " x 2% " x 
201,4" placed at CI on each side of the 
three middle frames and on the inside 
of each end frame to support the ends 
of the stock shelf. Fasten four look 
out blocks C 1 % " X 3 % " X 3 V2 " on the 
outsides of the end frames to receive 
the finish as shown at the front; the 
top will amply support these blocks. 

Get out two %" plywood panels 18" 
wide and 5'6" long and two end panels 
%" X 18" X 201/2" long. Place %" x 
1,%" furrings 4" and 5 1/2 " long re- 
spectively as shown so the panel will fit 
between them, and four more furrings 
of each length for the ends. Make the 
back apron D %" x 3%" x 11'7", 
square the ends; the front fascia E %" 
X o%" X 11'8%" with mitered ends, 
and two end fascias %" x 3%" x 2' 14" 
mitered to fit the front fascia and left 
long enough to ciit off after the counter 
' is assembled. Assemble the frames, 
furrings, panels, back apron and front 
fascia. Verify all dimensions before cut- 
ting miters. Fit the stock shelf and nail 
it in place to strengthen the counter 
before making the frames for the 
panels. 

If the counter is built in a shop with 
glue and clamps and all facilities for 
doing such work the frames may be 
dowelled together, mitered and fitted as 
a whole for which we have given ap- 
proximate dimensions which should be 
verified. One top rail, %" x 4 V2 " x 
ll'2i4". bottom rail, 6" wide and the 
same length, and two end top and bot- 
tom rails 241/2" long. Seven muntins 
14" X 4" x 17"; dowel these together 



as shown; later miter the corners and 
nail in place. 

Many craftsmen, building the counter 
on the job will prefer to cut, fit and nail 
the pieces rather than follow the shop 
method described above; in fact the 
shop method would probably not be 
really practical on the job. The dimen- 
sions given and verified will still hold 
though but five 4" muntins will be 
needed for the two front muntins of 
the ends may be 3i/4" wide which, if 
butted against the front muntin will 
show four inches. Miter and fit rails, 
cut muntins between them and nail 
them strongly; smooth the face of each 
joint. Fit blocks F %" x 1 lA " x 2" 
with a rabbet i/4 " x %" about a foot or 
less apart to hold the edges of the panel 
against the back of the rails and fasten 
with glue and screws. Miter the panel 
molding around each panel and nail 
securely through the molding into the 
rail where there is nothing behind to 
hold the nails. 

Make the top of % " mat-ched boards 
2" or 3" Avide, glue up %" boards 
with dowel joints, or use a % " ply- 
wood top which should be preferred if 
it can be obtained for that will give the 
best results. Assuming the top is made 
of a matched boards, glue them to- 
gether, cut to exact size and miter a 
bed mold or similar molding under the 
top as shown; glue and nail it strong- 
ly for this molding will do much to 
support the outside edge of the top. 
Plane the top if it has not been ma- 
chine sanded before fastened in place. 
The 1/2 " X 2" shoe G may be fastened 
upon the lower edge of the bottom 
rail or fastened after the counter is fin- 
ished for it may then be fitted to the 
floor. 

The counter may be stained, or fin- 
ished in the wood with varnish or it 
may be painted in selected colors if pre- 
ferred; in the latter case second grade 
stock may be used. 



A Footstool 

Frequently one is faced with the 
problem of not being quite tall enough 
to I'each the work to be done; probably 
just a few inches. The best way to solve 
this problem is to make a carpenter's 
footstool, using lx4's, IxG's, IxS's, 
1x1 0's or whatever widths that will 
bring about the proper elevation. 



60 



THE CARPENTER 



At Figure A, we are showing a per- 
spective view of the first operation. 
Here a T is made with two boards. 
This gives tlie stool good bracing. At 
Fig. B is sliown a perspective view of 
the finished stool. A board nailed on 




the T-base shown in Fig. A, completes 
the job, and the stool is ready for use. 

A minute's time and a few pieces of 
scrap lumber used in this way, often 
increases the efiiciency as well as the 
comfort to the workman. Nothing is 
gained by working at a disadvantage, 
unless that is absoliitely necessary. 

In case the work is on a ceiling that 
is, say, 8 inches too high to work from 




the floor, two T's made of 2x6 's with 
the perpendicular piece long enough to 
hold several planks, will make an ex- 
cellent scaffolding for such a job. This 
little trick is worth keeping in one of 
the mental pigeon holes. — (H. H. 
Siegele) 



Sinking Nails 

The nail-set is one of the tools the 
finisher can not get along without. He 
needs it, not only for setting nails so 
the painter, when he comes along, can 
cover the nailhead with putty, but he 
needs it to prevent hammer marks. 
Some , carpenters drive the finishing 
nails in until the head is flush Avith the 
surface, before using the nail-set, but 
close observation will reveal that, even 




Fig. 1 

with the best of care, the hammer 
leaves a dent in the wood, which the 
light will reflect, especially after the 
painter is through. This, though, is not 
the problem we want to present here. 

Figure 1 shows a finishing nail driven 
and set with the nailhole puttied. The 
nail is supposed to be holding a casing 
to the jamb. Sometimes casings must 
be removed for various reasons, and 
then the nail should be sunk so deep 
that the casing will be free from the 
jamb. Figure 2 shows the first opera- 
tion, which is done with a nail-set. To 
sink the nail deeper than what is shown 



THE CARPENTER 



61 



here with the nail-set, would ruin the 
casing either by enlarging the nail- 
hole or by splitting the casing. How to 




Fig. 2 

sink the nail after it has been started 
with a nail-set by using another nail in 
an inverted position is shown bj^ Fig. 




Fig. 3 

3. The nail sunk, the inverted nail can 
be removed with a clawhammer or a 
paid of nippers. — (H. H. Siegele) 



Steel Square Pocket 
Reference Book 

Steel Square Pocket Book by Dwight 
L. Stoddard is a concise and handy 
little reference book which illustrates 
and describes the best practical method 
of using the carpenter's steel square in 
laying out all kinds of carpentry work. 



Simple instructions are also given for 
obtaining the cuts for hoppers, towers, 
braces, trestles, stairs, bicycle tracks, 
etc., as well as for describing various 
figures such as octagons, circles, ellipses 
and ovals, and for solving many other 
problems by the use of the steel square. 
It answers nearly every problem likely 
to come before the practical carpenter 
in his work. 

The many illustrations are clear and 
show at a glance how the square is to 
be laid on the work, so as to obtain the 
desired cuts. No confusing reference 
letters are used. The methods shown 
have all been time-tried and found to 
be quick and accurate. 

This new revised edition has been 
boiled-down to a compact and handy 
size to make it convenient to carry in 
the pocket for quick reference. 

Among the list of contents: 

Description of the Steel Square. 

Practical Applications of the Square. 

Laying Out Different Figures by Us- 
ing the Steel Square. 

How to Find Different Pitches and 
Degrees. 

Laying Out Common Rafters. 

Problems in Hipped Roofs. 

Roofs of Uneven Pitch. 

Miscellaneous Roof Problems. 

Stair Problems. 

Calculating by the Square. 

The book costs $1.00 and may be had 
by writing to Dwight L. Stoddard, R. R. 
4. Box 141, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Hickeys 



There arc various patented devices 
for holding forms on the market. Most 
of them are suitable for light form- 




work. Whether these will eventually 
displace the commonly-used wire meth- 



62 



T H 



CARPENTER 



od of holding forms is problematical. 
The device we are showing in this arti- 
cle is one that depends on wire for 
holding the forms together, just as the 
wire method does. 

At A we are showing the hickey and 
hov/ the wire is attached to it by means 
of two holes in the upper wings and a 
nail. At B we are showing in a smaller 
scale the hickeys in place. The princi- 




pal advantage these hickeys have over 
the old wire method is that it requires 
fewer studding. 

In order to bring the first tie-wires 
close to the bottom of the forms, a 
narrow board is used for a starter, as 
shown at B. 

The hickeys can be used over and 
over on other forms. — (H. H. Siegele) 

STEEL SQOARE POCKET BOOK $1 

HOW TO READ PLANS, 50c— BOTH $1.25 * 
Sold Stamps for information and Folder 
D. L. STO0DARD, R. R. 4, BOX 141 

INDIANAPOLIS, !ND. 




'HOW TO READ BLUE PRINTS" 

Get this Free Trial Lesson. Prove 
how easy to leam Plan Keadlng, 
* Estimating, etc. in spare time at 
home hy new C. T. C. Method. 
Complete set Blue Prints FREE 
if you state age and occupation. 

Chicago Tech School For Builders 

D-IOO Tech Building 
118 East 26th St., Chicago, III. 



PRICE LIST 



OF 



One Charter and Outfit $15.00 

Application Blanks, per pad 50 

Application Blanks, Ladies' Aux- 
iliary, per 50 50 

Constitutions, eacli 10 

Constitutions, Ladies' Auxiliary., .03 

Due Books, each 25 

Trcas. Cash Books, each 50 

F. S. Receipt Books, each ........ .50 

Treas. Receipt Books, each .50 

R. S. Order Books, each 50 

Official Note Taper, per 100 50 

Ritual and Constitution, bound. 

together 60 

Rituals, Ladies' Auxiliary, each.. .05 

Minute Books, 100 pages 1.50 

Minute Books, 200 pages 2.25 

Day Books (padded) 50 original 

and 50 duplicate sheets 1.00 

Day Books (padded) 100 original 

and 100 duplicate sheets 1.75 

Ledgers, 100 pages 2.00 

Ledgers, 200 pages 3.00 

Ledgers, 300 pages 3.75 

Ledgers, 400 pages 4.50 

Ledgers, 500 pages 5.00 

Gavels 1.25 

Receipting Dater for F. S 1.75 

Small Round Pencils 03 

Card Cases 10 

Withdrawal Cards, issued by Gen- 
oral Oflice only, each (always 

send name) 50 

Rubber Seal 1.75 

Belt Loop Chain 75 

Watch Fobs 50 

Key Tags 15 

Rubber Label Stamps 1.00 

Match Box Holders 15 

Cuff Links 1.50 

B. A. Badges 3.00 

Blanks for F. R. Reports for Treas- 
urer's Remittances and for Do- 
nation Claims '. Free 

Emblem Buttons ., 1.00 

Emblem Pins 1.00 

Ladies Auxiliary Pins 1.25 

Rolled Gold Watch Charms 1.50 

Solid Gold Watch Charms ... 7.50 

Solid Gold Rings 5.00 

PRICES ON SPECIAL LEATHER 
BOUND LEDGERS, WORKING CARDS, 
POSTCARD NOTICES, ARREARS NO- 
TICES, OFFICER'S CARDS, STATION- 
ERY, ETC., WILL BE SUBMITTED BY 
GENERAL SECRETARY UPON RE- 
QUEST. 

Note — the above articles will be supplied only 
when the requisite amount of cash accompanies 
the order. Otherwise the order will not be recog- 
nized. All supplies sent by us have the Postage 
prepaid or Express charges paid in advance. 



ssaswi 



HLUETER St^. . ) 
I SANDER ^^-' i 

iportunity X*i„>''\ 
rs if you-'^ ' 




with the IMPROVED SCHLUETER 
HEAVY DUTY FLOOR 

The greatest opport 
in years is you 
act at once 



Thousands of homes, stores, 
apartment buildings and off- 
ices in your territory need 
and want their floors refin- 
ishcd this year. You can get 
a big share of this ready 
money with this professional 
type Improved Schlueter San- 
der. Handles the biggest and 
toughest jobs at lower cost 
per square foot. 

See how the perfectly bal- 
anced, rubber covered sand- 
ing drum conforms to every floor irregularity. Sands right 
to the quarter-round, vacuums up all dirt and dust. 
Uses no or 220 volts by merely turning switch. Uncondi- 
tionally guaranteed for 5 years. 

Vi1U^^'e?d'SPEED-0.LITE 

Get into this Extra Profit field. Keep 
busy the year round on floor sanding 
jobs. So simple and easy that anyone 
can operate it. So sturdily and hon- 
estly built that it is the carpenter's 
first choice over 43 years. 

This one-man Speed-0-Lite sands 
right up to the baseboard picking up 
all dirt and dust as it goes. Leaves -'~" 
a smooth ballroom finish on every 
floor. Ball-bearing equipped thru- 
out. Fully dependable motor. 
Write TODAY for our gen- 
erous Free Trial Offer. Spec- 
ify the Specd-0-Lite or Im- 
proved Schlueter. and start for 
a long-run into rich earnings! 

THE NEW LINCOLN PORTABLE DUSTLESS DISC- 
SANDER WITH FLOODLIGHT 

A high speed professional disc sander 
whose streamlined design lets you get 
into hard-to-get-at places. It has dozens 
of different uses that a smart 
carpenter knows as sanding 
stair treads. window sills, 
floor edgings, cabinets, doors, 
'wood panel walls, trim, table 
and desk tops, closets, etc. 
Light in weight but ruggedly 
built. Complete with powerful 
vacuum that picks up all 
wood dust and dirt. Powerful shielded floodlight illumi- 
nates work in dark corners. Hundreds of jobs right in 
your territory. 

YOU CAN RENT ONE OR ALL THESE MACHINES ON 
PARTIAL TIME BASIS WRITE FOR DETAILS NOW. 

LINCOLN-SCHLUETER 

FLOOR MACHINERY COMPANY, Inc. 
2;?<) W. Graiifl Ave., Chicago, 111. 





m 



New Invention Sets Saws 

(Hand, Circular and Crosscut) with No Guess and 

Less Work IN Va THE TIME! 

Why waste hours on saw-settiiis. 
Ji^^ ' '-x\ "■'"•'" t''" revolutioiiar>- new TKIP- 

-^^"^-^--"^"^-/iK \ 1L\.M.M]'UI SAW-SET does It 
'^•^ " ^R-i'' I <\ better, more accurately and 

in 1/:! the time. Ko dan- 
I gcr of Kctllng awi blade 
out of alignment, breaking 
Dints, or bending below point. 
Full view operation at all times. Auto- 
matic foot pcjal action leaves both Iiands 
free for guiding. Quality made — hardened steel 
worldng parts, nisti)roofed for lifetime use. 
Puts pealv efficiency into all your saws. .Vt 
hardware stores, or sent post-free direct for 
only $1.75. ^^oncy refunded if it doesn't 
T«a-i — .,. do what we claim for it. 

TRADE TOOL CO., 10906 Madison Ave., Cleveland, 0. 





It's Easy 

— to be a — 

Contractor 



Learn how to estimate, how 
to plan buildings so as to 
make money on them, learn all 
about remodellne problems and how to bid on any job. 
All these facts and thousands more are set forth clearly 
in a remarkably interesting way in these flTe wonderful 
boolcs covering all phases of Architecture. Carpentry and 
Ruilding. These books are complete and the new JIFFY 
INDEX makes it possible to find anything you want to 
loiow about building in a few seconds. 

' 'Boss" Carpenters in Demand 

New public works jobs — immense projects all over tho 
country are requiring men who can "Boss the Job"— ; 
Men who know how. These books give you "QUICK 
♦raining With them you don't hare to be afraid to 
tackle any job for you can find needed facts in a hurry. 
't you send now we will include without extra cost a big 
120 page book "Blue Print Reading." IN ADDITION 
TO THF FIVE BIG BOOKS. 

Coupon Brings Books FREE for examination 

American Technical Society. Dept. G 436, 
Drexel at 58th St., Chicago, III. 

You may ship the five big books on Architecture, Carpen- 
try and Building, include book on blue print reading. 
I will pay the few cents delivery charges only and if I am 
fully satisfled after 10 days I will send you $2. after that 
only $3.00 a month until the total reduced price of only 
$19.80 (former price $24.80) is paid. I am not obligated 
in any way unless I keep the booiws. 

Name 

Address 

Attach letter stating age, employer's name and addresj 
and that of at least one business man as a reference. 



Make Big Money 



The American Way 



Us The Amer 
n pleasant ins 
iV plenty of re 
sE \ hnmns 




lean method of floor sanding is 
„olde work and there are always 
01 resurfacing jobs to be had in old 
homes when new building of homes Is slack. 
Here's a chance to be your own boss 
and get into something for 
yourself. Send in the post 
card to-day asking for I 
complete, free details 
and prices on this 
money-making Ameri- 
can equipment. 



The American Floor Surfacing Machine Co. 

522 South St. Clair Street • Toledo, Ohio 




Pays BIG MONEY in Spare 
Time— No Experience ^eeded 

A FOLEY Automatic Saw liter Illo 
hand, circular and bund saws bet- 
ter than tlie best hand flier. Cash! 
business, no canvassing, uo eyc-i, 
strain. Thor. Nedribe. Iowa, says: 
"1 have filed .")50 saws, made 
S.'ioO.OO. As I'm a carpenter. I 

just tile saws in spare time. |^" - 

I have not advertised in the ^„ 
papers as I've been getting nb 
than I can i.ike care of." Seni ii^^.. 
cnupon for FltlvK PLAN, no o''U- 
R.Uion. 

rULtl Nrb. tU. Minneapolis. Minn 
Send Free Plan on Saw Filing busines 

Name 

.X.Idress 




Take the Lead 

ill the Building Boom now starting 
With 

Estwing Unbreakable Tools 



Proof — '^^^ skilled caiijenters now buy 
more than at any time in 15 years. 




YOU GET 



I— ONE PIECE Head-Handle of fine 

tool steel 
2 — Outlast 40 Hickory handles 
J— Velvet, Non-Slip LEATHER grip 
4 — Permanent Perfect Balance 
5 — Greatest Value and Satisfaction 

All nail and Rippinghanimers^^ ^-» _ . 
12, 16 and 20 oz. Head^Z""" ^^^" 

2 25 " 
^ ■ 

Flooring hatchet Black No. 2 1'^^ 

32 Different Estwing Tools 

Show this to your dealer, he will be pleased to serve 
you. Or send money with order; enclose 15c extra for 
each tool ordered, which pays postage; or pay mail man. 

ESTWINO MPG. Co., Rockford, ill. 




YOU CAN DEPEND 
ON PLASTIC WOOD 

for quick repairs ! 

More and more carpenters are turning to 
PLASTIC WOOD to insure permanent re- 
pairs at a small cost. It is so easy to repair 
damaged wood, correct errors, seal cracks, 
fill screw holes, cover counter-sunk screws 
with this wood-in-cans. It is real wood in 
putty form, that, when hard, can be worked 
with any woodworking tools— can be sawed, 
planed, sanded— holds nails and screws— takes 
paint, varnish, lacquer perfectly. In cans oi 
tubes at paint, hardware, 10^ stores. Try it! 



PtaSTIGWOOG 






Powerful Handsaws That 
Will Speed Up Your Work! 

For every Job there is a MALL handsaw that 
will save j'ou uionej' and speed up your work. 
Cutting capacities : 21", 2|", 3|", 3 13/16", 
and 4|". 

MALL YOOIT C oWpA N Y 

7751 South Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Please .tend additional information on the 
Model IB and other MALL electric handsaws. 

NAME . 

STREET 

CITY STATE 

Also, write for complete data about DOOR MORTISES, 
DOOR-^ PLANES and DRILLS. 



STANLEY 

FIBRE BOARD TOOLS 

For New Work or %emodeling 

Fibre board can pay you big profits — installed cleverly to 
create distinctive walls and ceilings. Stanley Fibre Board 
Tools are designed to make it easy (or you to apply fibre 
board quickly and effectively. 

Stanley Fibre Board Cutter No. 193 A cuts fibre board 
with one stroke. No sawing; no rough edges. It slits clean 
and square. Through cuts for right angle, mitre and ship 
lap joints. Beveling and grooving cuts — to decorate with 
original designs or to imitate tiling or paneling. With 
attachment No. 7, arcs and circles. 

Supplementary tools include Beveler No. 194 which cuts 
chamfers (or bevels) up to Va" , and Knife No. 199, useful 
to cut the board or to trim or elaborate on designs made 
with the Fibre Board Cutter. Hard Board Fluting Tool 
No. 197, which grooves surface designs, and Hard Board 
Beveler No. 195. 

Write for booklet No. P47 on building and remodeling 
with fibre board — sent free on request. 

STANLEY TOOLS 

DIVISION OF THE STANLEY WORKS 
mVi BRITAIN, CONN. 




No. 197 Hard Board Fluting Tool 



The Greatest Development in Saw History 
S H O C K'PROOF ! ^^^-i^r-^ 

Sir^amlinQd! 



OHLEN-BISHOP ZEPHYR 'M4'' 

"Tooth blows" effectively eliminated. Light weight/ 
perfect balance. Hours of extra sawing without 
fatigue. Scientific tests prove it! 

\7^^UR hand knotvs the feel of a good saw. Let 
•■■ it feel the perfect grip of the ZEPHYR. Give 
it as tough a run of sawing as you ever tackled. You 
and the ZEPHYR will both come through easy and 
smiling! The secret is a live rubber mounting in 
the handle — a resilient cushion that ab- p — — - 
sorbs the "tooth blows" And, too, the 
blade and handle are streamlined for per- 
fect balance. 



FREE BOOK 

— ^Full of facts for 
every day. "Woods — 
their characteristics, 
uses, tensile strengths. 
How to joint, file, and 
set Hand, Circular, 
Band Saws. Many 
handy, quick reference 
pointers on wood con- 
struction. Unusual 
things _ that can be 
done with saws." Send 
for your copy MOW. 




Here is precision quality you've always 
paid a far higher price for. Turns out 
jj» ^-^ M f^ more and better work. Try 
*IP -W 5" it today. Ask at your local 
^-P ^^ Hardware or Supply Dealer's. 



THE OHLEN-BISHOP CO., Columbus, O. 
Gentlemen: Send me "SAW EFFICIENCY" 
and more information about the ZEPHYR. 



Name ... 
Address 
City 



NEW INSULATING INTERIOR FINISH 





CJeloteX key joint units 

^*^^^ REG. U.S. PAT. OFF. l«i ^■■i 

Are Full ^^'' Thick— Applied Direct to Studding 




See how spline joint covers all open cracks, with only 
the beautifully detailed edges exposed! Celotex Key 
Joint Units go up fast — design as they build! 





f J/l^ 


/ 








[ I'tV^^I 1 






[/ 


i""^ 1 '■' y 1 '■ \ 1 T~i 






Sir^W 






Nail h 
the joi 
studs, 
made t 


/ \ 

eads, hidden in the depth and 
Its, get a good grip on both tn 
Large spans require intermedt 
nconspicuous with cadmium p 


shadow of 
aterialand 
ate nailing 
lated nails. 



V>ELOTEX KEY JOINT UNITS are equally 
suitable for interior finish in a new house or a 
remodeling project— provide insulation and interior 
finish at one cost! This new kind of insulating in- 
terior finish designs as it builds — comes in five 
standard sizes, permitting a wide variety of pattern. 
All edges of each unit come prepared for a spline; 
no cutting or sawing except at rootn borders and open- 
ings. Write for booklet on this new Celotex product 
which combines 3^" efficient insulation with beau- 
tiful modern interior finish — in one operation. 

Copyright 1989, The Celotex Corporation 



The word Celotex ie the brand name identifying a g\ 
products marketed by The Celotex Corporation and is p: 
us a trade-mark shown elsewhere in this advertisement. 



THE CELOTEX CORPORATION 4-39 

919 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Please send tae your new booklet telling about Celotex 
Key Joint Units. 



Name 

Address. 
City 



County State- 




CARPeNT€R 





PLf 

/939 



Look for the 
Union Label 

before you 
Reach for ijour 

Pocketbook, 



~n 




Old Walls and Ceilings Made New 



Furniture by Drexel 
Here's a solution to your most 
difficult remodeling problems. 
With the New Recessed Edge 
Sheetrock* and Perf-A-Tape* 
you can build interior walls and 
ceilings with the joints betioeen 
hoards completely hidden. Then 
you can apply any sort of decora- 
tion — paint — wallpaper — calci- 
mine — enamel. The result will 
be a smooth, even wall or ceiling 
of which any homeowner or ten- 
ant may well be proud. 

If you've never used Recessed 




HERE'S HOW IT'S 
DONE: 

J The recessed edge forms 
a channel at joints — 

^ — which is filled Tvith 
special cement. 

^ Peri - A - Tape — strong, 
^ perforated fiber tape — is 

then imbedded in the 

cement, and— 

— more cement is applied 
over it, leveled and 
sandpapered, completely 
concealing the joint. 



Edge Sheetrock or Perf-A-Tape, 
a USG field man will gladly 
show you how it is applied. 

For complete details of Sheet- 
rock application and a 48 -page 
book filled with remodeling 
ideas, see yovir dealer or write 
United States Gypsum today. It 
probably has in it just the idea 
you need to sell that next remod- 
eling job. If you'd like to have a 
USG field man show you how 
to apply Perf-A-Tape, just tell us 
in a letter or on a postcard. 



SHEETROCK 

The FIREPROOF Wallboard 

Froduct of 
UNITED STATES GYPSUM COMPANY 

C-6 300 W. Adams Street, Chicago, 111. *RegisteTed Trade-marks 




Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24, 1812 

Aorep+ance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for In Section 1103, act of 
October 3. 1917. authorized on July 8, 1918 



A Monthly J 




Carpenters' Building, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 
Advertising Department, Rm. 250, Bible Honse, New York, N. Y. 



Established In 1881 
Vol. LIX.— No. 5 



INDIANAPOLIS, MAY, 1939 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



NOTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter' reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, in their Judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated as 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 



•9. 



i 



Let's Remind Ourselves To Be Careful 

To those of us not blessed Avilh year around sun- 
shine, (you hicky Californians, Floridians, etc., ex- 
cepted) the month of May is a good time to remind 
ourselves that school will soon be out, freeing eager 
children, and high\va3-s will soon be crowded with 
autos, vacation or pleasure bent. 

Children WILL dart into the streets sometimes 
and the "other fellow" driving a car WILL steal a 
moment to look at the scenery when he shouldn't. 

Tragedy's running mate is carelessness. Let us 
all dri\-e carefully and not take any silly chances. 

Remember — It's onl\- a fraction of a second be- 
tween life and death. \\'hy risk your life and others' 
to gain what ma}' amount to only a few seconds or a 
few minutes compared with being a little more care- 
ful and staxiii"' ar(.)und several more vcars! 



<48iS[ieaKe«ise9is€>$^:sisiec r^-s^; x«< ::^i^; ::^x ::^^ic< ;^<«< >%< >»>: >ac>~: msc yst^ x«^: :i!9eK; 



S 



THE CARPEJVTER 

Economy Or Chaos For Uncle Sam? 



f ■ 1 HE rapidly mounting debt of the federal government is being eyed 
I in wonderment and alarm by labor, business, economists and Con- 
JL gress. On all sides one hears the demands for economy in Wash- 
ington and predictions of the dire consequences if the government 
spending policy is not discontinued in view of the fact that the govern- 
ment cash out-go is running billions ahead of its income and has been for 
several years. 

Every worker knows that his credit can be carried so far. His pay 
check can be budgeted to meet his charge accounts up to a certain point, 
but what happens when he recklessly continues to charge goods or borrow 
money which he can not pay back? The answer is obvious. 

Governments, however, have a different method of meeting obligations 
when they have mired themselves too deep in the quick-sands of debt. 
Printing press money! Remember the many laughs we all had over the 
worthlessness of the German mark when Germany took to the printing 
presses as the last resort? 

We have heard ugly predictions concerning the results of reckless 
governmental expenditure for several years. But the nation's debt con- 
tinues to mount like a flimsy house of cards. How higdi can the govern- 
ment build its house of cards of debt before it comes tumbling down 
around all of us? Labor, business, economists, all are wondering. 

The Christian Science Monitor, of March 4, editorially warns Uncle 
Sam against charging any more and in it appears that ominous word, 
"greenbacks" : 

"In the life of every family there comes a time — in some families 
it's once a month — when what its members would like to spend has 
to be checked against what they can spend. Senator Harrison has 
just opened such an unwelcome session for Uncle Sam's family. The 
chairman of the Senate Finance Committee points out that at the 
present rate of deficit spending the United States will reach the 
legal debt limit of $45,000,000,000 within a fev/ months. And he 
says that's enough. 

For ten years Uncle's family has been "charging it" very freely 
and in the last five years alone has run about $20,000,000,000 behind. 
Hardly a member of the family doesn't need or want more things — 
new subsidies for farmers, pensions for veterans and old folks, 
more relief for the unemployed, ships and guns for the army and 
navy, to say nothing of the "normal" household expenses, which are 
running far ahead of anything the family ever spent in prosperous 
days. Congress is flooded with demands for money for new projects 
— aid for education, compulsory medical plans, more social security, 
reclamation projects, power plants to compete with private com- 
panies, new post offices, bridges, theaters and art projects. 

Many of these things would be nice to have. But it is time the 
family as a whole began to ask each member what he can get along 
without. There is a growing feeling that it just isn't honest to keep 
on charging after ten years of failing to meet the bills. And Sena- 
tor Harrison has made plain what the alternative to raising the debt 
limit is — greenbacks. Unless the charging stops!" 

In a letter to the National Economy League, an organization which is 
neither Democrat, Republican, New Deal, Socialist, Communist, Fascist, 



T H E C A K P E N T E R 3 

Tory or interested in anything else of a political nature except todaj^'s 
high cost of government, E. W. Kemmerer. of Princeton University's 
International Finance Section, department of economics and social insti- 
tution, declares : 

"Unless the government very soon drastically cuts its expendi- 
tures and returns to a policy of fiscal sanity, the nation will drift 
into inflation rapids with consecjuences that will be disastrous. 

"Exessively burdensome governments are usually not paid 
by taxation. The political resistance to taxes adequate for 
the purpose becomes too strong. Such debt .burdens are usually 
reduced to politicalh' workable proportions by inflation. Then all 
debts, public and private, including bonds and mortgages, bank de- 
posits, life insurance benefits, pensions and social security benefits 
are paid in a dollar of rapidly depreciating power. The burden of 
the government's heavy debt is thereby shifted largely from vigor- 
ously protesting taxpayers, who have votes by the millions, to 
bond holders and other creditors whose numerical protest at the 
ballot box is weak. In this class belong all saving bank depositors, 
all holders of life insurance policies and all our privately endowed 
colleges, universities, hospitals, scientific research and other public 
welfare institutions. 

*Tn these days we hear much of social security, but social se- 
curity- is not one whit more secure than the value of the dollar in 
which it is payable. Long continued, unbalanced budgets with a 
mounting public debt greatly impair the value of that dollar.'' 

Most of us have small bank accounts, most of us carry insurance 
against that time when our dependent survivors will not be left entirely 
destitute and all who are beneficial members of the Brotherhood have a 
stake in the Carpenters Home and its insurance benefits. In this group 
falls all other members of international union organizations. 

Irrespective of any financial interests as set out above, is the 
\ ital stake we have in social security. Illness can eat up bank accounts, 
hard times may force the surrender of insurance policies — misfortunes 
beyond our control — but social seciirity is our backlog against unrelentless 
age. And now we are told that excessive government spending is jeop- 
c'lrdizing social security. That the backlog and barrier against want in old 
age will be wantonly destroyed unless the government which we elected 
heeds the pleas for economy ! 

As ^^'ill Rogers used to say, "I only know what I read in the papers." 
The majority of us will go along with Will on that. Few of us are eco- 
nomic experts except as it comes to budgeting our own weekly stipends 
and even those figures oft times are snarled. 

In the official publication of the National Economy League. J. Hugh 
Jackson, dean of the graduate school of business and acting comptroller 
nf Stanford University and president of the National Association of Cost 
Accountants, directs an article. "You are America's Stockholder.'' at 
students. In the article are some interesting figures concerning govern- 
ment expenditures and cost: 

"You— the young people of today — are America's stockholders 
of tomorrow. And as such you have an interest in the greatest busi- 
ness in the world — the Government of the United States. The 
money it s])cn(ls is your money. If it wastes money, it is wasting 



4 THE CARPENTER 

your money. If it goes into debt, the debts are your debts. You 
must pay them. This is not a partisan political question; it is an 
economic fact. 

"During- 1938 it is carefully estimated that the people of the 
United States spent 17 billion dollars for government — Federal, 
State, and local. This means that twenty-five cents out of every dol- 
lar of national income is spent for government. 

"The Federal government alone is spending money at the rate of 
$21,000,000 a day. For the past nine years it has been going into 
debt at the average rate of $7,000,000 per day — and it is still going. 
The national debt has reached the staggering and incomprehensible 
figure of 40 billions dollars, or some $320 for every man, woman 
and child in the country. And this is for the Federal debt only — 
it does not include 15 additional billions of debt of the states, cities, 
school districts, and other local governmental units. 

"Let's put this situation somewhat differently. One-fourth of 
the national income goes for the cost of government. The first three 
months of every year your entire earnings represent your contri- 
bution to the cost of running our government 

"Look at it another way ! In 1937 the average income in the 
United States was $537 in money. Of this amount $131 went for 
all forms of taxes, and the worker's share of the public debt was 
$429. Suppose we assume that you earn $75 per month, or $900 for 
your first year. Your tax cost your first year out of school would 
be about $220 and your share of the public debt amounts to $720. 
Is this what you want?" 

Many other economic authorities, business men and financial experts 
could be quoted warning against continued reckless government spending. 

Said Democrat Senator Pat Harrison of Mississippi, chairman of the 
Senate finance committee, recently : 

"The government's fiscal picture must be carefully scanned and 
that doesn't mean next year, but now." 

"I have no confidence in the economic philosophy that we must 
spend ourselves out of this economic disorder." 

"I'd much prefer to raise taxes than increase the debt limit. . ." 
"If immediate and unified plans are not laid . . . economic con- 
fusion and chaos are inevitable." 

Yes, its high time our government stops "charging it." 
The 130,000,000 people in this nation have been through enough in the 
last few years without adding "economic confusion and chaos." 

o 

Hotel Workers Union Wins Washington, D. C. Strike 

Two thousand of the Hotel and Restaurant Employes International Alliance 
and Bartenders International League of America ratified the settlement of the 
two-week strike against thirteen Washington, D. C, hotels. 

The text of the settlement was not made public, but John R. Steelman, concili- 
ator of the U. S. Department of Labor, said it was a compromise providing that 
the hotels give preference to union members in hiring new employes, that new 
employes who were not union members must join the union within two weeks, 
that present non-union employes would not be required to join, and that all strik- 
ers would be reinstated. 



T JI E C A K P E X T F R 5 

Lewis' Plan For Peace 

AvS THE peace committees of the American Federation of Labor and 
the Congress for Industrial Organization held their sessions, 
some interesting^ disclosures leaked beyond the confines of the 
conference room. 
In fact, the first disclosure concerning- these conferences that literally 
floored the A. F. of L. representatives took place in the White House office 
of President Roose\elt prior to the conference's opening. There Presi- 








Reprinted By Courtesy Chicago Tribune, 



CcpTriihi. lew. br C6lf«c« Ti 



dent Roosevelt had summoned Harry Bates, Matthew \\'oll and T. A. 
Rickert, representing- the A. F. of L. and John L. Lewis, Philip Murray 
and Sidney Hillman, of the CIO. to discuss the situation. When the repre- 
sentati^•es of the two organizations had g-athered in the President's office, 
the A. F. of L. committee naturally expected to hear the President's views 
concerning the conference. 



6 THE CARPENTER 

After the President extended the usual greetings, according to news- 
paper reports, John Lewis began striding up and down waving his CIO 
peace proposal in the air and excitedly extolling its merits. Mr. Lewis' 
actions and words implied that the whole matter could be settled then and 
there without a conference. As simple as that! Many interpretations 
could be made of such unprecedented action at a conference called by the 
President. 

Probably the second startling disclosure of these peace conferences 
came soon after the two committees met following the scene in the Presi- 
dent's office. 

The plan whereby Mr. Lewis was going to heal the breach between the 
A. F. of L. and the CIO was originated by Earl Browder, general secre- 
tary of the communist party and embodied in a resolution adopted by the 
Reds' central committee several months ago. 

In short the plan advocated by Mr. Lewis was the communist-inspired 
"one big union" idea all over again. And this was the plan Lewis was 
waving in the office of President Roosevelt ! 

Immediately the plan was studied, the A. F. of L. representatives 
tossed it back to Mr. Lewis and accused him of trying to put over a com- 
munist plot on the conference. 

Lewis, according to a reliable source, became incensed when the 
communist issue was raised and began delivering ultimatums in the 
name of a mandate from the President, who requested the negotiations. 

"We have a mandate from the President of the United States and he 
has a mandate from the 130,000,000 people of the United States," Lewis 
is quoted as saying. "If you put out anything about this communist busi- 
ness you'll wreck the peace negotiations and the responsibility will be 
on your heads." 

The third disclosure brings Madame Perkins, Secretary of Labor, into 
the picture. The Labor Secretary, it was learned, assisted Mr. Lewis in 
bringing pressure on the A. F. of L. negotiators to prevent publication of 
anything concerning the communist origin of Lewis' scheme! 

Throughout the discussion of the communist-inspired plan, Mr. Lewis 
referred to it as "his plan." Authorship of the plan submitted by Mr. 
Lewis to the conference is attributed to Len de Caux, communist editor 
of the CIO and Mr. Lewis' press agent. 

Commenting editorially on the peace plan as submitted by Mr. Lewis, 
The Chicago Tribune said: 

"John Lewis has been pretending that the scheme he put forward a 
few days ago to establish control over all wings of organized labor in 
this country is the child of his own brain. Possibly he thinks he figured 
the thing out for himself, but the evidence to the contrary is overwhelm- 
ing. His plan is a communist plan, embodied in a resolution adopted by 
the communist party's central committee twenty months ago. The plan 
was suggested by Earl Browder, general secretary of the communist 
party and was published at the time by the communist party's official 
newspaper. Plenty of the men at John Lewis' elbow regard such reso- 
lutions as the law and the prophet." 

Commenting on Secretary Perkins' part in the peace negotiations, The 
Tribune declared : 

"The Dies committee has disclosed communist penetration of the labor 
department, as well as other government departments and bureaus. The 



THE CARPENTER 7 

appointment of communists to key positions might have been accidental 
in a few cases, but accidents of that sort don't happen in wholesale lots. 

". . . . The communists want control of the labor movement in order 
to gain a strangle hold on industry and thus promote the overthrow of 
our government. For both purposes a united labor movement under CIO 
dominance is essential 

"The CIO is ruthless, aggressive and determined. Its leaders are con- 
fident, as are the communists, that if anything like their plan (Mr. Lewis') 
is adopted the whole labor movement will quickly be captured. 

"All that stand between them (the CIO and the communists) and the 
success of the one big union scheme is the loyalty of the A. F. of L.'s 
negotiators to the traditions and principles of American unionism."' 

It is true that all that stands between American Unionism and the 
communist one big union is the A. F. of L. negotiators. But the A. F. of 
L. committee is solidly backed by nearly four million American Federa- 
tion of Labor members who would never support such a plan as submitted 
by Mr. Lewis. 

And Mr. Lewis shouts of a mandate from 130,000,000 people. 

How many of that number, on hearing the facts of his Moscow-bred 
plan for peace in the American labor movement, would give their support 
to a Red plot to seize control of American Labor? Eliminate the 75,000 
members claimed by the communist part}" in the United States and you 
have the answer. 

Ex'en vSidney Hillman, a Lewis lieutenant in the peace conferences, 
rebuked l^ewis when he was confronted with the evidence showing the 
communists had first {)roposed what Lewis termed "his plan" for Ameri- 
can labor peace ! 

Another interesting bit of information that developed as a result of 
the conferences had to do with the highly touted membership of the CIO. 

Paul Mallon, Washington writer whose column is syndicated nation- 
ally, revealed the fact that the A. F. of L., representatives had proposed 
that a certified accountant be authorized to make a survey of both the 
A. F. of L., and CIO membership to establish a basis on which to build a 
peace plan. The CIO group was c|uick to change the subject. 

According to Mallon. the vaunted membershhip is nothing more or 
less than figment of Lewis' imagination and the actual membership of the 
CIO is far below a million. 

\\'riting in his column, March 2S, Mallon said: 

"American Federation of Labor laid down a straight proposition 
to Congress of Industrial Organization that was kept out of the 
papers at their last peace meeting. 

"The A. F. of L. delegates said substantiallx" : 

" 'Look here, if we are to try seriously to make peace, we must 
start by knowing where we stand. We propose that a certified pub- 
lic accountant be appointed to go over the books of the A. F. of L. 
and CIO and determine the dues-paying membership of each. From 
this report we can work out a peace formula.' 

"CIO delegates tossed some papers over the proposal, started 
to change the subject, asked for time. The subject was touchy be- 
cause John Lewis has never made public anything about dues- 
paying membership, even to his own people. At the last conven- 



8 THE CARPENTER 

tion he said something about 3,700,000 members, but nothing about 
how many paid dues. When the garment workers left him, it was 
reported authoritatively that only 938,000 dues-paying members 
then were left in CIO. Some authoritative guesses indicate Lewis 
may have only about one million today. 

"A. F. of L.'s last published figure (August 31, 1938) showed 
about 3,600,000 dues-paying members." 

Meanwhile further developments tended to place Lewis in a still 
more embarrassing position and serve to further discredit his loud declar- 
ation that the CIO is not communistic. 

As conferences between the two rival committees failed to develop 
any acceptable plan for peace, the CIO group of auto workers at a con- 
vention in Cleveland elected twelve candidates on the communist slate to 
the union's nineteen man executive board. Sidney Hillman and Philip 
Murray, CIO vice-presidents, directed the convention for Lewis. 

The ranks of the auto workers were divided recently by the accusations 
of former President Homer Martin who declares that the union is under 
communist control. Martin was ousted by the Lewis and Red faction and 
took with him a sizeable number of the auto union members, forming an 
independent group which has asked to be chartered by the A. F. of L. 

Peace conferences were suspended indefinitely at the request of Lewis 
who pleaded that meetings with eastern bituminous coal operators in the 
interest of his 330,000 United Mine Workers would keep him busy. His 
miners stopped work until a new contract was signed. 

He also gave the congressional hearings on the National Labor Rela- 
tions Act amendments as another reason for asking a delay, 

Lewis told Matthew W^oll that he would let him know "when we can 
go at it again." 

"All right, John, we'll be ready when you are," Woll replied. 

Opinion was divided in Washington on the significance of the break. 
Some labor leaders were confident the parleys would be resumed, others 
that they were "off permanently." Department of Labor officials said dis- 
cussions would start up again "before long." 

One A. F. of L. spokesman revealed that the last conference ended on 
a gloomy note. At that time, he said, Lewis returned to the position he 
took when the original peace conferences collapsed in December, 1937. 
He insisted again, as he did then, that all CIO unions be admitted and 
chartered by the A. F. of L., without limitations of any kind. 

It was conceded in Washington that the Lewis formula was "impos- 
sible," in that it would transfer the warfare between the two camps from 
outside the A. F. of L. to inside. 

The A. F. of L. maintains that the only feasible method is to have 
all the jurisdictional questions ironed out first between the unions affect- 
ed, and then have all the CIO membership return in a body. Such a plan, 
the A. F. of L. said, would mean a permanent, not a makeshift, peace. 

Some persons in the A. F. of L. looked upon Lewis' move in halting 
the negotiations as evidence that he went along with the conferences sole- 
ly in the hope that thereby he could block hearings on the amendments 
to the Wagner Labor Act. Since the hearings were arranged, Lewis' en- 
thusiasm for the unity negotiations has cooled, it was reported. 

• 

Climb not too liigli less tlie fall be greater. 



T II E C A R P E X T E R 9 

Local 2531 Contract Valid Despite NLRB 

A DELIBERATE attempt by the National Labor Relations Board 
to invalidate a contract signed by an affiliate of the United Broth- 
erhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America and destroy the 
Local is found in a review of the case of the M & M Wood Work- 
ing Company of Portland, Oregon and the Plywood and Veneer Workers 
Local 2531 vs. the National Labor Relations Board. 

The Circuit Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, San Francisco, 
Cal., set aside an order of the Labor Board which had found the M & M 
Company ''guilty of engaging in unfair labor practices and ordered the 
company to cease and desist from such practices." 

The history of this case again brings up sharph' the fact that the Na- 
tional Labor Relations Board apparently feels that it is free to ignore 
the objectives of the Labor Relations Act and private rights in order to 
carry out the Board's conception of the policy of the act. More and more 
the opinion of the Board seems to be that act was created for the private 
benefit of the Congress of Industrial Organization. 

The Circuit Court's ruling again reminded the Board that a closed 
shop contract is not valid but is the very nature of agreement which labor 
seeks, and which, the National Labor Relations Board to the contrary, 
is fostered by the Labor Relations x\ct. 

The M & M Woodworking Co. operates several plants manufactur- 
ing wood products. The dispute arose at the plywood plant of the com- 
pany. At the time of the controvers}'- employes in all of the various plants 
Avere American Federation of Labor men Avhich was regarded a beneficial 
condition by the company for the sake of unity. In May. 1934, the em- 
ployes at the plywood plant organized Plywood and Veneer W'orkers 
Union, under a charter from the A. F. of L. In April 1935, this union re- 
ceived a charter from the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 
of America known as Local Union 2531. 

On Ma}^ 3, 1937, Local 2531 entered into a contract with the company 
which included among other things, a closed shop provision, desired bv 
both employer and employes. The closed shop provision of the contract 
reads as follows : 

"The Company recognizes that all its employes are members of the 
Union. The Company recognizes the Union as representing, for the pur- 
pose of collective bargaining, all of its emploj^es except those acting as 
shift foremen and in the plant office and not paid on an hourly basis not 
at present in the Union, or any replacement of such personnel. It is the 
desire of the parties hereto that the employes covered by this agreemetit 
shall maintain membership in good standing in the Union. In order that 
this desire may be effectuated, and in order that the Union may discipline 
its members for the effective operation of this agreement, the Company 
agrees to release from its employ any person who fails or refuses to main- 
tain membership in good standing in the Union." 

In the meantime, the CIO had started a drive for members in the Paci- 
fic Northwest and began raiding \arious local unions affiliated with the 
A. F. of L. 

It soon became evident that the CIO's raiding tactics had made some 
inroads upon the membership of Local 2531. The Carpenters' Union took 
!he position, that the employer, under the contract, was bound to employ 
only members in good standing in Local 2531, and threatened a boycott 



10 THE CARPENTEK 

unless the contract was recognized. The employer also took the position 
that it would not be able to employ persons who failed to maintain mem- 
bership in Local 2531, and finally, on September 8, closed the plant, in- 
forming the Local that it would not reopen until its position in regard to 
affiliation was settled. 

The constitution of Local 2531 designates it as an affiliate of the U. 
B. of C. and J. and further provides that an amendment to the constitution 
can only be adopted by a vote of two-thirds of the members present at a 
regular meeting and that the amendment must be presented in writing and 
filed with the secretary two weeks prior to the date of the meeting at 
which the vote was taken. 

The Brotherhood rules and regulations which control the Local further 
provide: "A local union cannot withdraw from the United Brotherhood or 
dissolve so long as ten members in good standing object thereto." 

At a meeting September 9, 1937, some of the members of Local 2531, 
by a 51 per cent majority, voted in favor of installing a CIO Local. The 
effect of this action was in reality an amendment to the constitution 
although there was actuallv no semblance of compliance with the consti- 
tutional requirement that in order to amend such amendment must be pre- 
sented, filed and voted upon, and by the constitution, Local 2531 was affil- 
iated with the United Brotherhood. 

Thirty-nine members of Local 2531 did not sign, applications for 
mem.bership in the CIO. In view of this the employer remained firm in 
his position that under the contract those employes who failed and re- 
fused to maintain membership in Local 2531, could not and would not be 
employed. 

Since all of the officers of the Local were among the withdrawing 
members, certain faithful members began to recruit employes who were 
willing to return to work as members of Local 2531. About September 
21, the employer was advised that approximately 50 of such employes 
were willing to return to work. On September 25, the faithful members 
of Local 2531 met and temporary officers were appointed. 

About October i, the charter which had been mailed to the general 
offices of the United Brotherhood b}^ seceding members was re-delivered 
to loyal members of 2531, the reason being that Local 2531 was still a 
valid and existing local, and that the seceding mem.bers had no right to 
return the charter. 

The M & M Woodworking Co. reopened its plant on October 6 with 
the fifty workmen supplied by Local 2531. However, it was forced to 
close by the actions of a CIO picket line. 

On October 14, the United States district court granted an injunction 
preventing the CIO union members from picketing the plant and from 
inflicting or threatening injury to the loyal members of Local 2531. The 
plant reopened under this protection. 

Meanwhile, the CIO Local filed charges against the employer with the 
National Relations Board, and then filed a supplemental charge alleging 
unfair labor practices by discouragement of membership in the CIO local 
and denial of employment to any not members of Local 2531. 

The National Labor Relations Board issued a complaint against the 
M & M Company based upon the charges as filed by the CIO union and 
the company answered the charges by pointing out the closed shop pro- 
vision of the contract which was still in force. 



THE CARPENTER 11 

Despite this contract, the execution of which was not only proper 
under the express provisions of the National Labor Relations Act, but is 
the type of agreement fostered by the act, the Board ignored the rights of 
the employer and Local 2531, and declared that the employer was guilty 
of unfair labor practices. 

The Board declared that by refusing to retain at work employes who 
had failed to maintain good standing in Local 2531 the emplox'er had dis- 
criminated against its employes and discouraged membership in labor 
organizations! The Board also ordered the M & M Company to reinstate 
to their former positions all employes who had been dismissed because of 
their failure to maintain membership in Local 2531. 

Such an order by the National Labor Relations Board was a deliberate 
and premeditated attempt to destroy Local 2531 and its contract with the 
M & M Company. It Ijlandh^ ignored the closed shop agreement between 
the Local and the company. 

Another clause in the Board's order designed to hamstring the com- 
pany into reinstating CIO union members was the provision that the com- 
jjany must either re-hire those not members of Local 2531 or make good 
an}^ loss of pa}' by reason of the company's refusal to reinstate them. 

Such a refusal would have been financial suicide for the compan}- had 
not the Board's order been set aside. The practical effect of the Board's 
order was to return some 180 CIO members to work, causing the dis- 
charge of a like number of employes in good standing with the A .F. of 
L., and destroying the closed shop agreement signed by Local 2531 and 
the M & M company. The Circuit Court, however, reversed the Board's 

order, with its ruling. 

. — « 

Judge Strikes Blow at Kickback Racket 

The wage "kickback"racket has received a shattering blow by a New 
York court. The decision, described as unprecedented, was handed down 
by ^Municipal Judge Christopher C. McGrath who held that a worker can 
sue for recovery of pa}^ he turned back to his boss, even though he has 
agreed in writing to make such a rebate. 

The decision hit the Brill Contracting Corporation, which hired a 
plumber ostensibly at the union scale, but forced him secretly to return 
part of his wages. The "kickJ)ack" agreement was called null and void, 
and the company was ordered to pay the plumber $446 in back wages. 

Another New York court, that of Justice Salvatore A. Cotillo, handed 
down a drastic anti-labor ruling. Cotillo enjoined two A. F. of L. unions 
uf cooks and waiters from picketing a restaurant that had signed a con- 
tract with an organization branded by the A. F. o.f L. as a "company 
union." 

Cotillo used tortuous reasoning to defend his injunction. He argued 
that "unions should not be allowed to picket each other" and that the res- 
taurant was a "small business" and should be "protected from powerful 
labor unions." 

Cotillo's ruling was declared to be in direct conflict with decisions 
issued by higher courts in New York state. 

• 

I believe the only way we can cure the ills of democracy is by more democracy. 
— Dr. Charles S. IMcFarland, New York Clergyman. 




12 THE CARPENTER 

Is The Guild Distorting The News? 

UESTIONS are being asked and inquiring- e5^es are being cast 
these days in the direction of the American Newspaper Guild. 

Many newspaper men, whose sympathies are only lukewarm 
toward the Guild's affiliation with the CIO, others who either re- 
signed or refused to join the Guild for that reason, and many observers, 
are wondering if the Guild has ambitions to control the news sources and 
mold public opinion to the views of its own interests. 

In short, some cold, questioning stares are being turned on the Guild 
concerning its opportunities for distortion of news. 

In an article in Scribner's magazine recently, Henry F. Pringle, noted 
journalist and author, discusses the Guild's rise and raises the question 
of news distortion by the Guild : 

Writes Mr. Pringle : 

"What does the Guild's balance sheet look like? On the debit side 
one finds it verging toward too much centralization, its policies and activi- 
ties dominated by the New York group. A growing tendency is to limit 
the authority of local Guilds. I am sure that Heywood Broun, Sherwood 
Eddy, Victor Pasche, Morris Watson, and perhaps one or two others, are 
really running the show. Then the Guild is in a precarious financial con- 
dition. 

"But more important, it seems to me, must be put the potential, rather 
than existing, danger of news distortion. The ANG is now committed to 
Lewis' CIO. .... Reporters are human, particularly the best reporters. 
Will a reporter covering, for example, the epic struggle between the A. 
F. of L. and the CIO be ably wholly to retain his objectivity when he 
belongs to a CIO union?" 

Commenting on that part of Mr. Pringle's article reprinted above, 
the Electrical Workers' Journal, made the following observation: 

"The same sort of indictment is being raised in other directions. All 
of these questions are fundamental, and involve the question of freedom 
of the press which in turn determines in large measure the course of de- 
mocracy in the United States. Labor has always stood for the freedom 
of the press. The American Federation of Labor founded its own press 
in the early days of its struggle for existence in order that union members 
might get facts about unionism undistorted. During that crucial period 
from 1900 to 1918, labor was one of the severest critics of the capitalistic 
press and frequently charged that the public was never given a true idea 
of unionism either in its theory or practice. Following the great war, 
there was an improvement in the reporting of labor news by the daily 
papers and a few important dailies employed labor editors, who made a 
specialty of understanding the trade union movement. Frequently have 
leftists declared that there could never be any free press as long as the 
press was a big business controlled by big business. One theory advanced 
for insuring clean news was to give reporters independence, and at that 
time it was declared also that if reporters were unionized, they would have 
this independence and there would be no news distortion. 

"The Guild began its career as a member of the American Federation 
of Labor, and then seceded under the leadership of Heywood Broun to 
the CIO. Now com.e these embarrassing questions as to whether or not 
the Guild is itself coloring the news. 

"An incident occurred at the Pittsburgh convention of the CIO which 
rocked the newspaper industry. A member of the official staff of the 



THE CARPENTER 13 

Guild brought in a resolution charging that reporters were not giving 
the CIO a fair deal in the press. Such a hullabaloo was raised against 
this charge that Heywood Broun took the platform and defended the 
Guild, saying, 'So I say to the men and women of the working press that 
neither the resolution nor the speech meant to reflect on an}^ single 
working newspaper man or woman here.' 

"Mr. Broun covered up the previous attack on the reporters with this 
.apology, and he hid behind the old charge that it was the publishers and 
not the reporters who were guilty of the distortion. It is believed that the 
resolution was in part directed at Louis Stark, veteran labor editor of the 
New York Times. Mr. Stark has a reputation of unusual breadth of 
knowledge and fairness in his reporting of labor news. He was at one 
time a member of the Guild but resigned when the Guild seceded from the 
American Federation of Labor, and when the small group of officials 
around Broun began autocratically to control the Guild's policies. 

''When the New Republic, a Aveekly, reported the incident at Pitts- 
burgh, it failed to make clear the course, of events there and protected 
Broun in his wiggle-and-woggle policy. Charles Ervin. an old newspaper- 
man, also in the CIO, wrote a vigorous letter to the New Republic attack- 
ing its policy of reporting and charged there had been an actual distortion 
by the New Republic of events in Pittsburgh. Mr. Ervin vigorously de- 
fended Louis Stark. 

"Here is a situation of deep interest to all labor unionists and to the 
public generally. Because this, too, involves the fundamental tenet of 
free press, clean news and the preservation of democrac3^ ^lembers of 
the American Federation of Labor have frequently felt there has not 
been a fair reporting of the epic struggle between the American Federa- 
tion of Labor and the CIO by Guild members, and that the CIO got much 

the better of the bargain." 

— ♦ 

His Own Medicine for Inhuman Militarist 

Major Edward L. Dyer, a retired army officer, made a speech recently 
to the Washington Society for Philosophical Inquiry and suggested some 
startling wa3's to reduce government expenditures. 

"I don't advocate taking everyone on the relief rolls and giving them 
a shot," said the gallant Major. "But euthanasia ("merc}^ killing") should 
be considered in cases of old age, where the persons are of no use to 
themselves or anyone else." 

Why not start with the Major, himself? He is evidently of "no use" 
to the army, because he has been retired. He has been on the government 
payroll all his adult life, according to Congressman Patman of Texas. 

Right now, he's drawing $243 a month retirement pa-Y. Therefore, he's 
costing Uncle Sam as much as four or live families on relief. 

This scheme to "bump oflf" aged Americans whose only crime is their 
poverty is the Major's own idea, so why not make him the firsi; off? — 
Labor. 



Social Security Expansion Banned by House Committee 

The Ways and Means Committee of the Honse of Representatives announced 
that it would oppose legislation at this session of Congress extending the provi- 
sions of the Social Security Act to include farm and domestic workers and em- 
ployes of religious, charitable and non-profit institutions. 



T 



14 THE CARPENTER 

WPA Throttling Contractor, Says Survey 

The Works Progress Administration (WPA) is causing 
irreparable damage to building craftsmen and the employer 
in the construction industry, according to News & Opinion, 
the voice of the Building Trades Employers Association of 
New York City. 

In its April 5 issue. News & Opinion gives the results of 
a survey of work relief upon the nation's greatest business 
and its effect upon the construction industry and the crafts- 
men. 

The survey points out several serious results of WPA as 
it affects skilled labor and the building employer who is 
steadily finding it more and more difficult to compete with 
the unlimited finances of a governmental agency that is fast 
extending its operation into broader construction fields and 
private enterprise, according to News & Opinion. 

The survey, reprinted from News & Opinion, follows: 

K I ^ HE present spectacle of the federal government advancing with 
an outstretched hand to Business, but unwilling to clean up 
house for the visitor, is" nothing new to. the construction industry 
which has been a victim of such double dealing ever since 1933. 
It was then that the Administration used all its power to stress the im- 
portance of getting the construction industry back on its feet, after build- 
ing volume had fallen to five per cent of pre-depression levels. The 
famous "pump priming" operation was then started to help construction, 
but at the same time WPA in its earlier form was created to cut down the 
industry from the rear. Since 1933, the same hamstringing process has 
been repeated each year with the knives getting sharper, and the industry 
slowing up. 

The construction industry has been exceedingly patient while giving 
the Administration theorists an opportunity to demonstrate the soundness 
of their plans for relief and recovery. The industry knew it must make 
sacrifices without measure in the cause of Recovery, feeling that it could 
not selfishly set up its own situation without considering the general situ- 
ation. This lack of militancy has been misconstrued as either concurrence, 
or unwillingness to combat adverse influences upon its integrity. 

This phase has now passed. At enormous cost to itself, the construc- 
tion industry for five years has had authority from the outside super- 
imposing upon its customary and carefully involved procedures, alien 
metliods and procedures, all tending to destroy its established techniques 
and practices. This foreign power was WPA, and its purpose was Re- 
covery. After half a decade, WPA has become the uncarryable load for 
construction to bear, and we are no closer to better times after our sacri- 
fice. 

WPA, so far as its engineering and building work is concerned, has 
long since passed any experimental stage. It is now set up practically as 
a permanent government unit, operating its own stone plants, sheet metal 
shops, mill-work plants and the like. AX^c cannot but call attention to the 
danger of WPA procedures, as they appear to be developing, and to the 
subtlety and sagacity displayed by many of its administrative personel 
in an effort to increase its influence and broaden its activities. 



THE CARPENTER 15 

The original premise under which WPA was set up by the Federal 
government, but which has long since been lost sight of, was to provide 
the city poor with Avork. Now WPA's function has been perverted to 
supply poor city works. This is done through a combination of munici- 
l)al authorities and WPA wherein the municipality supplies the materials 
and extra labor costs while WPA furnishes labor. Thus the provision of 
the 1938 Appropriation Act which limits WPA to no more than $7.00 
a month per man for material costs is circumvented, as well as the limi- 
tation upon the maximum wage to be drawn per month by WPA workers. 

In the case of certain New York City WPA projects it can well be 
doubted if the whole intent of WPA as well as the actual laws under 
which it operates, are not being violated by such an extensive employment 
of non-relief workers as to use up the floating labor supply in some 
trades, and b}' their gross overpayment beyond WPA stipulations. 

We have viewed Avith much concern the enthusiasm with which both 
local and national WPA management appraises the works they have 
wrought (disregarding consequences and high costs), and the self-assur- 
ance built up by these appraisals, which socialogical bodies hail as mile- 
stones on the Utopian road leading to a government job of his own liking 
at union scales for every workman. The self-assurance of WPA manage- 
ment, the private, selfish need of its great administrative force to hold its 
jobs, and the political by-products of WPA activities, greatly encourages 
expansion of \\^PA influence and work, increasing its operation into 
broader construction fields and more deeply into the private business of 
building. Accompanying this phenomena is an increasing and unneces- 
sar}' governmental arrogance. 

The construction industry has never been regimented, bur it has al- 
ways skillfully supervised itself. To deliberately disorganize it now, 
when it is so important a part of the country's economic structure, and to 
destroy what has taken generations to build, cannot be justified under 
any pretext. 

The WPA method and technique applied to some phases of its work 
brings no criticism from us. There are certain types of unskilled public 
work that it can handle, even though its costs are far beyond what might 
ordinarily result. However, WPA's intrusion into building and construc- 
tion where the bulk of the work has heretofore been performed by skilled 
workers with long apprenticeship, leads to destruction of labor as well 
as employers. The borrowing of work from the future of construction 
to provide work today, and then to employ persons of other fields to per- 
form that work places a double burden up labor, the Industry and the 
public. Such methods at excessive cost, giving very questionable super- 
vision, and overloading jobs with man-power, utilizing at times all of 
certain skilled labor demanded bv private industry, giving unskilled men 
places of the skilled and forcing them into other fields, disregarding 
costs and values, and dealing theoretically with the situation, as one ex- 
clusively of Relief without regard for economic values or ultimate results 
to private business, will eventually bankrupt construction through dis- 
integration. 

WPA has raised building costs generally through the country 

it is bringing tens of thousands of untrained construction workers in the 
industry whose ultimate weeding out will be accomplished only at con- 
siderable financial sacrifice and effort. WPA is alienating labor, not alone 
by the above selection of "skilled" workers, but by its denial of jobs to 
those whose thrift and diligence has placed them barely outside of eligi- 



16 THE CARPENTER 

bility for work relief jobs. Forcing such persons to reduce their meagre 
savings to obtain employment, is adding to the problem, not solving it. 
It is borrowing work from the present unemployed skilled carpenters, 
plumbers and masons future, to provide jobs for those who are not in 
the industry, at outrageous financial cost in addition to the economic loss. 

WPA has taken hundreds of millions of dollars from private manage- 
ment, and as much from journeymen. It has long since given up the idea 
of undertaking mere alteration and remodelization work. It is now en- 
gaged in huge new works programs, which are beyond the relief needs. 

WPA has bought upwards of $10,000,000 of new construction equip- 
ment, duplicating the idle machinery of contractors. It has set up its own 
shops for processing, thus also duplicating the idle facilities of private 
plants. Its accounting methods can produce any favorable cost through 
elimination of overhead or by charging off millions to "surplus labor" 
cost, as has been done in some large housing projects. 

In New York City, the WPA expenditures for its building operations 
have, during recent years, been equal to half the building volume. Much 
of this would, in the course of years, been had by private industry. 

The efficiency of the building craftsman has been definitely lowered 
by WPA employment and supervision. Its rate of hourly pay insisted on 
by the unions, is now recognized by organized labor as providing a vast 
reservoir of workmen available for private jobs at much less than union 
scales. This is caused by the fact that under the high hourly scale, only 
a week's work in the month are necessary on WPA to earn the full wage 
allowed skilled workers, thus permitting them ample time to work pri- 
vately at wages under the union scale. 

That the viewpoints expressed in all the foregoing are not those 
merely of employer contractors is fully proven by the report on March 
14th of this year, by the Advisory Council of the New York City Works 

Progress Administration. 

« 

It Happened In The U. S. Senate 

Tempers flared and the sergeant-of-arms dusted off his mace during- 
consideration of the cotton subsidy program recently in the United States 
Senate chamber. 

Senator Ellison Smith of North Carolina was pleading- for a sizeable 
allotment for his state. When twitted about attempting to put over a 
"grab" for his cotton-growing constituents, he countered: 

"Billions of public money voted by the New Deal were for no other 
purpose in the wide world than to make the recipients remember Senators 
and Congressmen on election da3^" 

New Dealers howled with anger, but Smith stood by his guns. 

"All our boasted humanitarianism and philanthropy," he shouted, "are 
based on vote getting." 

Senator Alben W. Barkley and other administrationites entered indig- 
nant disclaimers. 



A. F. of L. Union Favored by Warehouse "Workers 

Warehouse workers employed by the Union Premier Food Stores in Philadel- 
phia voted two to one in favor of the A. F. of L. in an election held by the National 
Labor Relations Board to choose a collective bargaining representative. The 
vote was 45 for the A. F. of L.'s Storage Warehouse Employes Union, Local 18571, 
to 24 for the CIO union. 



THE CARPENTER 17 

A. F. of L. Offers Auto Workers New Charter 

A DEFINITE move toward re-chartering the International Union 
United Automobile Workers of America as an American Federa- 
tion of Labor affiliate was taken on April 17 following- a confer- 
ence between officials of the American Federation of Labor and 
officials of the Automobile Workers Union. 

Homer Martin. Elmer Davis and Jerry Aldred conferred with Presi- 
dent William Green, Vice-President Matthew Woll and Secretary-Treas- 
urer Frank Morrison of the American Federation of Labor regarding re- 
affiliation of the International Union United Automobile Workers of 
America Avith the American Federation of Labor. 

President Green officially informed the delegation that the American 
Federation of Labor would be glad to welcome the union back into the 
fold and would restore to it the same international charter under which it 
formerly operated under the banner of the A. F. of L. This would mean 
an autonomous industrial union. Mr. Martin and his associates stated 
this was acceptable to them and announced that the}^ would recommend 
its acceptance to the Executive Board of the International Union United 
Automobile \\'orkers of America and to the membership of the union for 
ratification in a referendum vote. 

At the conclusion of the conference, which was held in his A\'ashington 
office, President Green declared: 

"The ."vmerican Federation of Labor recognizes the union headed by 
Mr. Martin as the International Union United Automobile \A'orkers of 
America. This organization under this name was chartered by the A. F. 
of L. and no other organization or group not affiliated with the A. F. of L. 
has the right to use this name or exercise any of its prerogatives. 

"In restoring the charter to the International Union United Automo- 
bile Workers of America, the American Federation of Labor will recog- 
nize and fully concede the full autonomous authority of this organization 
in the administration of its own affairs. 

"We will welcome the return of the automobile workers to our ranks 
and pledge them full support in their efforts to bring the benefits of union- 
ization to the automobile industry. 

"This is the second of the international unions which originally left 
the A. F. of L. and formed the CIO, to take steps to return to the Fed- 
eration. (The first was the United Textile ^^'orkers ofAmerica.) 

"As I have repeatedly stated in the last three years, the door to the 
American Federation of Labor stands open. We appeal to those who left 
us to return to the family of labor. There will be no penalties for past 
differences. No special conditions w^ill be raised. Many of those who 
were beguiled by the false promises of dualism have become thoroughly 
disillusioned. To them we say: 'Come back. We are willing to let by- 
gones be bygones.' 

"Organized labor fully realizes today the consequences of dualism. 
It has again learned the lesson that it pays to rely on sound trade union 
principles. The dual movement is rapidly disintegrating. We sincerely 
urge those who are sick of it to return to our ranks and thus help restore 
unitv in the American labor movement." 



A good cause makes a stout heart and a strong arm. 



18 THE CARPENTER 

Politicians Bemoan Recent WPA Rulings 

CONGRESS and Congressmen not infrequently provide a few- 
laughs but whether these laughs are sufficient to offset what Mr. 
Average Citizen pays for them in direct and indirect taxes is a 
matter of opinion. 
Politics and coercion in relief have been the main charges hurled at 
their Democratic opponents in Congress by the Republicans. 

For sometime the Democratic majority in Congress has been feeling- 
heavy pressure to take politics out of relief. Recently a move was made 
in this direction and now the Democrats have a feeling that they may have 
"cut their party's throat" in their zeal to get out from under the charges. 

Anyhow that was the reaction of those who pondered regulations is- 
sued recently by Colonel Francis C. Harrington, WPA administrator, 
putting into effect an amendment to the relief appropriation bill last 
January. 

Harrington's rules stipulate that no candidates for a political ofnce, 
no person holding an elective office and no member of a political commit- 
tee shall be employed or retained in a WPA administrative or supervisory 
capacity. 

State officials are warned that any person who promises jobs or other 
benehts as a reward for political activity, or who attempts to deny a relief 
worker freedom of political activity, is guilty of a felony and will be 
prosecuted. 

The regulations also emphasize that "every WPA worker has the right 
to vote in any election for any candidate he chooses, without interference 
from any source." 

When lawmakers first read Harring-ton's regulations they thought he 
had gone much farther than the amendment warranted. A study of its 
provisions, however, convinced them that the relief chieftain had hewed 
to the line. 

A Western Senator, who supported the amendment which Harrington 
is now enforcing, insisted that the amendment goes much farther than 
most members imagined w^hen the}- put it over. 

"We wanted to safeguard relief workers by providing that there 
should be no discrimination on account of politics, religion, race or for 
any other reason," he said. "We also w^anted to protect them from intimi- 
dation and coercion in the exercise of their political rig-hts. 

"But we didn't want to sterilize our own party organization, and I fear 
that is precisely what we have done. 

"Thousands of Democrats active in organization work are employed 
in supervisory positions in the relief set-up. They are faced with the 
alternative of quitting their relief jobs or abandoning all party activities. 

"Harrington's regulations, which I admit are backed by the amend- 
ment we voted, make it impossible for political leaders and lieutenants 
who hold supervisory relief jobs to even talk politics around a cracker 
barrel in a country store." 

The Senator insisted that in creating this situation the Democrats 
have given the Republicans "their biggest victory since 1928." 

"By making it impossible for WPA supervisors to continue political 
activities, we have played into the hands of our foes. It's no wonder the 
Republicans are laughing," he ended sadly. 

From the Senator's words, one draws the conclusions that Mr. Harring- 
ton took his job a little too seriously. Mr. Harrington didn't have to 



THE CARPENTER 19 

take the political whip out of the hands of those "thousands of Demo- 
crats active in party organization work and employed in supervisory 
positions in the relief set-up." Still, the Senator contends, "we wanted to 
protect them (the relief workers) from intimidation and coercion in the 
exercise of their rights." 

The Brotherhood is not interested in the political beliefs of any 
relief worker or the director of his work. The only thing- any of us ask, 
irrespective of party, pledge or organization, is first and last that all 

workers be treated as the freeborn American citizens they are. 

• 

''Company Doctor" Accused As Racket 

APPALACHIAN coal mine operators and doctors hired on a yearly 
salary by the mine owners are the target of a serious extortion 
charge made by the Bureau of Cooperative Medicine in a report 
following a survey financed by a fund provided by the late Edward 
A. Filene of Boston and administered by the trustees of the Twentieth 
Century and Good ^^^ill Fund. 

The report made by Dr. Kingsbury Roberts, medical director of the 
liureau, charges the mine operators and doctors with having extorted ap- 
proximately $6,000,000 }-early from 122,000 coal diggers in exchange for 
"deplorable" medical care and hospitals that give "the least possible serv- 
ice for the money received." 

The mine operators profiteered, the report said, by raiding the pay en- 
velopes of the coal diggers under the guise of "humanitarian" service, 
making the offense, the investigators emphasized, a particularly odious 
form of racketeering. 

The in^•estigation was made by a staff of experts in the coal fields of 
West Virginia, \irginia, western Kentucky and northern Tennessee. Par- 
ticular attention was given "company doctors" employed b}^ mine opera- 
tors, who were described as a form of human parasite. 

The $6,000,000 taken from miners, according to Dr. Roberts, included 
vS2, 500,000 deducted by operators from pay checks as a "check-off" for 
medical care; $1,000,000 in extra charges for physicians' services; $2,000,- 
000 deducted for hospitalization and $500,000 in extra charges for hospital 
"extras." 

?kline operators. Dr. Roberts explained, hire doctors at a flat vearly 
salary. In rare instances bonuses supplement salaries. In return, the 
]ihysicians are expected to care for the less serious ills of the miner and 
his family. The doctors are permitted to fix their own charges for confine- 
ment and accident cases, and whatever is charged is deducted from pay 
envelopes. 

Dr. Roberts and his associates on the board found much of the $2,500.- 
000 taken in check-off's was "going in unjustifiable profits to the operators 
and contract doctors." 

The service rendered the workers, the repc^rt declared, "was unsatis- 
factory and disorganized." The workers, it was pointed out. were help- 
less because they had nothing to do with the selection of doctors and no 
control over them after they had been designated. 

The remedy for this situation, the report declared, was to abolish the 
"company doctor" institution and substitute non-])rofit cooperative health 
associations under the supervision of recognized phvsicians. That ar- 
rangement, the report emphasized, would give the miners necessary con- 
trol oxer physicians and enable them to protect themselves against abuses. 



20 THE CARPENTER 

Wallace's Latest — Stamps For Food 

/^ I ^ HE Administration is preparing to try out another of its schemes 

I on the American public. Many novel ideas have been launched 

J_ by the present administration during- the last six years in frantic 
efforts to bring- back some semblance of prosperity but this latest 
tops them all in novelty. 

The idea was unveiled by Secretary of Agriculture Henr}^ A. AVallace. 

Primarily this latest scheme is intended to elevate the diet standards 
of the poorest part of the population. A very commendable objective. 

Here is how the plan works : 

Relief workers are to be asked to take stamps as part of their wages 
to the extent of $i a week for each member of their families. That is what 
they are now spending for food, Wallace says. 

Those who do so will be given free with each $i stamp another stamp 
worth 50 cents. That will increase the food allowance to $1.50 a week. 

The stamps may be exchanged at food stores the same as cash, but 
cannot be used for an}^ other purpose. 

The dollar stamp will buy any kind of food, while the 50 cent stamp 
will buy only foods which the Department of Agriculture regards as 
surplus — eggs, butter and a few other commodities. 

The plan, AVallace insists, is double-barrelled. While it increases the 
diet of families who are living below healthful levels, it will at the same 
time make big inroads into crops of which there is a surplus, and that is 
expected to be of help to farmers. 

Merchants who handle the foods will collect their regular profit, but 
AVallace contends this will not cost the government more than the present 
method of disposing of surplus food. 

The plan is to be tried in six cities of 50,000 population or more. If it 
works, it will be extended to the 8.000,000 families receiving Federal, 
state or local aid. 

"The conscience of the American people," AVallace said, in defending 
his proposal, "has long been shocked by the paradox of farmers impover- 
ished by abundance while at the same time millions of consumers are 
hungry for food which was rotting because the price for it would not 
pay the cost of harvesting and transportation. 

"Issuance of the stamps will create purchasing power for commodities 
which are surplus now, not because the need for them does not exist, but 
because the persons who need them most cannot buy them." 

AVallace was shocked by the disclosure that mJllions of people in th;- 
United States spend an average of $1 or less a week for food. 

"Think of it!" he exclaimed. "Less than 15 cents a da_v per person for 
food ! That means bankruptcy for farmers and starvation for workers. 

"If this plan is successful, it means that the day is not far distant Avhen 
all of the people of the United States will be adequately nournished. It 
may well be that we are pioneers in one of the most significant health 
movements of our time." 

Wallace says the "conscience of the American people has long been 
shocked by the paradox of farmers impoverished by abundance while at 
the same time millions of consumers are hungr}^ for food which v/as rot- 
ting because the price paid for it would not pay the cost of harvesting 
and transportation." This is very true. 



THE CARPENTER 21 

Another shock to the American conscience was the wholesale killing of 
pigs and cattle and destruction of foodstuffs not so long ago in the face 
of hunger and want, not to mention another AA'allace idea whereby farm- 
ers were paid not to farm their ground. 

Wallace's latest plan is remindful of the old scrip method of paying 
labor wherein a laborer received scrip instead of cash for his work and 
was forced to exchange the scrip at company owned, or influenced, stores 
for food and clothing. 

Many hundreds of members of the Brotherhood Avill recall that it was 

against this scrip payment for labor that labor struck and won. 

• 

CIO Office Workers Turning to AFL 

OFFICE workers unions in tAvelve cities have made direct overtures 
to the American Federation of Labor and signified thev have 
become disillusioned with the CIO and want to leave it. 

This was disclosed by Frank Weikel, President of the A. F. 
of L. International Council of Office Workers. He declared: 

"Every opportunity will be extended to these dissatisfied organiza- 
tions to enter the American Federation of Labor. A\'e want them back 
with us. 

"Following the lead of the CIO Local in New York City wdiich voted 
overwhelmingly recently to quit the CIO and join up with us, we have 
received bids from Locals in a dozen other cities. These are in Buffalo, 
Bridgeport, New Haven. Newark, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Boston, Balti- 
more, Cleveland, Chicago, St. Louis and Los Angeles. 

"CIO leaders tried to dismiss the New York union's action as mere 
'cbl:) and flow.' It looks to us more like a tidal wave. 

"Tlie complaints against CIO leadership made by the New York Local 
ha\e been echoed in itvGi'y part of the country. Let me quote brieflv from 
the resolution adopted b}- the New York local: 

" 'The present administration of Local i6. United Office and Profes- 
sional Workers of America (CIO) during three years of control of this 
New York Office Workers Union has registered a sorry failure as a trade 
union in that it has organized practically none of the bona fide office 
workers in this city who are in dire need of union protection. This mis- 
(.•ral)le record was written during a period that offered unparalleled op- 
]5ortunity for successfully appealing- to underpaid, overworked and un- 
protected oltice workers. This failure was due to the fact that the union 
was captured by an organized machine which violated its oath to serve 
the membership by placing the interests of the Communist Party above 
those of our union.' 

"This grave indictment," Mr. Weikel continued, "illustrates how thor- 
uugly disillusioned the office workers of the nation are with CIO leader- 
shi]). We oft'er them the protection of a strong organization, completel}' 
devoted to the betterment of their working conditions and run on sound 
trade union principles. 

"The first break in the CIO office workers union occurred last May 
when the Local in San Francisco went over to the A. F. of L. In contrast 
with the stagnant condition of the CIO organization the International 
Council of Office AA'orkers affiliated with the American Federation of 
Labor has grown rapidly in the past three years and now has locals in 
lOO cities." 



22 THE CARP ENTES. 



Shock for Anti-Union Employers 



(4 




H, GRANDMA, what big sharp teeth you have!" exclaimed 
Little Red Riding Hood to the big, bad wolf in disguise. 

The child in that famous story was no more frightened 
than anti-union employers were when they saw the big, sharp 
''teeth" in the first bill introduced' by the Senate Civil Liberties Commit- 
tee, after a two-and-one-half year investigation of warfare against or- 
ganized labor. 

It is one of the strongest measures ever written. 

"It embodies the legislative recommendations made in the commit- 
tee's four reports on labor espionage, strikebreaking, private police sys- 
tems, and industrial munitions," the Committee said in a statement ac- 
companying the bill. 

It forbids employers to engage in four "oppressive labor practices" : 

"To employ or utilize any labor spy. 

"To use strikebreakers or strikebreaking agencies." (Strikebreakers 
are defined as "persons paid a bonus to replace regular employes during a 
strike or lockout.") 

"To employ private guards armed with g'uns or other dang-erous 
weapons off company property, or to employ as guards men who have 
been convicted of violent crimes. 

"To use or possess industrial munitions in or about a place of employ- 
ment, or during a labor dispute." 

"Industrial munitions" are defined as "machine guns, sawed-ofi:' shot- 
guns and tear and sickening gas." Employers are not only forbidden to 
possess them, but also to pay for and furnish them to any other persons, 
such as "law and order" committees, or "law enforcement officers," even 
though the latter "are commissioned by state or local governments." 

Other sections of the bill make it clear that any person, company, or 
organization of any kind, who aids in these "oppressive labor practices" 
in any way, is to be punished for violating the law. For example, "teeth" 
are provided to bite manufacturers who sell weapons to union-smashing 
employers, and transportation of industrial munitions is forbidden. 

"A fine of $10,000 and imprisonment of six months" is the penalty for 
each violation. 

The Committee statement further explained that the proposed law 
would be "enforced by the Secretary of Labor, who is empowered to in- 
vestigate and apply for injunctions against violations. The Department 
of Justice will have charge of prosecutions. The bill purposely does not 
provide for any new Federal agency or administration." 

A separate and equally important part of the bill would extend the 
Walsh-Heale}'^ Act to bar employers who engage in "oppressive labor 
practices" from getting contracts, loans or subsidies from the govern- 
ment. 

"This bill is several decades overdue," the Committee declared. "Such 
a bill should have been introduced long ago. Reports of other government 
investigations during the past 40 years show that similar recommenda- 
tions have been made, but nothing has been done. 

"Now the committee calls attention to its 18,000,000 words of testi- 
mony and exhibits, on 116 strikes occurring from 1930 to 1937, and its ex- 
haustive record of studies in over two score industries, employers' asso- 
ciations and communities. 

"We also call attention to the fact that, as a result of the committee's 
activities, the Bureau of Internal Revenue has proposed additional in- 



THE CARPENTER 23 

come taxes and penalties against various persons and corporations, 
amounting- to v$232,ooo. 

"That amount is more than one and one-half times the entire amount 
appropriated by the Senate for our investigation." 

The latest and last report of the Senate Civil Liberties Committee en- 
titled "Industrial Munitions" discloses the huge amount of tear and sick- 
ening gas bought by anti-union employers and the large amount of money 
involved. 

Anti-union employers purchased as much tear and sickening gas in 
tiie years 1933 to 1937 as all the law enforcement agencies in the country. 

The total spent for gas was $1,255,312. 

The four largest purchasers all were industrial corporations. Next 
was the Ohio National Guard, then two more corporations, and so on 
down the list of employers, employer associations, state, county and local 
police, sheriffs and militia. 

And much of the gas used by so-called "laAV enforcement agencies" to 
break strikes was secretly paid for b}- employers. 

"Industrial Munitions," completes a series of four reports giving a 
well-rounded picture of the weapons and methods used by union-smash- 
ing employers and their allies. The preceding three reports were "Indus- 
trial Espionage," "Strikebreaking Ser\'ices" and "Private Police Sys- 
tems." 

The huge sum spent for "gas" included only the gas grenades, bombs 
and other actual gas containers. In addition, the report shows, employers 
also bought vast quantities of gas g'uns of various kinds, and "army-type 
machine guns, sul^machine guns, army rifles, shotguns of repeating and 
sawed-off types, pistols and revolvers of all makes and calibers." 

All this was on top of bulging arsenals many of the employers had 
accumulated in the past. The committee found it impossible to estimate 
the total number and cost of weapons and ammunition in employers' 
hands. 

However, it Avas able to count up the gas "projectiles" in actual num- 
bers as well as dollars of cost. The report says that the purchases in the 
five-year period "can be represented by any of the following: 

"One hundred and twenty-five thousand Federal Laboratories Jumbo 
Spedehcat tear gas grenades or Lake Erie Lightning Universal tear gas 
candles; 104,000 Jumper Repeater Instantaneous tear gas candles or sick- 
ening gas grenades; 147,000 long range Tru-Flite or Elite Rite tear gas 
projectiles; 166,000 ordinary long range projectiles of tear gas." 

The 125.000 Jumbo grenades, alone "would have broken a picket line 
for every strike in the past 16 years," the report says. 

The terrible efifect of these deadly weapons is described by the report, 
and it gives examples of actual deaths, injuries and serious sickness. 

The companies which brought the gas are listed by nam-e, in a table 
which shows they invariably bought it at the first sign of "labor trouble." 

Another list groups the munition-buying employers by a wide variety 
of industries, including 11 "railroad and utility" employers. 

A large number of strikes by American Federation of Labor unions 
are among the "situations" in which cmplo3'crs bought gas and other 
munitions. 

One example is the Black & Decker strike at Kent, Ohio, in June, 1936, 
"caused by the company's refusal to renew its agreement with the Ma- 
chinists' Union." The report says that "an unprovoked attack by profes- 
sional strikeguards, using tear gas guns and buckshot upon three pickets. 



24 THE CARPENTER 

precipitated a gun battle which lasted for hours, injuring three of the 
guards severely. 

As another example, the report says that "during the hard-fought 
strike of an A. F. of L. Federal union at the Columbian Enameling and 
Stamping Company, in July, 1935, at Terre Haute, Ind., the company 
bought $5,482 worth of gas equipment." 

The committee repeatedl}^ condemns employers' arsenals and armed 
forces in such terms as the following: 

"The possession and use of industrial munitions by employers is the 
logical end of a labor-relations policy based on non-recognition of unions 
— in opposition to the spirit of national labor laws. The principal purpose 
of such weapons is aggression. Their use results in violence, embitters 
industrial relations, and hampers peaceful settlement of industrial dis- 
putes. 

"Beyond their effects on striking employes, industrial munitions 
jeopardize public peace. Their use threatens the physical safety of citi- 
zens. Further, and more important, their irresponsible use constitutes 
usurpation of public police functions. 

"These weapons endow the possessor with overwhelming power of 

coercion. They are not weapons which, in a democracy, can be entrusted 

to private interests." 

® 

Home Bulding Best Since October, 1929 

CONTRACTS for construction of new homes in the United States 
in ]\larch were the largest in value for any month since October, 
1929, the F. W. Dodge Corporation reports. 

In the thirty-seven states east of the Rocky mountains included 
in the data compiled by the construction information agency, the increase 
in residential contracts amounted to 58 per cent, compared with March, 
1938, and 59 per cent ahead of the February total this year. 

Contracts for all classes of building, the agency said, totaled $300,661,- 
000, a gain of 32 per cent over the March figure last year and 36 per cent 
higher than in February. 

For the first three months of the year, all construction contracts were 
the greatest in eight years and were 44 per cent ahead of the comparable 
1938 period, when there was a temporary dip in the rising curve of con- 
struction. Residential contracts, largest in ten years, were 83 per cent 
ahead of the 1938 quarter. 

"Analysis of the construction record on the basis of ownership," it 
was noted, "reveals the fact that private building has shown far greater 
gains than public construction. For private work, the March record was 
58 per cent ahead of Februar}'- while public work showed a corresponding 
gain of only 16 per cent." 

New business has been showing a steady increase in Northwest mills 
as winter recedes and the usual spring building drive gets under way. 
For the first time in many weeks, orders climbed within a fraction of the 
hundred million-foot mark. 

A total of 143 down and operating mills in Washington and Oregon, 
which reported to the West Coast Lumbermen's Association for the week 
ending March 25, 1939 produced 85,128,667 board feet of lumber. 

At the rate of cutting at the reporting mills, the entire industry pro- 
duced 55.7 per cent of its average weekly cut during 1926-1929. 



THE CARPENTER 25 

Bill Curbs Troops As Strikebreakers 

A BILL to curb the use of National Guards in labor disputes and 
free the soldiers of "scab" stigma has been introduced in the 
House. 

Proposed by Congressman John M. Coffee of Washington, it 
will be interesting to watch the progress of this legislation designed to 
halt the turning over of National Guards to anti-labor employers. 

The use of National Guards as strikebreakers has long been a thorn 
in the side of labor. Many times the troops have defied the rights of labor 
to free assembly, free speech, free press and ruthlessly broken justified 
strikes. 

The bill provides that martial law may not be declared so long as the 
courts are able to function and the writ of habeas corpus has not been 
suspended. If National Guardsmen are called out during a labor conflict, 
they must be subordinate to the civil authority, and must not abridge free- 
dom of speech, press and assembly. 

It also provides against the subsidizing of state troops by private in- 
dividuals and corporations — "to throw off the taint that has been cast 
upon the guard in labor disputes where industrialists have paid a large 
part of the cost of military rtile." 

"The National Guard," Coffee declared, "in time of peace, should be 
an instrument of protection and not of oppression of the people. But it 
cannot fulfill its proper mission as long as it is used in the obnoxious role 
of strikebreaking. 

"It is crime enough when profit-hungry industrialists meet the de- 
mands of their employes for decent wages and living conditions with the 
gunfire of hired thugs and the tear gas of private guards. 

"But it is a far greater crime to see a people's army paid for and re- 

sponsil)le to the people, turned over to these same industrialists, for the 

purpose of protecting their thugs and forcing demoralized employes to 

accept at bayonet point Avhatever sweatshop and working conditions the 

emplover wishes to foist u])rin tbcni." 

© 

It Must Be a Good Measure 

HEADED by Bone of Washington, 50 Senators have attached their 
names to a bill which will actually "take the profits out of war." 
That it is the "real McCoy," to use a slang phrase, is demonstrat- 
ed by the screams of anguish with which the proposal is met in 
certain quarters. 

The most amazing development of all, however, is the attitude of the 
War Department. "The generals" demand "a scientific study"' before leg- 
islation is considered. They have persuaded the Falk Foundation of Pitts- 
burgh to put up the monev to hire the Brookings Institution to conduct 
a "study." 

But why, may we ask, should "the generals" be so anxious to safeguard 
the profits of munitions makers ? 

Congress should ignore "the generals" and the Brookings Institution. 
If we go into another war, the people of this country want profits wiped 
out. "The generals" say that would "paralyze industry." It wouldn't but 
it might dampen the enthusiasm of certain industrialists for "another 
war." — Labor. 



26 



THE CARPENTER 



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THIS GAME OF LIFE 

We've all got to play 
In this great game of life, 
We've all got to know 
Its struggle and strife ; 
We've all got to feel 
Its strength and its blows, 
Its sorrows and woes. 

But the man who wins 
Is the man with pluck, 
Who trusts his head 
And not his luck; 
Who can deal them out 
And can take them in, 
Who knows when to sigh 
And, who knows when to grin. 

So take up the gauntlet — 
Let's get on with the game, 
Defeat may be ours— 
But we'll never know shame; 
We'll follow the rules 
Made by Him who's supreme, 
They're only "Fight hard. 
But always fight clean." 

■ — Donald Pugnetti. 



y^mismsmmmmmmmmmmism^mmsimmmmmmmmmmmmiSi 






Editorial 




FRANK DUFFY, Editor 



THE UXGRATEFUIi MR. LEWIS 

JOHN L. LEWIS, while addressing a meeting of his United Mine Workers Union 
delegates in New York recently, declared angrilj^ that "anyone who brands the 
CIO as communist is a knave, a liar and a poltroon." 

Mr. Lewis also let out a bellow of rage when American Federation of Labor 
representatives called attention to the parallel of Mr. Lewis' plan for labor peace 
and that advocated by the communist party. 

The scheme which Mr. Lewis referred to as "my plan" when the CIO and A. F. 
of L. committees gathered to discuss a peace solution, was embodied in a resolu- 
adopted by the communist party's central committee more than twenty months 
ago. The idea was suggested by Earl BroAvder, general secretary of the com- 
munist party and authorship of Mr. Lewis' scheme is attributed to Len de Caux, 
communist editor of the CIO News and and Lewis' personal press agent. 

Mr. Lewis can shout with rage and bellow to the heavens all he pleases that 
the CIO is without communist taint, but too many millions of American citizens 
choose to differ with him. 

Unfortunately for Mr. Lewis, congressional investigations, political affiliations, 
public utterances and the company they keep identify too many of those 
official aids surrounding him as ardent admirers of the Hammer and Sickle em- 
blem. 

The Communist party has enfolded the CIO lovingly in its arms and is lavish- 
ing attention on it like a fond mother. Its "finest comrades" are spouting for the 
CIO cause and it must make Browder and his satellites feel somewhat sad and 
tempted to remind Mr. Lewis chidingly, "Why, John, how could you? And after 
all we have done for you, too!" 

• 

A THANK YOU AND A REQUEST TO THE BROTHERS 

THE CARPENTER takes this opportunity to thank the Conservation Depart- 
ment of the state of Indiana for supplying the photographs that have ap- 
peared the last three months on the cover page of this magazine. 

At wits ends for pictures, a visit to the conservation department offices sup- 
plied this crying need. 

Frank Wallace, state entomologist, Mark Wagner, editor of Outdoor Indiana, 
the state department's publication and William Brennau, associate editor of Out- 
door Indiana, enthusiastically showed us file after file of photographs. In fact it 
was such a wealth of material that we were in almost as much a quandary as be- 
fore the visit. 

So, thanks again, Mr. Wallace, Mr. Wagner and Mr. Brennau. 

Incidently, while on the subject of photographs, we wonder if some of the 
Brothers couldn't send us some pictures of their own or from their respective 
conservation departments of timely subjects? If you are in doubt as to what we 
need, just take a recent copy of your magazine with you to the publicity diAision 
of your state conservation department and explain that you want some pictures 
that could be used from your state. You'll receive an enthusiastic welcome. There 
will be no charge, or at least there isn't in Indiana! 

If the department wants the photos returned, we'll take care of that from 
the general office. If a brief description is necessary with the photo, Include it 
and that will be our job, too. 



28 THE CARPENTER 

We suggested the conservation department as a source for photos but photos 
for the magazine don't have to end there. We would particularly like to have 
pictures of Interesting construction jobs too, such as the one of the Grand Coulee 
dam that appeared in the April issue on page 35, or logging operations from the 
northwest and other subjects of interest to the Brotherhood. If in doubt of their 
interest value send them along, anyway. Include a brief description of the sub- 
ject and a return mailing address if you want the photo returned. 

The photo doesn't have to be by an expert photographer. A good, clear snap- 
shot as small as 2x4 inches will do. Of course, on large subject matter such as 
the Grand Coulee dam photo, a larger picture is desired. The reproduced picture 
of Grand Coulee dam was just about the actual size of the photo. 

Well, we have asked, shall Ave receive? 



END OF STRIKEBREAKERS AND LABOR SPIES? 

T LOOKS as though anti-union employers might soon be deprived of the use 
of labor spies and strikebreakers in their un-American operations against 
the fundamental rights of working men and women. 

After many months of investigating various aspects of these notorious under- 
world denizens fostered and financed by a powerful minority of American industry 
against the legal activities of the workers organized in labor unions, the Senate 
Civil Liberties Committee, has reached the conclusion that both labor spies and 
persons hired and paid to break strikes should not be permitted to function in 
the United States. 

To bring about the end of these instrumentalities of employer terrorism, the 
Committee, using the facts drawn from its inquiry, has introduced a bill in the 
Senate to inter these excrescences of our industrial life in the tomb of outlaws 
prescribed by Federal statute. 

To accomplish this meritorious purpose, the La Follette-Thomas bill contains 
four specific prohibitions. The bill would outlaw: 

1. Use of labor spies. 

2. Employment of private guards armed with guns or other dangerous 
weapons off company property, except where necessary for protection against 
theft of goods or money in transit. 

3. Use or possession of industrial munitions in or about a place of employ- 
ment during a labor dispute. 

4. Use of strike breakers or strike breaking agencies as defined in the bill. 

The bill also authorizes the Secretary of Labor to obtain injunctions against 
interstate shipments of goods produced under the "oppressive labor practices" as 
defined under the act and to bar the mails to persons convicted of violation. 



NI/RB'S DONALD WAKEFIELD SailTH 

DONALD WAKEFIELD SMITH, whose confirmation for another term on the 
National Labor Relations Board is one of the things the Senate is least 
likely to do, is making a hard fight to hold his job, the best paying job he 
has ever had or is at all likely to get once he is detached from the Federal pay roll. 
Meantime, the NLRB, despite the recent decision of the Supreme Court of the 
United States that Congress did not give it the power to cancel or set aside con- 
tracts made with a legitimate trade union, presumes to exercise that right and 
discriminate against American Federation of Labor unions. 

Smith's program, and that of his friends, includes pressure on local and state 
bodies to make it appear that the Executive Council of the American Federation 
of Labor does not speak for labor when it opposes his confirmation. 

At least two regional directors have been caught in this enterprise. This was 
because they were brazen in their efforts to get action. Others, more subtle, have 
not been less active. 



THE CARPENTER 20 

The boast is made by friends of Smith, that no fewer than 500 local unions, 
two state federations, and several central bodies have been lined up. 

The figures might be impressive were it not that as of August 1, 1938, there 
were 32.681 local unions in the Federation, 1,517 Federal unions, 792 central 
bodies and 49 state federations. 

Smith's friends have been working on this task since last October when it 
became clear even to them, that Smith's tenure of office was, to state it conserva- 
tively, doubtful. At this rate, and assuming their style is not cramped by exposure, 
they may have a total of 800 by July 1, when Congress is expected to adjourn, and 
Smith, whose friends have suceeded in holding up Senate action thus far, will be 
an ex-member of the board, unless in the meantime the Senate pins the "X" mark 
on him. — (The Bricklayer, Mason and Plasterer) 



The Importance of Union Label Goods 

The tremendous importance of the ever-wider use of union-made 
goods and services performed by union members in protecting and raising 
the living standards of working men and women was emphasized by I. M. 
Ornburn. secretary-treasurer of the Union Label Trades Department of 
the American Federation of Labor, in a radio address from Washington, 
D. C, over the Blue Network of the National Broadcasting Company, an- 
notmcing the thirtieth anniversary of the establishment of the Department. 

Pointing out that "through the united action of one-half of the affili- 
ated National and International Unions of the American Federation of 
Labor, this Department has a long list of achievements during the past 
three decades," Mr. Orn1)urn made the following terse but significant 
statement regarding the value of the variotis insignia used to identify the 
many articles made and functions performed by members of American 
Federation of Labor Unions: 

"The Union Label, Shop Card and Service Button are the Trade- 
Marks of union workers who have made steady progress during this 
])eriod. The tinions that have adopted insignia have greatly increased 
their membership and also the demand for union-made prodttcts and union 
services. 

"The Union Label is a symbol which is displayed by means of a cloth 
or paper label, stamp, or other imprint upon products to assure consum- 
ers that the merchandise is made in unionized shops or factories. 

"The Shop Card is a printed sign whichh is displayed in a window or 
on the wall of all shops and other business establishments whose employ- 
ers are unionized. The Service or Working Buttons are similar to the 
insignia of lodges or fraternal orders and are worn in the same manner. 
The working button gives asstirance that services are rendered by a 
member of a labor tmion. 

"All of these emblems stand for American labor standards incltiding 
higher wages, sliortcr hours and better working conditions. Thev are a 
continual boycott against sweatshops and tuisanitary conditions. They are 
a perpetual strike against child labor and low-paid women workers. And. 
finally, they are the emblems of a iniion crusade for higher American 
standards of living." 



We should be careful to deserve a good reputation by doing well; and when 
that care is once taken, not to be over anxious about success. — Rochester. 



Keep Yoin- Dues Paid Up 



Official Information 




General Oflftcers of 
THE UNITED BROTHERHOOD of CARPENTERS and JOINERS 

of AMERICA 

General Office : Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General President 

WM. L. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



First General Vice-President 

M. A. HUTCHESON 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Secretary 

FRANK DUFFY 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Second General Vice-President 

S. P. MEADOWS 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Treasurer 

THOMAS NEALE 

Carpenters' Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 



General Executive Board 



First District, T. M. GUERIN 
290 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 



Fifth District, R. E. ROBERTS 
1231 N. Winnetka St., Dallas, Texas 



Second District, WM. J. KELLY 
Carpenters' Bid., 243 4tli Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Sixth District, A. W. MUIR 
200 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Third District, HARRY SCHWARZER 
3684 W. 136th St., Cleveland, O. 



Seventh District, ARTHUR MARTEL 
6375 Chambord St., Montreal, Que., Can. 



Fourth District, ROLAND ADAMS 
4155 Lakeshore Blvd., Jacksonville, Fla. 



WM. L. HUTCHESON, Chairman 
FRANK DUFFY, Secretary 



All correspondence for the General Executive Board must be sent to the General Secretary. 

CANYON LUMBER COMPANY OF EVERETT, WASH., SQUARES UP 

We have been notified by the Everett District Council of Lumber and Sawmill 
Workers that the Canyon Lumber Company of Everett, Washington has adjusted 
its differences with our Lumber and Sawmill Workers and is now working in 
harmony with them and therefore worthy of the support of the members of our 
Brotherhood throughout the country. We are pleased to receive such notices as 
this as it shows what can be done when both sides get together in a fair and im- 
partial manner. 



STAYAWAY NOTICES 

Any report that work is plentiful in Allentown, Pa., or the Lehigh Valley Dis- 
trict, is false. At least 75 per cent of the members of this district are still unem- 
ployed, and we have more than enough men to take care of all work that is in 
sight. 

Stephen R. Miller, Recording Secretary. Local 3 6 8. 

A. C. Maddox, Recording Secretary of Local Union No. 200, Columbus, Ohio, 
desires that all traveling members be made aware of the fact that Local 200 has 
more than sufficient members to take care of all the work being done in that city 
for some time to come. In other words, it would be very difficult for an outside 
member to find employment at this time in the city of Columbus, Ohio. 



Great Falls, Montana, Local 286 sends word that no outside carpenters are 
needed as work is scarce for local craftsmen. 



THE CARPENTER 31 

TWELFTH ANNUAL CONVENTION CALIFORNIA 
STATE COUNCIL OF CARPENTERS 

The twelfth annual state convention of the California State Council of Car- 
penters was held in San Francisco, February 24, 25, and 26. 

Brother A. L. McDonald, General Chairman and President of the Bay Coun- 
ties District Council of Carpenters convened the convention and welcomed the 
delegates and visitors. 

Sheriff Daniel C. Murphy of San Francisco, a past president of the California 
State Federation of Labor and also of the San Francisco Labor Council was then 
introduced and addressed the gathering. 

He was followed by John A. O'Connell, secretary of the San Francisco Labor 
Council, who extended the fraternal greetings of his organization. 

General Chairman McDonald then turned the convention over to Permanent 
Chairman Joseph F. Cambiano, President of the Califoi'nia State Council of Car- 
penters and presented him with a gavel from Millmen's Local 42, of San Francisco. 

Following President Cambiano's brief address of welcome, short talks were 
also made by Mayor Angelo J. Rossi, of San Francisco; Albert G. Bernhardt, 
President of the Associated Home Builders of San Francisco; J. C. Ennes, Sec- 
retary of the Cabinet Manufacturers Institute of California. Northern Division; 
Harry Hilp, President of the Associated General Contractors of Central California ; 
Charles Gurney, Secretary of the Alameda County Building and Construction 
Trades Council; Brother Alexander Watchman. President of the San Francisco 
Building and Construction Trades Council; Edward D. Vandeleur, Secretary of 
the California State Federation of Labor and Ben C. Gerwick, President of the 
Associated General Contractors of Northern California. 

In his address Brother Vandeleur sharply attacked the situation at Westwood, 
Lassen County, Cal., lumber town, where he pointed out that a National Labor 
Relations Board election to determine whether the A. F. of L. or the CIO should 
represent the workers in collective bargaining was agreed to last October, but had 
apparently been delayed' by the pro-CIO twentieth Regional Labor Board to give 
the CIO an opportunity to organize. As a result of the delay in holding the elec- 
tion, the workers involved have been deprived of the right to bargain with the Red 
River Lumber Company, the employer, for restoration of a 17V2 Per cent pay cut 
suffered by them in July, 19 38. 

A delegation from AVestwood included W. K. Merrill, President, and E. C. 
Shannon, business agent of the Luml)er and Sawmill Workers Union Local 2836 
and Jack Granger, organizer for the California State Federation of Labor, as- 
signed to the Westwood controversy in cooperation with representatives of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners. 

Brother Merrill reviewed the situation at Westwood. He scored the Labor 
Board for its broken promises and expressed the fear that if the Red River Com- 
pany is permitted, because of the failure of the Labor Board to hold an election, 
to continue paying low wages, others will believe they can do the same thing 
causing the entire lumber industry to suffer. 

Merrill also told of Governor Olson's futile efforts to got the Labor Board 
officials in Washington to act in the Westwood case. 

Brother Shannon gave a history of Westwood telling of the company control 
over the entire community, its ownership of the stores and all other places of 
business, and said that thirty-two out of 150 known members of the CIO in West- 
wood were aliens and did not even have their first papers. He said that alleged or 
known communists who were agitating there had bragged what the Labor Board 
would do for them, and how the CIO had the cooperation of the company in build- 
ing them a hall and closed by saying that if the Labor Board will hold an election 
there is no question about the A. F. of L. union being chosen as the collective 
bargaining agency, and the workers can then negotiate for restoration of the 



32 THE CARPENTER 

July, 1938, Avage cut, and increase pay rolls by a quarter of a million dollars per 
year. 

Brother Jack Granger, a veteran lumber worker, declared the A. F. of L. stood 
15 to 1 among the workers. He told of the finances of Local 2 836, the amount 
spent in feeding families during the periods the mill was closed because of CIO 
agitation and made an appeal to the delegates to take the story back to their 
Local Unions. 

The convention endorsed the seven hour day, five day week as a step 
toward the six hour day, five day week and instructed its officers to do all in 
their power to establish the seven hour day in California as speedily as possible. 

Another resolution asked for an improved apprenticeship system. 

A resolution "Resolved that any Local Union or District Council affiliated with 
the California State Council of Carpenters entering into negotiations with any 
group of contractors have as their objective a demand for the six-hour day." 

A resolution endorsed the policies of the American Federation of Labor. 

The convention also went on record as demanding the Union Label on all hard- 
wood flooring. 

Brother A. W. Muir, member of the General Executive Board of the Sixth 
District complimented the affiliated unions on their progress and said he appreci- 
ated the far reaching influence of the Council and the good it had done. Review- 
ing the history of the movement in the western states. Brother Muir pointed out 
that when the California State Council of Carpenters was organized, San Fran- 
cisco and Oakland were not organized and were virtually open shop towns while 
today it would take a fine tooth comb to find a really bad situation. Conditions 
have even improved in Los Angeles, where men who have worked in open shops 
for twenty-five years were now out on strike. 

All former District Members of the Executive Board of the California Federa- 
tion were re-elected. 

o 

Allentown, Pa., Project Information Termed Untrue 

In the April issue of The Carpenter was a paragraph stating that "1,600 
workmen would get jobs on the New Hanover Acres low rent project at Allentown, 
Pennsylvania," which has started. 

This information came from the publicity department of the United States 
Housing Authority, a federal bureau. 

Stephen R. Miller, recording secretary of Local 3 6 8, of Allentown, Pa., and 
secretary of the Lehigh Valley District Council writes the General Office that the 
above information is untrue. 

Brother Miller says: "We will be very fortunate if the project will employ 100 
carpenters at any stage of the work and add to that about twenty laborers, a few 
electricians, plumbers, etc. 

"We have thus far six carpenters on the job, with at least 150 carpenters still 
out of employment and for this reason would advise traveling Brothers not to 
come here expecting work." 



NEW CHARTERS ISSUED 

1368 Escanaba, Mich. 2253 Stevens Point, Wis. 

2245 Fallon, Nev. 2254 Preston, Ida. 

2246 Mt. Pleasant, Mich. 2250 Red Bank, N. J. 
22 47 Juneau, Alaska. 2 255 Uhrichsville, Ohio. 
2249 Canadian, Tex. 2257 lola, Kans. 

2251 Aitken, Minn. 2258 Hauma, La. 

2252 Carthage, 111. 2259 Paterson, N. J. 
2512 Ryderwood, Wash. 22 60 Columbia, S. C. 



THE CARPENTER 33 

Local Union 62, Chicago, Marks Golden Jubilee 

Local Union 6 2, the third largest Local Union in Chicago celebrated its Golden 
Jubilee April 1. 

While that Local may rank third from a membership standpoint, it will never 
be classed as holding third position in enthusiasm and in all things pertaining 
to the activities of the Chicago labor movement. 

Since its inception Local 62 has played a prominent part in the affairs of 
Labor in Cook County and has contributed more than its share of men who might 
Avell be termed labor leaders. 

A charter was granted to Local 62, April 1, 18 89 and it was then located at 
"Town of Lakes," Illinois and later it was shown on the records as Englewood, 111. 
From the foregoing it is apparent that the city of Chicago, in its rapid expansion, 
must have absorbed both the "Town of Lakes" and "Englewood," Illinois. 

S. R. Jones was the first President and Charles O. Johnson, was the first Fi- 
nancial Secretary and he gave Englewood as his place of residence in the year 
3 889. Local 62 as well as the city of Chicago expanded, as we learn from our 
dusty archives that Local Unions 71 and 88 consolidated and became part and 
parcel of Local 62. 

This Local has always taken an active part in the affairs of the United Brother- 
hood as is evidenced by the fact, that immediately after being organized it sent 
two delegates to the 1890 general convention held in Chicago and with but very 
few exceptions it has been represented at all general conventions. 

It will no doubt be a matter of interest to many of the old time members of 
this Local to give the names of those of their members who have served in the 
past as delegates and as a matter of history we herewith give, the year of the 
convention, the city in which it was held and the names of the delegates: 

1890, Chicago, Illinois; G. W. Blackford, B. F. Smith. 
1892, St. Louis, Mo.; J. D. McKinlay, C. F. Nugent. 
1894, Indianapolis, Ind.; J. D. McKinlay, C. F. Nugent. 

189 6, Cleveland, Ohio; J. D. McKinlay, John Baracree. 
1898, New York, N. Y.; Oliver Johnson; Axel Winstroni. 

190 2, Atlanta, Ga.; Oliver Johnson, John Myren, P. Greenwall. 
1904, Milwaukee, Wis.; P. J. Granberg, Eric Larson, M. B. Philp. 
1906, Niagara Falls, N. Y.; Louis Dickhart, J. D. McKinlay, E. Larson. 

1908, Salt Lake City, Utah; Oliver Johnson, M. B. Philp, Olof Swanson, Andrew 
Severene. 

1910, Des Moines, Iowa; J. D. McKinlay, N. P. Berglund. 

1912, Washington, D. C; Eric Larson, Andrew SeA'erene, W. Shogren, Tom 
Ratcliff. 

1916, Ft. Worth, Texas; J. D. McKinlay, C. W. Shapman. 

1920, Indianapolis, Ind.;Tom Ratcliff, P. L. Anderson. 

1924, Indianapolis, Ind.; Martin Nelson, M. B. Philp, Tom Ratcliff, P. L. 
Anderson. 

1928, Lakeland, Florida; Fred Bobzin, Olof Swanson, Gust. Johnson. 

The name most frequently appearing, is that of J. D. McKinlay, who became 
a member of the Local January 2, 1890 and was one of the most active and in- 
fluential members of the organization until September, 1924. 

No history of Local 62 would be complete without relating the activities of 
one of its most outstanding former members. Although Brother McKinlay saw fit 
to sever his connection with the organization, his record of accomplishments will 
ever remain a monument to his memory and redound to the credit of Local Union 
02. At the age of nine, he became a worker, and at twelve he was indentured 
to the carpenters' trade. That was back in the days when there were no legal 
restrictions as to the age a child might be called upon to perform the tasks of a 
man. He served his apprenticeship of five years, later becoming a member of Local 



34 THE CARPENTER 

62 in 18 90. He served several terms as President of liis Local and was many 
times selected as a delegate to the Chicago District Council. For three consecu- 
tive terms he served the District Council as its president, declining the nomina- 
tion for a fourth term. He also represented the Local at several conventions of 
the Illinois State Federation of Labor and later Vi^as a member of both the Execu- 
tive Council and Joint Arbitration Board of the District Council. The entire 
membership of the organization honored him with the office of Second General 
Vice-President, which office he held during the years 1911 and 1912. 

The thrill of the evening came when Brother Thomas P. Doran was introduced 
and presented with a badge of honor, furnished by the General Office and pre- 
sented to him by George Ottens, a General Office representative. 

Brother Doran, a member of Local 6 2 for 50 years, was elected Assistant Sec- 
retary to Brother P. J. McGuire at the first convention of the Brotherhood held in 
Chicago, from August 8 to 12, 1881. He is believed to be the only living member 
who attended that convention. He is now 85 years of age and has been a member 
of the Brotherhood from its very inception and has always retained the old pioneer 
union spirit. 

Lack of space prohibits us from singling out other men who have contributed 
to the success of Local 62 and the movement in general in the city of Chicago. 
However, to all those members who made it possible for the Local to possess 
their own home and place of meeting, much credit is due. Their home, was dedi- 
cated during the administration of the late General President, James Kirby who 
participated in the dedication ceremonies, together with General Secretary Duffy 
and General Treasurer Neale. President Kirby, in making his report to the Gen- 
eral Executive Board for the quarter ending March 31, 1913 said: 

"I also attended the dedication of Local Union 62's nev/ home in Chicago. It 
is Indeed a model building and the members of that Local Union have set an 
example by their business methods which could well be copied by other Local 
Unions. Their entertainment was a huge success, being attended by over 3,0 
people." 

The celebration of fifty years of effort brings to mind many deeds and incidents 
of the past, however, we must always look to the future and Local 62, certainly 
had the future in mind when it selected its present officers and it is only proper 
that we pay tribute at this time to the splendid group of men who now guide the 
destinies of their "live-wire" local. 

One office in particular, the one that carries with it a great deal of work and 
grief, that of Financial Secretary, is ably filled by that virtuoso of the harmonica, 
James Rex and we have no hesitancy whatever in making the statement that 
not many Local Unions can boast of a more efficient Financial Secretary. We 
might qualify that statement, if for no other reason than to keep his head from 
swelling, by saying, we at the General Office have to call his hand now and then 
for a "double deduction." Aside from that he is what the clerical force refers to a,s 
"tops" when it comes to submitting accurate and detailed reports. 

More than 600 local members were present at the celebration and in addition, 
invited guests represented 29 Local Unions in the Chicago District. 

The principal speaker of the evening, Reuben G. Soderstrom, President of the 
Illinois State Federation of Labor, gave an interesting account of the achieve- 
ments of organized labor during the last 50 years. 

Other speakers included John R. Stevenson, President and Charles H. Sand, 
Secretary-Treasurer of the Chicago District Council, Harry E. O'Reilly, General 
Organizer for the Chicago Federation of Labor representing John Fitzpatrick, 
President of the Federation; Charles F. Wills, representing the Federation News 
and George Ottens, General Representative of the Brotherhood. 

A feature of the evening was an account of the history of Local 62 as related 
by William Greenwald, Recording Secretary. 

We take this opportunity to extend to Local 62 the sincere and heartfelt con- 
gratulations of the General Officers and to express the wish that as much progress 
be made in. the future as has been made in the past. 



THE CARPENTER 



35 



Colorado Springs Local 515 Marks Fifty Years of Progress 



" 


1 J 


r^^m. 


4 








M m\ 


y 



Officers of Local 515, Colorado Springs, Colorado, and members of the com- 
mittee who were responsible for success of the Local's fiftieth anniversary are 
shown above. 

Front row, left to right: John L. Catlin, Financial Secretary: Don M. Wise, 
John E. Pierce, Ralph R. Strader. 

Middle row: E. T. Gittlings, William F. Holmgren, President: L. L. Wynn, 
chairman of the committee. 

Back roAv: Charles Swanson, Walter Perrin, vice-president; George E. Wright, 
recording secretary and W. A. Porth, treasurer. 



More than 300 guests, including members and their families of Local 515 of 
Colorado Springs, Colorado, attended the fiftieth anniversary celebration held by 
the Local March 20. 

Among those present were many Brothers who have been members of the 
Local for forty years. Unfortunately all charter members have passed on. 

President Brother William F. Holmgren Avas toastmaster for the evening and 
he extended a hearty welcome to all present. 

He presented the Honorable Geo. G. Birdsall. Mayor of Colorado Springs, who 
has cooperated with organized labor whenever possible. The Mayor gave an inter- 
esting talk about members and days of the past. 

other speakers congratulating Local 515 were E. T. Johns, President of the 
State Council of Carpenters: E. M. Osborne, Secretary of the State Council of 
Carpenters; President Hitchcock and Secretary McCaffery of neighboring Local 
No. 3 62 of Pueblo, Colo.; Louis Ziman, Vice-president of State Federation of this 
District; Frank Bruce, President and Guy Bassett, Secretary of Federated Trades 
Council of Colorado Springs. 

A letter of congratulation was received from R. E. Roberts of Dallas, Texas, 
a member of the General Executive Board, who was unable to attend the event. 

Since no organization is complete without its Auxiliary, Jlrs. Elmer Perrin, 
President of Auxiliary No. 203 was introduced and congratulated Local No. 515 
on its fifty years of progress. 

A beautiful floral piece was received from the Auxiliary for this occasion. The 
ladies also made the cakes for the refreshments that were served. 

Following a splendid musical program, the evening was spent in dancing. 



36 THE CARPENTER 

Local No. 515 publicized its fiftieth anniversary all that Aveek by running edi- 
torials and advertisements in all daily papers, and in addition all theaters ran a 
three-minute news reel of the Local's fifty years of progress. 

Wonderful cooperation was given by all local business firms in granting win- 
dow space for seventy-five pieces of hand made furniture which were displayed. 
Numerous letters of congratulations were received on the fine work. 

Local No. 515 sent one week's subscription of the daily papers to the Carpen- 
ters Home and also to General Headquarters. 

The Local also sent a roll of the film "Fifty Years of Progress" to the Home in 
Lakeland and a roll to the General Office. 



Made in Japan 

A curious and pitiful story comes out of Japan — that nation with big 
ideas — that illustrates, again, the ruthlessness of those parties, in. any 
nation, who make war their first consideration. 

There has been — and is — a real American antipathy toward anything 
"made in Japan," owing to the heartlessness of her war mad governors. 
Now this feeling seems to have a reflection in the reaction among the 
Japanese people who have had relatives killed in the armed conquest of 
China. 

Some bright mind among the Japanese "higher ups," conceived the 
idea of returning, to the bereaved citizens, the ashes of slain soldiers, 
enclosed in a little white box, wrapped in white silk. Originally this idea 
was warmly approved and the little white boxes were reverently cher- 
ished by the relatives, who gained a bit of reflected glory. 

But not all Japanese are so completely bound up in tradition as have 
been their forefathers. Some have had contact with the Western world 
and have imbibed some modern ideas, among them investigation and 
statistics. 

One of these curious investigators, presumably not wholly in sym- 
pathy with all the ideas of the predominant part}^, discovered that, fol- 
lowing a battle (or a massacre), all the slain men and beasts are cremated 
in one huge P3^re, the ashes gathered up and equally distributed in little 
boxes. 

This information having become public, much to the embarrassment 
of the governors, the recipients of the boxes are less enthusiastic than 
formerl3^ being uncertain whether they are treasuring the remains of a 
Chinese coolie, a Japanese soldier or a Missouri mule. 

In just such ways do the long suffering people of a war-like govern- 
ment come to their senses, after a time ; and when they have had enough 
such experiences to fully convince them of the utter waste of the higher 
ups and their policies, then comes a change — usually for the better of the 
people themselves. 

It takes "people" to conduct a war — mobs of people. The few that 
comprise a government can do nothing, even with all their power, their 
money and their machines, without the man power that rests in the people. 
The aid — or, at least the acquiescence — of the people is a necessity to any 
government. The people, the citizenry, is the deciding factor, in peace or 
in war. But people are a patient lot and it is just too bad that the people 
must undergo so much suffering before they wake up and decide for 
themselves. — Painter and Decorator. 



To see what is right and not do it, is want of courage. — Confucius. 



Jin 0.i^tnifxxHxn 



Not lost to those that love them, 
Xot dead, Just gone before; 



They still live in our nienioiy, 
And will forever more. 



Walter J. Mapes 



1862 1939 

With sorrow and regret we report that our old friend and co-worker, Brother 
Walter J. Mapes, a member of Local Union 11, Cleveland, and Secretary of the 
Cuyahoga County District Council, died on April 1, 19 39. We were not aware of 
his illness and word of his death came as a shock. 

Brother Mapes was initiated into Local Union 11, August 15, 1895; date of 
birth, October 2, 1862; classed as a bene- 
ficial member. His record shows that he 
had been a member in continuous good 
standing for nearly 44 years. That is^ a 
record anyone could be proud of. Brother 
Mapes was honored by Local Union 11 on 
many occasions. He was elected as a dele- 
gate from that Local to the following Gen- 
oral Conventions of the Brotherhood: 

1904 Milwaukee, Wis.; 1906 Niagara 
Falls, N. Y.; 1910 Des Moines, Iowa; 1912 
■Washington, D. C. ; 1916 Ft. AVorth, Texas 
and 1924 Indianapolis, Ind. 

He was elected as a Fraternal Delegate 
from the Cuyahoga County Carpenters Dis- 
trict Council to the convention held in 
Lakeland, Florida in December 19 36. 

Brother Mapes was held in high regard 
l>y all who knew him. "The Cleveland Citi- 
zen," official organ of organized labor of 
that city, in its issue of April 7, 1939 said: 

"The Cleveland labor union move- 
raent lost another fine, upstanding 
official when Walter J. Mapes, for 
many years secretary of the Car- 
penters' District Council, passed away at his home early last Saturday morn- 
ing. (April 1, 1939). Canadian born he came to Cleveland in the pioneer- 
ing days when unions were none too popular because their objectives were 
misunderstood and frequently deliberately misrepresented, but no discour- 
agement swayed him from his determination to do his part to improve 
working and living conditions of those who toil. That he was successful is 
now attested by thousands of members in the building and other trades. 
Walter's cheery smile and optimism will be sadly missed around union 
headquarters." 

All we can say now is that he was a real fellow, one of the best and one of 
the finest; quiet, kind, lovable, attentive to business, and above and beyond all 
a good Union man. In fact he was great in his own way and left us a heritage to 
follow. 

Lives of great men all remind us 

We can make our lives sublime, 
And departing leave behind us 

Footprints on the sands of time. 




38 THE CARPENTER 

Footprints that perhaps another 

Sailing o'er life's solemn main, 
A forlorn and shipwrecked brother 

Seeing may take heart again. 

We wish to take advantage of this opportunity to express to the bereaved 
family of Brother Mapes our sincere and heartfelt sympathy, as v/ell as to Local 
11 and the District Council for the loss they have sustained. 



New York City Local Mourns Veteran Member 

Brother John G. Eisele, one of the oldest members of Local Union No. 488 of 
He'?/ York City, N. Y., died Sunday, April 16. Brother Eisele was born July 8, 
1854, was initiated in old Local Union No. 478 January 15, 1889, and the record 
shows that during his 50 year membership he had never gone in arrears with 
his dues. He was an active member up to the last in old Local Union No. 478 and 
served many years as an Auditor Trustee, and as Warden. When L. U. 478 was 
merged with the other Locals in the Bronx into Local Union No. 488 he was 
elected Warden and held that Office unopposed until 193 7 when, due to his age, 
the doctor forbade him to go out at night. 

Local Union No. 488 mourns the loss of one of its most esteemed members. 

— e. . 

Another Old Timer Passes 

Brother Gabriel Oullette, a member of Local Union 93, Ottawa, Ontario, 
Canada, for thirty j'ears, died February 20, 19 39. He was the oldest member of 
that Local having been born September 10, 1853. Brother Oullette was highly 
respected by all who knew him. He was a great worker in a quiet way laying 
down the principles and benefits of organized labor while following the trade. 
In honor of his memory, Local Union 9 3 adopted the following statement and 
asked that it be published in our journal: 

Another old member has passed away — 
A Brother, staunch and true. 
He fought the good fight from day to day. 
He fought it for me and for you. 

And now he's gone to a well-earned rest, 
Where all good Brothers go. 
May he rest in peac-e; may his soul be blest. 
Is the prayer of us all, I know. 

L. U. No. 93. Robert J. Barnett. 

• 

Lewis Doolittle, Veteran Member of Newark Local, Dies 

Local Union 119 of Newark, New Jersey has had the misfortune of losing 
three of its old time members the first three months of 1939, the latest being 
Brother Lewis E. Doolittle who died March 23 at the age of 72. He had been a 
member of the organization since May 7, 19 2 and for more than twenty years 
was an officer in old Local 1067, formerly in Bellville, New Jersey. He was a 
pension member of the organization. 

e 

E. L. Scriber, Local 2590, Crossett, Ark., Dies 

An automobile accident took the life of Brother E. L. Scriber, age 66, of 
Local 2590, Crossett, Ark. 

Brother Scriber had been a member of the Brotherhood only a short time but 
proved himself a loyal supporter of organized labor when his Local was encounter- 
ing difficulties. 



THE CARPENTER 39 

In Memory of Ira Delbert Lanich 

Brother Ira Delbert Lanich, Local Union No. 200, Columbus, Ohio, died March 
10, at the age of 69 after a membership of 21 years and eight months in the 
organization. 

He was a very active member of his Local and filled various offices. Brother 
Lanich was deeply interested in the purchase of the Home for Local 200, and his 
loyalty to the Local and deep devotion to union principles won him a host of 
friends. 

In tribute to his memory the charter of the local union was ordered draped for 
thirty days. Our sympathy is extended to the local for the loss it has sustained. 

e 

Linton, Ind,, Losses Financial Secretary Wolford by Death 

Death took Brother Ellet Wolford, Financial Secretary of Local Union 48 7, 
Linton, Ind., April 8. He was a faithful and diligent worker for his Local and will 
be missed by the Brothers of Local 48 7. 

Honorary pallbearers were Charles Anderson, Leo McFarland, E. J. Bickwith, 
Frank Bailey, Lee McClum, William Anderson, Claude Sylvester, Luther Sylvester, 
Van Plew and Jack Smith. 



R. P. Harpole, Local 1423, Corpus Christi, Texas, Dies 

Brother R. P. Harpole, treasurer of Local 142.3, Corpus Christi, Texas, for 
twenty years, died March 21 at the age of 70. He joined Local 1423 in 1910 and 
held continuous membership until his death. 

Brother Harpole was held in high respect by members of his Local for his sane 
advice and wise counsel. 



Local 541 Loses Two Members by Death 

Local Union 5 41 of Washington, Penn., reports the death of Brother Davis S. 
Kuestrick who died on March 15, and Brother F. R. Riggle who died February 5. 
Both of these brothers were charter members of the Local Union and the loss will 
be keenly felt by their many friends and the Local. We extend our sympathy to 
the relatives of our departed brothers. 



Brother Harry Goldsmith, Local 232, Ft. Wayne, Ind., Passes 

Ft. Wayne, Ind., Local 23 2 lost a loyal member when Brother Harry Goldsmith 
passed away March 20. 

Local 232 passed a resolution of respect extending condolences to members 
of Brother Goldsmith's family and ordered the charter of the Local draped for 
thirty days. 



RROTHEH GEORGE M. (iK.VY, Local Union 424, Hingham, Mass. Died March 
9, 1939. Born June 20, 1864. Joined the Brotherhood July 9, 1909. 

BROTHER CHESTER FEKKES, Local 424, Hingham, Mass. Died March 
24, 1939. Born April 7, 1867. Joined the Brotherhood September 9, 1908. 

AVILLIAM EXGELBKETSOX, Local Union No. 1859, Minneapolis, IMinn. 

HERMAN HEXKY SCHOK.NERT, Local Union No. 14, San Antonio, Texas. 



Charity is a virtue of the heart, and not of the hands. — Addison. 

i- * * * * 

There is one thing in the world better than making a living, and that is mak- 
ing a life. — Russell. 



This Journal Is Not Responsible For Views Expressed By Correspondents. 



"Hoolihan Cuts the Cake" 

We are greatly indebted to Alfred Albiston, the President of Local Union 998 
of Royal Oak, Micliigan for an interesting account of their double celebration of 
Local 9 98, held March 17 at Carpenters' Hall, 106 S. Main, Royal Oak, Michigan. 
The double celebration marked the fourteenth annual banquet of the Local Union 
and paid honor to Brother T. F. Hoolihan. 

The entertainment Included a floor show, under the direction of the Wads- 
worth School of Dancing. It was a grand show of clever kiddies in a variety of 
dancing and songs. 

"Old Tyme" and "Modern" dancing was enjoyed by no less than 300 members 
and guests. The dance hall and dining room were decorated for St. Patrick's Day 
with streamers and varied colored balloons. 
A special feature of the decoration scheme 
was a large paper balloon containing about 
250 inflated rubber balloons suspended 
from the ceiling of the hall. At an appro- 
priate time a rip-cord was pulled, freeing 
the many smaller balloons which was the 
cue for the kiddies to make a grand rush 
to gather all the balloons they could. 

The tables were beautifully decorated 
and on the speakers' table was a huge cake 
decorated in green on which was inscribed 
"Fourteenth Annual Banquet and Honoring 
Brother T. F. Hoolihan." 

Brother Hoolihan was paid a special 
tribute and presented with a gift suitable 
for the occasion in honor of his fifty years 
of membership in the United Brotherhood. 
Brother Hoolihan who resides in Clawson, 
Michigan, was born July 5, 1858 and first 
joined the Knights of Labor in 18 81. He 
later became a member of the Brotherhood 
in Rochester, N. Y. and on August 24, 1933 
transferred his membership to Local Union 
993. 

Brother Hoolihan and his wife led the 
Grand March to the dining room and Chairman Albiston requested all to remain 
standing with bowed heads for a brief period in memory to departed Brothers. 

Brother Hoolihan was called upon to cut the celebration cake and he awarded 
the first piece to the Chairman. 

Many telegrams congratulating the Local were received, one of which was 
from General President William L. Hutcheson conveying his best wishes for a 
happy evening and continued success. 

Due to illness at the home of Brother W. Phillips, President of the Detroit and 
Wayne County and Vicinity District Council, he was unable to attend. In his 
absence Brother Albiston presented Brother Hoolihan with an engraved member- 
ship card and a paid-up quarterly working card in a gold engraved black leather 




Brother Hoolihan 



THE CARPENTER 41 

case. In acknowledging the gift Brother Hoolihan said the occasion was one of 
the happiest moments of his life. The wife of the honored guest was presented 
with a beautiful bouquet by Mrs. George Penney, President of Ladies Auxiliary 
No. 195. 

Among those who gave brief talks were Brothers Jack Taylor, Business Agent 
of Local 915 of Detroit; B. O'Heile and G. LaLonde of Local 1435, Detroit; Jake 
Keller, Local 1513, Detroit; Richard Will, Local 1199, Pontiac, and C. R. Lumley 
of Local 998, Royal Oak, Michigan. 

Dancing brought the happy event to a close in the small hours to the strains 
of "Home Sweet Home." 

Many words of praise were heard for the Entertainment Committee composed 
of President Alfred W. Albiston, Chairman; Vice-President Ed. Harper, Record- 
ing Secretary W. Porter and Trustees John Nauman, George Penney and A. J. 
Simonson and the many members of the sub-committee. Mrs. George Penney, Avho 
acted as Hostess, and other women of the Auxiliary were also highly praised for 
their part in the successful occasion. 

President Albiston expressed his heartfelt thanks and sincere gratitude to all 
those responsible for the splendid party. 



Local Holds Memorial Service For Deceased Brothers 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

On January 4, 193 9, at Carpenters Hall, Paterson, New Jersey, Local 3 25 held 
memorial services for ten of its departed Brothers who passed away during 
1938. As each name was called by the secretarj^ the members stood in silence 
for one minute. The service made such an impression on the members, it was re- 
quested that we hold such a service each year. 

Following is a list of those who passed on in 1938: James F. IMorrison, January 
3; Cornelius Hoitsma, January 11; George Ludwig, March 24; Joseph Fanning, 
June 10; Burdette Mac Donald, July 20; Eugene Davis, August 14; Abraham 
Bogertman, September 14; Charles Weeks, October 24; Joseph Gilchrist, Novem- 
ber 13; Charles Webb, December 28. 

Local 32 5 looks back with sadness at the passing of these Brothers. 

Just a short time, you have been gone, 
But your memory always will live on. 
With many a tear and many a sigh. 
You'll be in the hearts of 325 



Very truly yours. 



IX APrUECIATION 



Frank Keil, 
George Lydon, 
Albert Stoepker. 



April 7, 19 39. 



Brother Frank Duffy, Gen Sec'j'' 
U. B. of C. and J. of A. 
Carpenters' Building 
Indianapolis, Indiana 
Dear Sir and Brother: 

I am an apprentice carpenter of Local 81 with three years' experience. I think 
a lot of our Carpenters Journal, and find loads of interesting facts and information 
in it that hu.s helped me considerably. 

Yours very truly, 

Brother William Wickles, 

R. F. D. No. 4, 
Local 81. Erie, Pennsylvania 



42 THE CARPENTER 

A Brother Wonders About His Friends o£ Yesteryear 

Mr. Frank Duffy, General Secretary, 
U. B. of C. and J. of A. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Dear Brother Duffy: 

While looking through the March issue of "The Carpenter" I came across the 
picture of the four senior members of Columbus, Ohio, which took my memory 
back to the time when I became a member of U. B. of C. and J. of A., which was 
just 22 years ago this month, (April) when I joined Local 765, at Mascoutah, Illi- 
nois. Although I have not worked at the trade since 1926, I still retain my card 
by paying my regular dues to Local 765, which makes me a continuous member 
since I joined in April, 1917. 

In 19 28 I was fortunate in securing a position with the U. S. Post OfEice De- 
partment, which I still retain, but never did I feel that I could let down my 
Brother carpenter friends I made up to 19 26, while I worked at the trade in 
various part of the country. And by the way, I would be very glad to hear from 
them the country over, if they should happen to read this and still remember me, 
especially the St. Louis boys I worked with at Scott Field, 111., Camp Funston, 
Kans., Ft. Sill, Okla. and others that I worked with at the Rock Island Arsenal, 
during the war in 1917. In 1918-19 I was overseas. I often wonder what became 
of my Avood working friends. 

By retaining my membership with the Brotherhood I believe that I am help- 
ing a great cause. Although I am only one, I feel that I am doing my bit, if it is 
just helping the membership of my home town Local 765, in which I once held 
ofi&ce of president and then recording secretary for a number of years. 

I have been informed that Local 76 5 will receive an increase this spring, which 
I enjoyed to hear very much as Local 76 5 has been among the few in the lower 
brackets. Being a small Local in a small town, it has had a struggle the last few 
years, but the past year has showed some noted improvement and I hope it will 
continue for the benefit of humanity. 

Fraternally yours, 

Oliver H. Waigand, 
3318 Wyoming Street St. Louis, Mo. 

« 

Correction on Float in Flint, Mich., Motor Festival 

In the April issue of The Carpenter, page 8, appeared a picture of a float in 
the Flint, Mich., Motor Festival. 

We are making a correction in the explanatory printed matter which appeared 
with the photo. 

The auto was trimmed and donated by Besson's, but the decorations were 
paid for by the Flint Federation of Labor, the Flint and Gennessee County Build- 
ing Trades Council and Ladies Auxiliary No. 109 and Carpenters Local 1373, ac- 
cording to Mrs. Julia Besson, secretary of Auxiliary 10 9. 

We are pleased to make this correction. 



Musicians Want Social Security Law Changed 

One hundred and forty thousand members of the American Federation of 
Musicians, affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, are unfairly treated 
by the Social Security Act because they are employed casually in various states, 
Samuel T. Answell, general counsel of the Musician's Federation, told the House 
Ways and Means Committee, which is considering proposed amendments to the 
statute. 

He claimed that wage credits are given each State for persons employed with- 
in its borders. This restriction, he said, results in musicians having credits scat- 
tered in many states. 




Auxiliary No. 23 of St. Louis, Mo. 

Ladies Auxiliary No. 23, of St. Louis, Mo., celebrated its twenty-third 
birthday with a luncheon, and a card and bunco party. There were about 125 
members and guests who attended. 

A large birthday cake was sent by the Board of Business Agents and the 
Secretary of the Carpenters District Council. Mrs. M. E. Ryder and Mrs. R. E. 
McClanahan, President and Secretary of J. C. of W. A. sent a beautiful basket of 
flowers with their best wishes. The table piece was a lovely gift from Mueller 
Todt Floral Company. The Childs Conservation Conference Choral Club sang. 

Officers and charter members were introduced by Mrs. A. J. Fowler, president 
of the Auxiliary. The charter officers were Mrs. King, Mrs. Mederick and Mrs. 
McQuitty. Mrs. L. J. Fritz, a former president of the Auxiliary, presented Mrs. 
King with a gift from the Auxiliary. In turn Mrs. King presented Mrs. Fowler 
with the gift. 

Among those present were Mrs. Fred Rickly and Mrs. Schoeuborn of the 
Painters' Auxiliary. 

Officers of the Auxiliary are: President, Mrs. A. J. Fowler; Vice-President, Mrs. 
H. Georges; Recording Secretary, Miss M. Ruble; Financial Secretary and Treas- 
urer, Mrs. V. McQuitty; Conductor, Mrs. F. Hammond; Chaplain, Mrs. J. L. 
Fritz; Pianist, Mrs. D. Raidt; Warden, Mrs. L. Sutter; Trustees. Mrs. C. Stege, 
Mrs. J. Mason, Mrs. L. Reinhardt and Press Correspondent, Mrs. B. Wakefield. 

The success of the party was due to Mrs. Dan Raidt and her hard-working 
committee. 



Auxiliary 304, of Manitowoc, Wis. 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

On December 8, 1937, our Auxiliary, No. 304, of Manitowoc, Wis., was organ- 
ized with a membership of twenty. 

We meet on the second and fourth Tuesdays of each month. The first is an 
evening meeting and the second is an afternoon meeting. At our afternoon meet- 
ings we have a social hour and refreshments following the business meeting. Our 
dues are 10 Cents a month. 

We have raised money by various means with which we purchased considerable 
kitchen equipment, and which helped swell the funds in our treasury. 

We have a sunshine fund with which to purchase flowers or fruit baskets for 
members who are ill. 

During the summer our Auxiliary members, their liusbands and families, and 
also, carpenters of Local 8 49 and their families enjoy several picnics. 

In December we had a Christmas party to which our husbands were invited. 

Recently we celebrated our Auxiliary's first anniversary. It was attended by 
members and their husbands. Cards were the diversion of the evening followed 
by refreshments with a huge birthday cake and an exchange of small gifts. There 
were short addresses by our president, Mrs. Richard Herman and several members 
of Local 849. 

Ours is a group of willing workers who enjoy hearing from other Auxiliaries. 

Fraternally yours, 

Mrs. Edmund Krohn, Recording Secretary. 



The Federal Postoffice Department now requires 
extra postal charges when they notify International 
Headquarters of any change in address of members 
on The Carpenter mailing list. 

These changes are literally coming in by the hun- 
dreds and the expense is a considerable item. This 
expense can be avoided if all members use the form 
below, to notify us of change of address. Just fill out 
the form and drop it in the mail addressed to Editor, 
The Carpenter, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 
Ind. 

This is an important matter and it is requested 
that all members notify International Headquarters 
of change of address IMMEDIATELY. 



(Date) 19- 

Editor, The Carpenter, 322 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Please change niy address on Journal file. 

From Street 

City State 

To Street 

City State 

Name in full 

L. U. No. , City State 



It is suggested that you cut out blank if you have changed your 
addi-ess and paste it on a one cent postcard to save postage. 

IMemhers are not entitled to the Jonmal if they or their liOcal 
are in arrears. Honorary members required to pay one dollar yearly 
subscription rate. 



Craft ProblQms 




Carpentry 

By H. H. SIEGELE 

LESSON 127 

"Sash." This word has puzzled us 
for many years. It is used botli in the 
singular form and in the plural. Some 
authorities, when speaking of more 
than one sash, say "sashes," while 
others use the word "sash." Common 
usage, I have found, favors the use of 
"sash" to cover both forms, singular 
and plural. However, when a distinc- 
tion is to be made between different 
styles or kinds of sash, then the word 
"sashes" should be used. We are mak- 
ing this explanation here, because so 
far as we are concerned, we are going 



Top Rniu 




FiJ 



to use the word "sash" whether we 
mean one sash or more than one. 

Figure 1 is a drawing of the sash for 
a double-hung window, having glass 
measuring 3 inches by L'4 inches. To 



the left is shown an edge view of the 
sash as they are when in place. The 
dotted lines indicate the position of the 
parting strip. The bottom sash, though, 
is shown still unbeveled. The dotted 
lines shown in the upper sash of the 
main drawing, represent muntins and a 




Fis 



cross bar. These are sometimes called, 
astragals. Muntins are also called 
muntings and mullions. A distinction 
should be made between the words 
"muntins" or "muntings" and "mul- 
lions." One of the former should be 
used when bars dividing panes of glass 
are spoken of, and the latter when the 
perpendicular division of two windows 
or sash is meant. This application of 
these terms is gaining ground among 
the field carpenters. 

On the bottom sash shown in the 
main drawing. Fig. 1, we are pointing 
out with indicators, the meeting rail, 



46 



THE CARPENTER 



also called the parting rail; a stile and 
the bottom rail. 

Details of the sash shown in Fig. 1, 
are shown in Fig. 2. At A we are show- 
ing an edge view and a face view of a 
top joint of the upper sash. At B Ave 
are showing the same views of the part- 
ing rail, and at C a joint where the bot- 
tom rail joins a stile. 

Figure 3 shows the upper sash of a 
window in place. The amount of play 
(about 1/16 of an inch) and how the 
parting rail must be ciit out for the 




b'n 



parting strip is pointed out at A, Fig. 
4. At B, Fig. 4, is shown how the part- 
ing rail of the bottom sash must be cut 
out for the parting strip. The amount 
of play is also indicated here. This fit- 
ting should be done before the bottom 
rail is fit. 

There are different ways of fitting the 
"bottom sash to the sill — that is, dif- 
ferent ways to proceed. We like to 
measure the distance between the top 
of the parting rail and the sill both to 
the right and to the left, as we are 
showing in Fig. 3, and transfer those 
distances to the outside of the bottom 



sash, in the manner shown in Fig. 5. 
This done, we take a straight-edge and 
mark the sash for cutting, as indicated 





bj^ the dotted line. The bevel should be 
marked on the edge, as we are showing 



^ 






Glhss 



Fig. 5 

to the left on the edge view. When the 
marking is done, rip the bottom rail to 



THE CARPENTER 



47 



the proper bevel, dress it with a jack 
plane and put it into place. 

Some carpenters fit the bottom sash 
by taking the distance the parting rails 
are apart with a compass, which is in- 
dicated at A, Fig. 6, and scribing the 





parting rails are perfectly parallel to 
each other. In case one edge of the 
sash is higher than the other, the low 
edge of the bottom sash should be 
wedged up until the parting rails are 
parallel before the scribing is done. 

Another Avay to use the compass, is 
to set the bottom sash into the frame 
and transfer the difference in the part- 
ing rails, which is pointed out at A, 
Fig. 6, to the bottom at both the right 
and the left, and then with a straight- 
edge mark the bottom rail. When the 
bevel is marked it is ready to be ripped 
off. 

Some sash are designed so that the 
bottom sash will fit the sill when they 
come from the mill. In such cases the 
bottom sash must be fit first, then the 
upper sash is fit and cut off in such a 
manner that the parting rails will meet 
perfectly. In most of these instances, 
all that is necessary is to cut off the 
lugs and dress the top of the upper 
sash. More and more the mills are 
making the sash so that very little fit- 
ting is necessary on the job. 

Seldom, in these days, is a field car- 
penter called upon to make window 
sash. Once in a while an emergency 
arises when he will have to make a 
sash or maybe two for some special 
place. Saw, hammer, plane, plow auger 
j^nd chisel are the tools necessary. But 
the plow is the tool that is disappearing 
from the carpenter's kit. 



bottom of the sash, as pointed out at 
B. The bevel is then marked with a 
bevel square and the bottom is ripped 
off to the line. Care must be taken, 
when this method is used, that the 



The Consulting Architect 

By L. PERTH 

A column under the above caption 
was introduced into the Craft Problems 
several mouths ago by virtue of the 
fact that numerous inquiries of a pure- 
ly architectural and construction nature 
were pouring in from the readers of 
our Journal. 

It seems that the students who are 
pursuing the subject of "Blue Print 
Reading" are also trying their hand in 
Architectural drawing as ai)plied to the 
laying out of simple floor plans and ele- 
vations, and of course this is some- 
what different from reading drawings. 
The student who is doing drawing is 
constantly using his scale and every de- 
tail of construction and equipment that 
goes into the construction of a house 
must be represented ou the drawing in 



48 



THE CARPENTER 



exact proportions and the selected scale 
must be strictly adhered to. 

In order to do a satisfactory job one 
must have a working knowledge of all 
elements which go into the erection of 
a structure. It is hardly possible to 



will endeavor to elucidate all these 
problems to the best of our ability and 
Avould suggest that students utilize 
every opportunity to apply this infor- 
mation to their daily work and also to 
test their knowledge whenever they are 



expect that one can assimilate all that afforded the opportunity to examine a 



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'^\\ 



ARCH/TFCTURAL 5YMdOL5 



is necessary to know in a few lessons. 
It should be done gradually and then 
and only then can one expect satisfac- 
tory results. 

The majority of queries which have 
been coming lately to our desk are per- 
taining to plumbing fixtures, kitchen 
equipment and laundry appliances. We 



set of drawings. 

The Inquiries will be taken up in 
order as they were received. 

1. Q. I am trying to make a floor plan 
of a house which I am going to 
build for myself and I am en- 
countering difficulties in spacing 
out the bath tub, the toilet and. 



THE C A R I» E N T E K 



49 



the wash bowl. My hathroom is 
going to be 9 '3" by 8'9" and 
from the various charts that 
you have published in The Car- 
penter I have transferred on my 
drawings exactly to size all the 
appliances which go into the 
bathroom and I find that these 
seem to be too small in com- 
parison with the size of the 
bathroom. On my drawings I 
am using the Scale % " equals 
12". 

A. I would like to call your atten- 
tion to the fact that your scale 
is too large. It has become a 
custom among architects long 
ago to prepare general drawings 
to a scale Vt " equals I'O. By 
general drawings is meant floor 
plans, elevations and general 
sections. 

Since these general plans are 
made to % " scale it is obvious 
that everything connected with 
these plans should also be 
shown to the same scale. 
As to the symbols representing 
the various appliances, this 
should b3 distinctly understood 
as to their meaning, location 
and specific scale. 
It is not sufficient to know how 
an object is shown on the draw- 
ings, it is very essential to know 
its various dimensions, allow- 
able clearances with reference 
to other objects in the same 
room and also to the space it 
occupies in the room. 

The charts containing such symbols 
which were published in The Carpenter 
in connection with the series of lessons 
on Blue Print Reading cannot be used 
for this purpose for the simple reason 
that they are not shown to the proper 
scale after they were reduced from the 
original drawing to fit the format of 
the publication. 

Consequently to transfer such a sym- 
bol in its entirety to a drawing made 
to scale will be not in keeping with the 
rules of proportion. It should be borne 
in mind that there are two very im- 
portant characteristics to a symbol: It 
should resemble the object it represents 
iiud it should be drawn to scale. 

The accompanying chart entitled 
"Architectural Symbols" represents the 



principal bathroom, kitchen and laun- 
dry fixtures, as they are shown on the 
architect's drawings and drawn to a Vi " 
scale. In addition to being drawn to 
scale the various dimensions are also 
shown and two or three of the most 
commonly used appliances are shown on 
this diagram. 

Even though this diagram be reduced 
for typographical purposes the dimen- 
sions pertaining to the various symbols 
enable us to draw them to scale. 

Fig. 1 on the chart represents a 
standard Bathtub. The fixture comes in 
various lengths. The three lengths most 
commonly used are shown. All bath- 
tubs are 30" wide and IS" high. 

The square tub is made in one size 
only as shown in Fig. 2. Lavatories are 
classified as wall, pedestal and corner. 
The first and third type are shown and 
the sizes are 15" x 18", 18" x 20" and 
20" X 2 4" for the wall type and 13" x 
14", 17" X 23" for the corner type. 

Water closets come in a variety of 
types and are about of the same dimen- 
sions as to the occupancy of space. Fig. 
5 shows the symbol and principal di- 
mensions. 

Kitchen sinks are of single and dou- 
ble compartments. The double compart- 
ment t> pe is shown in two popular 
sizes. 

Laundry trays are single and double. 
The double type is shown in Fig. 7. 

Washing machines are of different di- 
mensions according to the make. The 
diameter varies by a few inches and 
also the height. Water heaters simi- 
larly vary in diameter and height all 
depending upon the capacity. A 20 gal- 
lon heater measures 18" in diameter 
and is considered a common type for 
the average home. 

Ranges, gas and electric, are manu- 
factured in a multitude of styles and 
sizes. However those which are most 
commonly used are represented in Fig. 
10 and 11. 

Refrigerators are of two types, those 
operated electrically and by gas. The 
sizes, styles and types are just as nu- 
merous as are ranges. They are identi- 
fied by their storage capacity in cubic 
feet. 

Three most commonly used types, 
small, medium and large, are shown in 
Fig. 12. 

This chart we believe will prove to 
be of great usefulness to those who are 



50 



THE CARPENTER 



studying Blue Print Reading and also 
wlio are attempting their first steps in 
Architectural drawing. 

If any of our readers should desire 
fui^ther explanation of this or any other 
subject do not hesitate to send in your 
inquiry and we will be only too pleased 
to supply the desired information. 



The Design and Building 
Of A 12 Foot Wall Case 

By Charles A. King 

While we shall discuss the design 

and the building of a 12 foot wall case, 

the size to suit the counter recently 

described, the dimensions given, the 

CHAHLCG A. K'WC 
£ASr KINGSTON. N. H. 



This case is different from many 
others in that the distances betvfeen the 
shelves may be changed to suit the dis- 
play of merchandise in special sizes 
of containers and of other packaged 
goods; also to make such changes as 
may be desired at different seasons of 
the year. The case is of simple con- 
struction and may be built by any 
craftsman who desires to do such a job 
in his own time, or it may point the 
way to a new line of work for a small 
shop. 

There are certain advantages in 
building a case with adjustable shelves 
for there will be no grooves to be made 
for them as in the case of permanent 




A 4 
£ FRONT END 
FAC1NG5 MADE 
RIGHT 2 LEFT 



ea ADJUSTABLE SHELVES 

DETAILS OF 12FT. WALL CASE 



sketches, the constructive details and 
the description may be adapted to a 
case of any length, depth or height. In 
any case, however, the shelves should 
not be more than 3 feet in length or 
heavy merchandise would make them 
sag. 



shelves and the case may be quite as 
economically and generally more easily 
made than the usual fixed shelf case. 

We will begin with the top and bot- 
tom for these are the largest pieces. 
All pioces are % " tliick unless other- 
wise noted. If only 13/16" stock is 



THE CARPENTER 



51 



available the necessary allowances in 
cutting to exact sizes may easily be 
made. Always verify dimensions as the 
work proceeds. Cut the top and bottom 
12" X 11' 9%". To insure accuracy 
clamp them together with all edges co- 
inciding and mark and cut the end 
notches A and the facing cuts B at the 
same time. Make the ends 11 Vi" x 8' 
% " ; cut 1/4 " X % " groove C and rab- 
bet D to receive the bottom and top. 

Get out the facings of 11/2" stock, 2" 
and 2%" wide as shown ,and 8'%" 



rabbeted, if preferred. Assemble top. 
bottom, ends, end and middle facings 
and fasten with 6-8 d finish nails where 
visible and with common nails in the 
back. 

Get out 35 shelf ratchet cleats, if 
the shelves are to be placed as shown 
in the sketch; if later changes that will 
place shelves of adjoining sections upon 
different levels are expected more cleats 
will be needed. Also provide 70 %" 
rather loosely fitted dowels 2" long, 
more if shelves are to be adjusted later. 




aU&GESTfcD SPACING. OF SHELVES 




ONE TOP 0N£ BOTTOM 

FKONT^ END VIEWS 2 
DETAILS OF TOP X BOTTOM OF 

12 FT. WALL CASE 



long; rabbet as indicated to leave %" 
X 1" for a ratchet; be sure the corner 
2%" facings are rabbeted and worked 
right and left. Cut notches CI and Dl 
making them coincide with those of the 
corner casings and with the rabbets and 
grooves of the ends. Bore the 49%" 
holes as shown making them the same 
distance apart and of uniform depth, 
1". The facings and ratchets may be 
made of -Ti " pieces and accurately glued 
and nailed together instead of being 



Given dimensions of these cleats allow 
1/16" play to simplify fitting. 

Make 28 adjustable shelves; given di- 
mensions permit the shelves to be fitted 
easily. Get out four furrings E 2" x 9" 
and three furrings El 2" x 9" and fas- 
ten under the bottom with nails as in- 
dicated. The baseboard, 2^2" wide 
should be mitered at the corners and 
nailed to the bottom and the furring; 



52 



THE CARPENTER 



place glue blocks between the base and 
the bottom; the top edge should be a 
quarter round made flush with the top 
side of the bottom to simplify cleaning. 
The base is ^/i " narrower than the rise 
of the bottom from the floor which usu- 
ally will allow the bottom edge of the 
base to clear an uneven floor. This will 
be covered by the V2 " x 1" quarter 
round shoe as at F. 

Set the case up, fasten lightly to the 
floor and at the top with nails driven 
slantingly to hold it square and rigidly. 
Place dowels in the holes in the ratchet 
at the desired height; rest the ratchet 
cleats upon them and lay the shelves in 
place. This latter may be done after 
they have been painted or stained as 
may be preferred. In any case inspect 
the work, remove all rough places and 
blemishes and paint or stain as desired. 



ing will take out a sort of V-shaped 
piece, and will leave the hole somewhat 



Compass-Saw and Chisel 

There are a number of ways to pro- 
ceed in cutting square or oblong holes 
in casings, base boards or other build- 
ing material. The auger, compass-saw 
and chisel, though, are the commonly 
used tools. In this article we are show- 
ing how such holes can be cut by using 
all three of these tools. 

Figure 1 shows a part of a base 
board marked for cutting an oblong 
hole, with two holes bored and the saw- 
ing done from A to O at the right, and 




Fig. 2 

as shown by Fig. 2. This done, com- 
plete the sawing at A and B as shown 
(com.pare Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.) When the 
sawing is done, continue the chiseling, 
staying a little away from the line, from 




Fig. 




\ 



Fig. 1 

from B to O at the left. Between A 
and B we are showing shaded the part 
that is to be chiseled out as a first oper- 
ation with the chisel. The dotted lines 
indicate approximately where the chis- 
eling will come out on the other side, 
while the heavy lines from A to X and 
from B to X show the chiseling lines of 
the face side of the board. This chisel- 



A following the* arrow, to O; and like- 
wise from B to O. Now finish the chisel- 
ing by cutting to the line, which, when 
completed will leave the hole as shown 
by *Fig. 3. — H. H. Siegele. 



Framing Details 



This article is intended particularly 
for those of our readers who have been 
studying the lessons on "Plan Reading 
and Estimating" which have been run- 
ning in the journal for the last two 
years. 

In inaugurating the series of articles 
On the above subject it was the inten- 
tion of the writer to afford an educa- 
tional opportunity to those members of 
our Brotherhood who either reside in 
rural communities or those who, while 
living within urban boundaries, have no 



THE CARPENTER 



53 



opportunity to attend regular vocation- 
al classes which usually are sponsored 
by the local school districts. 

It also was the intention to make 
this a sort of a course of instruction 
"by mail" and as such it carries with it 



complish only a fraction of what he is 
entitled to, taking into consideration 
his time, effort and perhaps some sacri- 
fices connected with this sort of pur- 
suit. 

With this thought in his mind this 
writer has emphasized time and again 




-Tinun 

fLOOH 




Jo/6. 



DLTAIL OF PQ3TJ 



^^^"^"^"^ KOOP-6 TO filiOVlbL JMZL 
flIoI . foii CONDU/rj 

Ail TirtBi-Oi f/v 
CLOjf faoriMirr' 
on /N co/^Ticr 

WIT ft tABT/f -^HOULO 
SB cPtoiOTtO. 



FiuJM 

CltLDtH 




ffAiOUBY 

WAil 
A/OTCHtD TO Ot-Cl-h'f- 
CIDDt-D -^ OPtNINO 

'/z //V j.ai>c(-i) -tii - 
Aoou/io THAi^ aiAOf-a. 

DETAIL Of TLl^dACL d POJIC-// flOOJ^ 

FRAMING DETAILS. 

a very essential requisite, namely a. con- 
stant guidance by the instructor. 

It is only logical that in order to 
profit from this sort of study the stu- 
dent should at all times have an access 
directly or indirectly to one who is 
qualified to elucidate facts which may 
not seem very clear. Without such serv- 
ice at his disposal the student nmy ac- 



GIUOLIL 



/Z UJ/i IN Till nt Of A TL C/CtDtJl 
^UNK WTLiLTILOIATX Cl/^dLH- 



that the readers should feel free to 
write and ask as many questions as 
they feel they should in order to de- 
rive the full benefit from their studies. 

It is very gratifying to note the 
inquiries are coming in very rapidly and 
in such quantities that it becomes quite 
difficult at times to answer all letters 
piM-sonally. And then too it seems that 



54 



THE CARPENTER 



the majority of the queries seems to be 
centered on the subject of "Framing" 
or such phases which are closely con- 
nected with it. 

It is only commendable that the 
members of a trade organization who 
are mainly responsible for the strength 
and stability of the structures they 
erect and whose main function is the 
framing of building should want to 
know more about this subject and thus 
improve their knowledge and also in- 
crease their value to the trade and 
industry as well. 

It is therefore our aim to take up 
this subject in its general aspects and 
also in detail so as to satisfy the in- 
quirers as much as it will be humanly 
possible without seriously interfering 
with our other rather numerous re- 
sponsibilities. 

The accompanying drawing illus- 
trates a few typical cases of framing. 
One is — intermediate supports in dwell- 
ings provided with basements. The gird- 
ers carrying the first floor joists are be- 
ing supported on posts. It is very essen- 
tial that a substantial footing should be 
provided for these posts. This footing 
while being cast integrally with the 
floor slab should be made wide enough 
and of suflicient depth as to carry the 
superimposed load of the post. An iron 
dowel, usually 1/2 inch rod or gas pipe 
is inserted in the footing and the bot- 
tom of the post is drilled to receive the 
projecting part of the dowel when these 
members are set in place. 

It also will be noted that the con- 
crete footing is raised about 3 inches 
above the level of the concrete floor 
slab in the basement. This prevents the 
lower part of the post from coming in 
contact with water when floor is 
mopped or water is being drained from 
laundry and other appliances Another 
very essential feature is the splicing of 
girders over the supporting posts. A 
splice plate or a tie strap is being ap- 
plied to both faces of the spliced gird- 
ers. These plates are held in place with 
bolts which are not shown on the draw- 
ing. This explains the inquiry pertain- 
ing to the method of framing base- 
ments. 

The construction of floors to accom- 
modate electrical conduits is shown in 
the next detail. A diligent study of 
this isometric view will convey a clear 
idea of how this is being done. It will 
be noted that dimensions are omitted 



on all details since they are not essen- 
tial and Avill necessarily vary in each 
individual case. The method of doing 
it is what we want to know and when 
Ave know how to proceed with the job 
we can establish the necessary dimen- 
sions. 

All these drawings are isometrically 
projected, which has been done with a 
vieAV to convey a clearer idea to the 
mind of the reader. 

However it is suggested that the 
student Avork out each detail in ortho- 
graphic projection, i. e. the figure 
should be represented in three views: 
plan, front eleA^ation and side elevation. 
He may introduce dimensions if he 
Avishes Avhich naturallj^ Avill enrich his 
knowledge. 

The detail of the "terrace and porch 
floor construction" should be treated in 
a similar manner. It is obArious how 
much one can gain from this method of 
studying the representation of objects. 
The principle of "Orthographic projec- 
tion" has been fully treated in the be- 
ginning of these series and it is hoped 
that the students have acquired a solid 
working knowledge of this very im- 
portant principle by now. — L. Perth. 



Windsor Chairs 

By Charles A. King 

Since King Charles II Avas storm- 
bound in a Avoodsman's hut, according 
to history, and there discovered a chair 
Aviiich was peculiarly adapted to his 
royal anatomy, and Avas Avithal of such 
graceful form that the frivolous mon- 
arch ordered several of them for Wind- 
sor Castle, the chair has been extensive- 
ly used. Without doubt the King com- 
pared the comfort of the chair with that 
of the square and straight backed 
chairs of the late 17th century and who 
can blame him for his preference? 

The modern factory-made chair of 
the Windsor type may be found in 
most homes for no chair fits the hu- 
man form more comfortably or is more 
popular for every day use in living 
room, chamber or hall than this simply 
built and attractively designed chair. 
They are made in several different 
forms but comfort and a pleasing per- 
sonality seem built in all of them. 

The type illustrated is perhaps the 
simplest form of the original Windsor 
so Ave will discuss the method of build- 



TirE CARPENTER 



.55 



ing. Excepting the seat and the bow or 
back frame, every piece may be made 
on a turning lathe. 

We will, however, begin with the 
seat which the old timer made of al- 
most any wood though elm seems to 
have been preferred by many, but ash 
and pine were used. A few Windsor 
chairs dating back to the early or mid- 
dle 18th century were of mahogany but 
they are very rare and not true to type. 
It may be said that the older the chair 
the thicker the seat; the wood of the 




seat of this chair may be of any wood 
from which a piece of clear stock 2" 
X 11 Vz" may be cut. Shape it as shown 
by the 3" squares or crosses. The saddle 
seat and its edges may be made with 
flat gouges and spokeshaves and fin- 
ished with scraper and sandpaper. 
Groove 1 may be cut with a Vs " No. 11 
gouge. Turn the legs of maple, oak or 
ash making the bottom member 7 Va " 
or 8" long to receive the stretcher 
turnings and adding V2" on each end 
for the lathe centers. 

Support the seat 18" high at the 
front and 11 Vi" at the back; mark 
upon it the centers of the leg holes 2 
and on the floor the center of the bot- 



tom of each leg 3 in their correct rela- 
tion to the holes 2 in the seat which 
will give the correct flare of the legs. 
Bore the holes as shown through the 
top; this may need some one to help 
sight the angles. These holes are like 
those made by the old timers for they 
bored the holes through the top 
though in the modern Windsors the 
holes are bored from the bottom of the 
seat and do not come through. Place 
the legs in the holes, mark the centers 
of the stretchers and bore % " holes for 
them being sure they are bored at the 
correct angle by boring them parallel 
with the floor while the legs are in 
place. Measure the length of the 
stretchers, turn them, make a saw cut 
in the top of each leg across the grain 
of the seat, fit them and the stretchers 
in place, set them in glue and drive a 
wedge in the saw cut in the top of each 
leg. 

Get out the back bow % " x % " x 
5'4" long and work to sizes given in the 
sketch. This size will allow ample 
room to work the bow to % " x % " at 
the top and about 13/16" at the bot- 
tom and for fitting into the % " holes 
in the seat at 4. Mold the face of the 
bow as suggested, making a gage and 
cutter for that purpose as shown and 
round the back corners of the bow. 
Make a form 2 \'-y " wide as suggested 
by the dotted lines, shape it and fasten 
firmly to a table or the floor; steam the 
bow thoroughly and clamp it to the 
form and let it dry there at least twen- 
ty-four hours. This bending may be 
done with heat if a plumber's torch or 
a Bunsen burner is available. Cut the 
bow to length and make the %" x 2" 
pins on the ends; fit them into holes 4 
which should be bored at the correct 
angle and the molded face of the bow 
fitted to the seat. Lay aside and bore 
the Y2" holes 5. 

Draw full size sketch of bow and 
spindles and the angles of the 5/16" 
holes 6. Lay the bow upon the sketch 
and with a 5/16" bit bore clean holes 
at the angles thus shown. Replace the 
bow and make the nine spindles of 
either hickory, oak or ash. Often seven 
spindles are used which is common- 
place, hence usually nine or eleven and 
sometimes eight spindles are preferred. 
The spindles may be turned but it will 
be better to get them out of perfectly 
straight-grained wood by splitting and 
plane them round, though often the old 



56 



THE CAKPENTER 



timers whittled tbem with a knife. as at Z. Sandpaper the bow, make a 
Make a fine saAV cut in the top oi! each saw cut in the bottom ends of the bow 




mimmmmmjm 

5ECTI0N BB SV/i';,. 



SECTION CO 
PLAN E SECTIONS 
OF 5EAT 

q BACK SPINDLES'HICKORY 
BOTTOM 1/2"+ -TOP 5/16"+ 
FROM 20" TO 23" LONG 



BEVEL FOR 
BACK FRAME 



HICKORY. WHITE OAK OR A5H. 
BACK FRAME AND FORM 
FOR BENDItN'G. 

FRONT LEGS \ 3/4" X !8 3/^" 
BACK LEGS ! 3/-4" X IS" 
CHUCK CENTERS ADDED. 
STRETCHERS FITTED 

5i/2" FROM FLOOR 



-\\ 



spindle, across the grain of the boAV. 
Bore %" holes 5 about 1" deep and 



across the grain of the seat," assemble 
the back and spindles in glue and drive 




ga:;e for face of back frame or. bow 

square with the seat; fit each spindle wedges in the saw cuts made for them, 
beginning at the middle and bend them Inspect and finish with sandpaper. 



THE CxVRPENTER 



57 



To carry out the Windsor tradition 
the chairs should be painted; brown, 
dark green or black are generally pre- 
ferred but often in restoring such chairs 
black shellac or varnish is used. 



Nail Bench Stop 



We have seen many bench stops, all 
of which give good service, but the 
simplest and most easily installed and 
removed, is the nail bench stop. A side 
view of this stop is shown in Fig. 1, 
where it is holding a piece of board to 




Fig. 1 

be surfaced with a plane. We are show- 
ing a plane in part, in order to bring 
out one of the advantages of the nail 
stop. It will be noticed that the plane 
projects beyond the end of the board, 
and that the head of the nail, which 
holds the board, is about one-half inch 
below the surface of the board. This 
prevents the plane from striking the 
stop, as it often does when the boot- 
jack stop is used. 




Figure 2 shows three ways the nail 
stop can be used, and these three ways 
grouped as shown make a fourth way. 
Number 1 of the group is probably the 
most practical and most simple. Here 
just one nail is used, and represents 
what is shown in Fig. 1. Number 2 
shows at the top drawing how two nails 
are used to hold Ts-iwch stuff on edge. 
In the group at the bottom we are 



showing the same, lightly shaded, to 
indicate how it will work in the group 
arrangement. Number 3 shows two 
nails set wider apart for the purpose of 
holding 2-inch material on edge. The 
light dotted lines joining number 1, 
show how thin strips can be held on 
edge with the group arrangement. The 




Fi£ 



represent a 



dotted lines at number 
%-inch board on edge. 

Long flat-head roofing nails pei'- 
haps give the best results. Sometimes, 
though, large flat-head screws are used. 

A and B of Fig. 3 is a comparison of 
the nail stop and the boot-jack stop. — ■ 
H. H. Siegele. 



Editor, The Carpenter: 

Here is a sketch explaining how to 
find figures to use on a steel square for 
valleys and hips when deviating from 
right angle. 

A line is drawn 12 inches from plate 
and parallel to it cutting the valley in 



H. 


k 


















A 1 




\ 




<-/<3 




\ 










w 






~\ 






/ 


r 




/ 


/ 




^;.o 






30' 





]\I as shown. The part of the valley 
from M to plate will be the number of 
inches used for one foot of run to ob- 
tain the lengths and cuts of valley. 
Using scale, one inch equals one foot. 

J.A.L., Local 5S, Chicago, III. 



58 



THE CARPENTER 



Bed-Mould Mitering 

There is no problem in carpentry 
Avithout a solution. Some solutions are 
harder to reach than others, however, 
and the carpenter does not always have 
it within his province to work out the 
correct solution. For instance, a build- 
ing is out of level and out of plumb, 
and a carpenter is called upon to re- 
model it. The owner will not go to the 
extra expense of leveling and plumbing 
the old structure. In this instance the 
the carpenter must do many things that 
he knows are not altogether mechanic- 



moulding is fit against the plancher 
rather than against the frieze. With 




Fig. 1 

ally correct. He solves the problems the 
best he can under the conditions^ — in 
other words, he forces solutions. The 
correct solution would, of course, be to 
level and plumb the old structure be- 
fore beginning the remodeling. 

The problem we are covering with 
the illustration has a solution that lies 
within the carpenter's power to use. 

Figure 1 shows a corner of a cornice 
in part. The bed mould under the eave 
is in place, fit against the frieze. By 
dotted lines we are showing the lines of 
the bed mould coming down the rake. 
It can readily be seen that the joint at 
the corner will not member. The solu- 
tion is shown in Fig. 2, where the bed 




the moulding in this position under the 
eave, the rake moulding will member 




perfectly, as we are sliowinj 
— H. H. Siegele. 



in Fig. 3. 



I 



THE CAKPEXTER 



59 



Compact Drawing Board 

Editor, The Carpenter: 

A high-school student came to my 
shop and wanted me to make him a 
drawing table tliat could be placed in 
an 18" space when not in use. I am 
enclosing a sketch of same with speci- 
fications. 

Frame 18" x 3 6" x 42" high. Draw- 
ing board is 24" x 34" and is 30" from 
floor. The drawing shows 2 inch ledges 
under drawing board, with 5/16" slot 
in same to allow drawing board to be 




placed vertical when not in use. As 
shown in sketch, there is a piece of 
^2x2" oak above and below the draw- 
ing board to make it rigid when in use. 
Legs are of one inch oak and taper 
from 3" at the bottom to 2" at the top. 
Tray for instruments on top of frame 
is 4" wide including moulding %xli4". 
Same moulding under tray around 
frame post. All material is No. 1 oak, 
except drawing board which is clear 
basswood. 

Brother Henry Goodness, 
Local 229. Glen Falls, N. Y. 



Bouncing Doors 



There are few homes that do not, 
sooner or later, have bouncing doors 
— that is to say, doors that when they 
are swung shut bounce back after the 
plunger of the lock strikes the keeper. 



Three things can cause this — friction 
on the back of the plungef^ friction on 
the keeper and friction on the casing in 
cases where the plunger strikes the cas- 
ing before it strikes the keeper. Most 




of the bouncing, however, is caused by 
friction on the back of the plunger. We 
are indicating this with arrows in Fig. 
1, showing where wax should be ap- 
plied. 

Figure 2 is a sort of diagram of a 
plunger. The arrow marked "Friction," 
points to the place where most of the 
trouble is. The other two arrows point 

FPICTIOfi/ 




C/Jswck 



/{^BPEf? 



respectively, to where the plunger 
strikes the casing and where it strikes 
the keeper. These three points should 
be waxed, but especially the first. If 
this does not remedy the trouble, there 
must be something wrong with the lock. 
— H. H. Siegele. 



60 



THE CARPENTER 



Brother Gives His Way to 
Join Corrugated Metal 

In the February, 19 39, issue of The 
Carpenter, under Craft Problems, on 
page 52, I find a statement on the right 
way, and the wrong way to make joints 
in corrugated metal building covering. 
I believe that the author Mr. H. H. 
Siegele, is mistaken or misinformed, 
and because I make such a statement, 
it becomes necessary for me to give a 



to secure the maximum weather resist- 
ing qualities, combined with the mini- 
mum loss of covering surface. 

I applied corrugated metal for many 
years, in the manner suggested in the 
journal. About ten years ago, I hap- 
pened to notice the difference, as I was 
covering a roof. All sheets that are out- 
side sheets, must have both edges out- 
side of an underneath sheet, except, the 
first sheet at the gable end of a build- 
ing, and the edges of an outside sheet 



Sheet # 1 



Siieet # 



Sheet # 3 



Sheet # 4 



water has to pass 
top point of two 



ridges-' 



all of lap is^ T lap l-J- corrugations and 
water excluding Fi'^.l get value of two corrugations 

Sheet # 1 is Sheet # 2 is 

atop of outside sheet an underneath sheet 



for excluding water 




one-half 



corrugation lost 

only half of lap is 
water excluding 



one-half corrugation 
lost for excluding water" 



Fig.2. 



lap 2 corrugations and get 
value of li corrugations for 
excluding water .|- corrugatioi 
lost at each .1oint 



very good reason. The method for ap- 
plying the corrugated metal, as suggest- 
ed by Mr. Siegele, is the method em- 
ployed by almost 100 per cent of all 
carpenters I know. 

I am going to make a few sketches 
to illustrate what I term the correct 
way to apply corrugated metal, so as 



must turn toward the building. An un- 
derneath sheet, or an inside sheet must 
have both of its edges under outside 
sheets, and the edges of the underneath 
sheet must turn up, or out, toward the 
outside sheet, as in Fig. 1. 

N. E. Selstad, 
Local 213. Houston, Tex. 



Springfield, 111., Brother Contributes two ideas 



Brother Henry W. Schuster of 
Springfield, 111., sends in two ideas, one 



^, nail to studding 



wood screws 




ADJUSTABLE GROUND GAUGE — 

Place on face of studding of desired 
thickness of plaster required on side. 
Plumb this side which also takes care 
of other side. Fasten to studding by 



Place a 1x3-4 inches long on 
hack of 1 X 3 to hold out from 
2 X 4 or 2 X 6 studding to put 
ground on face 



nail to studding 



an adjustable ground gauge and the 
other a method to hold a chalk line. 



driving two nails through 1x3 as shown 
in cut and proceed placing your 
grounds. Width may be adjusted by 
moving one side in closer or spread 
them apart. 



TIIK CARPEXTER 



61 



METHOD TO HOLD CHALK LINE thing with a square edge instead of 
Let's assume we are using this method driving nails or having someone to hold 



I 5v. 



^J-^~— — 



I 

U— 2 lnoh93— »| 

one end. This is a very handy device 
on a roof, or it can be hoolved on any- for siding a house. 



Suggestion from Detroit 

A brother from Detroit, Mich., sends 
us a suggestion for a combination saw- 
horse, which he thinks is the best he 
has ever seen. We quote his letter: 



give all the explanations needed in con- 
structing the horse. 

Figure E is a suggestion we are mak- 
ing for the upper left-hand corner of 
the cross section, marked e; and Fig. 
D suggests a half-round binding around 




Dear Mr. Siegele: 

Here is a pencil sketch of a saw- 
horse-bench that I think is the best and 
easiest I have ever seen in my many 
years of experience in many countries. 
I have used this kind of saw-horse for 
the last twelve years; mostly for finish- 
ing." 

We have worked over the brother's 
pencil sketch of his saw-horse-bench to 
scale and are showing it herewith. Fig- 
ure .V shows a cross section, Fig. B a 
longitudinal section and Fig. C a plan. 
The figures given with these drawin|;s 



the edge of the middle shelf, which we 
think will prevent tools from slipping 
off while the horse is in use or is being 
moved. 

Suggestions of this sort are welcome 
and we will be glad to work them out. 
— H. H. Siegele. 



Floor Vise 

The following is a floor vise or clamp 
designed for the convenience of the 
carpenter in the sizing and fitting of 
doors. It can be operated with the foot 



62 



THE C A R P E X T E R 



just about as easy as with the hands, 
and is designed for that purpose. 

Figure 1 shows the floor plate all in 
one piece. The approximate size will be 
%" thick X 51/2" wide x 13" long at 
the long points. 6 shows notch cut into 








: ®^^ i 






1 .®^ ! 


1 


.,- 


:.% 


0^ O' 






O' 



O' 




one side, which permits door to pro- 
ject and which forms a stop for same. 
This notch will be 21/2" x 1 14 " deep. 
1 shows holes for bolts to fasten jaw 
7 onto floor plate. This jaw is station- 




«!<- 1X\\^W\N? 



ary. 2 is a hole for screw to anchor 
the vice onto a saw-horse if needed for 
small work. ...or a work bench. 

3 indicates screw holes to fasten onto 
a large piece of wood to prevent door 
from tipping over, if the need arises for 
same. 4 shows bolts that fasten the 
sliding bar 5 onto the floor plate as 
shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. 

Figure 2 the end view, illustrates 
fouvenience of this vice and its opera- 



tion. The handle, Avith its five prongs 
can be easily operated with the foot and 
made easier by the ball bearing feature 
12. These balls can be made to func- 
tion inside of the Avasher 13 instead of 
being inside of the projecting part of 
jaw 8. 



FLOOR. S^ISE 




At the right end of the screw 11 with 
9-A. This shows the convenience of 
operating the vise from either side of 
the door. This feature would of course 
be optional with the manufacturer. 10 
is a small pin which holds handle safe- 
ly on the end of screw 11. The vise 
jaw 7 has screws that operates in har- 
mony with screw bar 11. 




CJSCTI OM OF THE 

RESTS OH TOP or 

-VICE JAi^S. 



^no VIEW OF SAW Rack which 

IS h£LD SECURELY If* i^lSE 
FOR TH£ C^fiPESTEP To FILE 
MIS J^W IK. 



FILING RACK 



This device is designed to be used in 
the vise Avhile the carpenter files his 
saws. The springs serves to hold the 
jaws together and at the same time to 
release the saw as soon as the vise is 
opened. — T. F. Reid, Boise, Idaho. 



— PRICE LIST — 




Label and Emblem Nov 


elties 

$ .10 


Card Cases (Label) 


Playing Cards (Label) 


.25 


(No Pinochle) 




Key Chains (Label) 


.15 


Fobs (Label and Emblem) . 


.50 


Gavels (Labels) 


1.25 


Small Pencils (Label) 


.03 


l*ins (Emblem) 


1.00 


Buttons (Emblem) 


1.00 


liollert Gold Charms (Em- 




blem) 


1.50 


Solid Gold Charms (Em- 


blem) 


7.50 


Rings (Emblem) 


5.00 


B. A. Badges (Emblem)... 


3.00 


Cuff Links (Emblem) 


1.50 


:\Iatch Cox Holders (Label) 


.15 


Belt Loop and Chain (Label) 


.75 


I'ins, Ladies Auxiliary (Em- 




blem) 


1.25 
1.25 

nd AH 


Auto Radiator Emblems. . . 


In Ordering These Goods Se 


Orders and Make AH Remit= | 


tances Payable to 




FRANK DUFFY, Gen 


Sec, 


Carpenters' BIdg., 222 E. Michi 


gan St. 


Indianapolis, Ind. 





FREE to CARPENTERS 
and BUILDERS 

Handy IS -page IXSTUrcTinN BOOK 
on the rsK and Al '.M ST.\I lO.XT of tlii' 
Slerliiit; ('unvcrLihlc Ja'vuI, iMudel Xo. 40 
v|-| I A I'll"- to adjust the Level 
ItLLd 1''"^ '" read the vernier 

Uijw ti) use tlie Level 
This book simplifies your building 
prolilenis. Helps you nialjo better 
use of any make L(vel 
Prepare NOW lor luoro business 
]!>:!9 

rin tills eoupun to your Ictterhe 
and mail today 



Warren- Kninhf Co. 
136 N. 12th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Send me Free Instriietlon liook, 
K--15. togdlRr Willi iiiw deserip.i 
elrciilar ..a the SurllnR Cmnirtih 
Level, Model No. -lo. and eomplete ii 
lormatlun about the lU-day free trial otTer 

Name 

Address 





HOW TO RE.\D BLUE PRINTS" 

Get tills Free Trial Lesson. Trovo 
hinv easy to learn Plan iuading. 
ICstimatlng, etc. in spare time at 
home liy new C. T. ('. Method. 
Complete set 15Uio Prints FUF-IC 
if you state age and oecupaiion. 

Chicago Tech School For Builders 

E-ICO Tccli Cuilding 
118 East 2r.th St.. Chicago. 111. 




..•^\Y Its Easy 

,M\\ Contractor 

irl'Si '' ' ',.?^\ \J Learn how to estimate, liow 
\ — ■SS^T^'^^^IS. l/^ *° plan buildings su as to 
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,'f ynu send now wo will include without extra cn=t a big 
120 page honk "Blue Print Heading." IN ADDITIO.V 
TO THF FIVE RIG BOOKS. 

Coupon Brings Books FREE for examination 

American Technical Society, Dept. G 536, 
Drcxtl at 58fh St., Chicago, Ml. 

You may ship the five l)ig books on Architecture, Carpen- 
try and Building, include book on blue print reading. 
I will pay the few cents delivery charges only and If I am 
fully satisfied after 10 days I will send you $2. after that 
only $3.00 a month until the total reduced price of only 
$19.80 (former price $24.80) is paid. I am not obligated 
in any way unless I keep the books. 

Name ■. 

Address 

Attach letter stating age, employer's name and address 
nnd thnt of at least nne busirip'is man as a rfference. 




Capacity 2-3"— a-;' Blade 

Powerful Handsaws That 
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I''or ovcry jnh Hhm-o is a >[.\I.I. liainlsaw tluit 
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Cutting capacities :' 2J", 2i", 3i", 3 lo/lU", 
and 4S". 

MALL Tool" c o wTp a n y 

77,">1 South Chioajio Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Phase scud additional information on the 
Model Hi and other MALL ilictric handsaws. 

XAME 

.STREET 

CITY STATE 

Also, write for complete data about DOOR MORTISERS, 
DOOR PLANES and DRILLS. 



New Invention Sets Saws 

(Hand, Circular and Crosscut) with No Guess and 

Less Work IN Vs THE TIME! 

Why waste hours on saw-setting, 
when the revolutionair new TMP- 
HAJDIKR SAW-SET does it 
better, more accurately and 
in 1/3 the time. No 
danger of getting saw 
blade out of align- 
ment, breaking teeth, 
■view operation at all 
action leaves both hands 
free for guiding.' Quality made — hardened steel 
jl working parts, rustproofed for lifetime use. 
II Puts peak efficiency into all your saws. At 
/v hardware stores, or sent post-free direct for 
/ /_ only $1.75. Money refunded if it doesn't 
^; — ' do what we claim for it. 

TRUSE TOOL CO., 10906 Madison Ave., Cleveland, 0. 




Full 
times. Foot pedal 



The American mefhotf of floor sanding is 
Dleasant inside work and there are always 
pienty of resurfacing jobs to be had in old 
homes when new building of homes is slack. 
Here's a chance to be your own boss 
and get into something for 
yourself. Send in the post 
card to-day asking for 
complete, free details 
and prices on this 
money-making Ameri- 
can equipment. 



the American Floor Siirfdcihg^i^^ 

:522^5«>uth St, Clair itreetsV Toiedb, Ohio 




EVIAYES CARPENTERS' ALUMINUM LEVEL — rully Guaranteed 





Si.'C Glass— 2i" X 1". IS"— SI. 90. 24"— .$2.00, 26"— $2.70, 28"— $2.70, SO"— $.3.22. Mfrs. of Vv'ood & Alum. Levels, 
Hawla. Darbies. Floats, Paddles, Cement' Tools, etc. All Hardware Jobbers stock MAYES'. Buy through your local 
Hardware Dealer. Circular on request 

MAYES BROTHERS TOOL MFG. COMPANY, Port Austin, Michigan. Established i896 



CARPENTERS 

Demand the Best The Genuine 

F. P. 1^. SAWS AnO BLADES 

The Saw of Superior Quality with a National Reputation. Manu- 
factured by a member of U. 1!. of C. & J. of A. No. 1. 
If your dealer does not handle, write direct to me. 

F. P. MAXSON, Sole 

3722 N. Ashland Ave. 



Manufacturer 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



AUDELS Carpenters 
and Builders Guides 



4v©Is**6 




Inside Trade Bnfornnatlon 0ns 



Inside Trado Information 

for Carpenters, Builders, Juin- 
Er3, Buildiiis iMechanica and 
all Woodworkera. ThesG 
GuidoB KJve you the short-cut 
instructtoDB that you want — 
inrludins; new methoda, idene. 



_: tlieee Guides 
.EB a Helpins Hand to Eneicr 
Work. UettiT Work and Bet- 
ter Pay. To get thi3 aeeist- 
&UCO for yoiireelf. eimply fill 
in and mail the FB.K^ COU- 
PON below. 



How to U3e the steel square — How to file and set 
eaws — How to build furniture — How to use a 
mitre box — How to use the chalk line — How to use 
rulea and scales — How to make joints — Carpenters 
arithmetic — Solving mensuration problems — Es- 
timatins strength of timbers — How to eer, girders 
and sills — How to frame houses and roofs — How to 
estimate eosts — How to build houses, barns, ga- 
rages, bungalows, etc. — How to read and draw 
plans — Drawing up spccihcations — How to ex- 
cavate — How to use settings 12, 13 and 17 on the 
Btcel square — How to build hoists and scaffolds — ■ 
skylights — How to build stairs — How to put on 
inferior trim — How to hang doors— How to lath- 
lay floors — How to paint. 



TKEO. AUDEL & CO., 49 W. 23rd St., New York City 




Iwi 

No obli£ation unless 



AddrcBB. . 
Occupati< 



Re,e„„cc C.A, R 



WEATHEHSTRIP JOBS PilY EXTRA PROFITS! 

I\'ew buiidins and remodeling jobs create a big demand 
right now ... a source of profit 
you can e.Tsilj- cash in upon with 
ALLMETAL WEATHERSTRIP. 

Easy to install. Profitable. Al- 
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tory. Get your share of the 
weatherstrip business NOW 
. . . while the building sea- 
son is in full swing. Write 
for price lists and free dis- 
play cliarts now. 





Pays BIG MONEY in Spare 

Time — No Experience N e^<'®<' 

A FOLEY Automatic Saw Filer files . 
hand, circular and band saws bet- ' 
ter than the best hand filer. Cash! 
business, no canvassing, no eye-si 
strain. Thor. Nedribe, Iowa, says :^ 
"I have filed 550 saws, made 
$350.00. As I'm a carpenter, I 
just file saws in spare time. 
I have not advertised in the 
papers as I've been getting more i 
than I can take care of." Send I 
coupon for FREE PLAN, no obli- 
gation. 

FOLEY MFG. CO. Minneapolis. Minn. 

Send Free Plan on Saw Filing business. 

Name 

Address 





DEPEND ON THIS 
WOOD-IN-CANS 

for quick repairs ! 

More and more carpenters are turning to 
PLASTIC WOOD to insure permanent re- 
pairs at a small cost. It is so easy to repair 
damaged wood, correct errors, seal cracks, 
fill screw holes, cover counter-sunk screws 
with this wood-in-cans. It is real wood in 
putty form, that, when hard, can be worked 
with any woodworking tools— can be sawed, 
planed, sanded— holdSiiails and screws— takes 
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STANLEY 

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TelJ you what I like the best — 

'Long about knee-deep in June, 

'Bout the time the strawberries 
melts 

On the vine, — some afternoon 

Like to jes' git out and rest. 

And not work at nothin' else! 

Plague! ef they ain't some pin' in 

Work 'at kind o' goes ag'in 

My convictions! — 'long about 

Here in June especially! 

Under some old apple tree, 

Jes' a-restin' through and 
through, 

I could git along without 

Nothin' else at all to do — 

— RILKV 




7939 




The European crisis 
apparently offers a 
far more interesting 
diversion than our 
own vital problems 
of millions of unem- 
ployed and idle in- 
dustry, which seem 
to have been official- 
ly shelved. 




u 





iiiiofi feet of Sheetrock 
p Protect 'Treasure Island 
Against Fire 






Danger of fire always lurks where 
crowds congregate. And so, to 
guard against the wandering spark 
that might cause appalling loss of 
life and property — to help confine 
any conflagration to its place of 
origin— a million feet of Sheetrock* 
were used in the construction of 
"Treasure Island." As a result, mil- 
lions of lives will be protected from 
fire — lives that without this fore- 
thoughtmightface possible tragedy. 

For Sheetrock is The Fireproof 
Wallboard. Its gypsum core will 
not burn or support combustion. 
Billions of feet have been used to re- 
model, and add fire safety to homes, 
stores and offices all over America. 

Sheetrock, The Fire- 
proof Wallboard, is a 
product of the United 
States Gypsum Co., 300 W. 
Adams St., Chicago, 111. 




C-6 



SHEETROCK 



^^^ FIREPROOF Wallboard 



*Registered trade-mark 



Entered July 22, 1915, at INDIANAPOLIS, IND., as second class mail matter, under Act of Congress, Aug. 24, 1912 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, act of 
October 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1918 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Sawmill and Timber "Workers, Furniture Workers, Stair 

Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, Millwrights, Shipwrights and 

Boat Builders. Piledrivers and Kindred Industries. Owned and Published by 

the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, at 
Carpenters' Bnilding, 222 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 
Advertising Department, Rm. 250, Bible House, New York, N. Y. c^^>5l 



Established in 1881 
Vol. LIX.— No. 6 



INDIANAPOLIS, JUNE, 1939 



One Dollar Per Year 
Ten Cents a Copy 



N OTICE 



The publishers of "The Carpenter" reserve the right to reject all advertising matter 
which may be, in their judgment, unfair or objectionable to the membership of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

All contracts for advertising space in "The Carpenter," including those stipulated aa 
non-cancellable, are only accepted subject to the above reserved rights of the publishers. 




Washington Opinion Sees Peace 

DESPITE ominous headlines and the widespread 
fears of a European war that might involve the 
United States, the concensus of opinion in Wash- 
ington in the better informed circles is that the rulers of 
Europe are anxious to avoid a general war and will very 
likely succeed in doing so. 

The highly conservative Associated Press carried the 
following cheering comment from New York recently: 

"Amidst disturbing reports from abroad, a genuine 
feeling exists in some Wall Street quarters that there 
will be no general European war this year, or next or 
the year after that." 

The above statement is based on the fact some well 
informed money men believe that Europe is passing 
through political and economic readjustments which 
may be completed without the firing of a shot and that 
readjustments are setting the stage for a new era of 
world trade expansion and industrial progress. 




2 THE CARPENTER 

FORT WAYNE'S SLUM CLEARANCE 

Private enterprise incensed over shoddy buildings that clear no 
slums — Shows it can do better job and hire skilled labor. 
Houses insured by FHA for 20 years will be shambles 
in five, experts say — Widely publicized cost mis- 
represented. 



F 



A ORT WAYNE, IND., is now engaged in the painful process of 
digesting its first taste of slum clearance as promoted by the Fort 
Wayne Housing Authority. 

Given nation-wide publicity, the Fort Wayne Plan for Slum 
Clearance, enthusiastically endorsed by organized labor at the time it 
was proposed, has turned out to be a sort of Frankenstein, 

The various crafts, irate at the cost, methods and labor used in build- 
ing the first fifty houses, are now grimly determined that there will be no 
repetition of these methods if they can prevent it, when and if the Fort 
Wayne Housing Authority attempts to erect such duplicates in wholesale 
batches. There was talk of repeating the original order of fifty a few 
weeks ago but labor by that time had made up its mind that it would 
have something to say, likewise real estate men and other property- 
owning citizens who have the future of the city in mind. The fifty houses 
now standing were to be the forerunners of 500 called for, but if any more 
"slum clearance" houses are put up, there will be some radical changes 
in the plan, citizens declare. 

As a starter toward going into the several indicments made against the 
slum clearance plan, its original intent has been discarded. 

The plan clears no slums. 

No attempt has been made to wreck slum houses and replace them 
with the structures under discussion. Fort Wayne is inad about that. Or- 
ganized labor and business men have no objection to slum clearance houses 
provided they clear slums. 

Fort Wayne doesn't feel that it is a city infested with slum houses. 
It admits that there are a few districts which could use some decent type 
of new houses, but here another fault crops up with the Housing Author- 
ity's plan. The type of housing is such that it will not last near the twenty 
years for which they are covered by a twenty-year mortgage at 4i per 
cent guaranteed local money lenders by the FHA. 

Building material dealers and contractors declare the houses will be 
in a decrepit state in five years. Aside from the fact that the taxpayers of 
the nation will be paying for houses for several years which have long 
since fallen down or become uninhabitable, is the contention of builders 
that they can build better houses for less money. 

And this brings us to second indictment against the Fort Wayne 
Slum Clearance Plan. — The cost. 

Private enterprise contends that if the Fort Wayne Building Author- 
ity and the FHA will grant the same concessions, private eriterprise, will 
construct conventional type houses, larger, better and with more future 
use for the same money and even less than the fifty houses have cost. 

This is no idle boast of private enterprise. It is a proved fact. A con- 
tractor erected a conventional house, far better than any of fifty now 
standing and he paid PREVAILING WAGES which is an item discard- 



THE CARPENTER 3 

ed by the Fort Wayne Authority and he CONFORMED to the local 
building- codes, which the authority is not doing, and sold the house for 
$1,528. This house will, escaping disaster and the receiving the normal 
amount of upkeep, be standing- long after the Fort Wayne Authority's 
fifty have slumped groundward. 

The cost of these slum houses is a sore spot between private enter- 
prise and the Fort Wayne Authority. The latter says the cost is $900. 
Private enterprise declares the cost is nearer $1500 and up. Here there is 
debate revolving- around what the houses may cost eventually because of 
the unique agreement between the Housing Authority and the owners of 
land parcels on which the houses are built. 

Labor cost is one item of expense seldom included in figures when a 
government agency gives a breakdown of a project's figures, private enter- 
prise says, hence its contention that the Authority's $900 figure is grossly 
misleading. 

Mr. William B. F. Hall is president of the Fort Wayne Housing 
Authority. He is reported to be the author of a statement that "your 
carpenter and brickmason is 200 years behind the times." We mention this 
for Avhatever it is worth to show Mr. Hall's attitude toward skilled labor. 
This statement was taken from an address Mr. Hall had made and filed 
for future reference in Fort Wayne. No doubt Mr. Hall can explain it, 
if it needs any explanation. 

Mr. Hall is very sorry that the housing- authority is unable to pay the 
])revailing wage in Fort Wayne. He also says that the entire scheme is 
temporary and adds : "I hope we can get out of it in a few years." 

A point not quite clear is what the housing- authority will do with the 
houses in a few years. They are only temporary but are covered by a 20- 
year mortgage at 4|V per cent guaranteed the lenders by the FHA. 

Whatever happens to the houses, the mortgage is going to stand. The 
worst the lenders can get is a government debenture at 3 per cent, not 
at all a bad price for a government issue when it is considered that govern- 
ment securities are selling on the New York Stock Exchange at rates 
yielding less than i per cent. 

Another statement of Mr. Hall's is interesting-, if somewhat contradic- 
tory. 

"We had to get land," said Mr. Hall, "and there are many vacant lots 
and parcels of land which we decided we could use while it was lying 
unproductive. The aim was to house the same families in the same loca- 
tion at the same rent. The first thing to do was to demolish the sub- 
standard houses on the lots, build new ones and give the dispossesed 
tenants first preference for the new ones," 

In one sentence Mr. Hall talks about vacant lots and in the other of 
tearing down sub-standard houses. 

Again there crops up the general contention of Fort Wayne, that slum 
clearance is fine, when there's slum clearance. 

No doubt this seems to be very involved, so lets review the original 
intention of the Fort Wayne Shun Clearance Plan. 

Early in 1938 the United States Housing Authority earmarked $i,- 
500,000 for a slum clearance project in Fort Wayne. Under its regulations 
the city was to raise ten per cent of this amount to complete the improve- 
ment. The Fort Wayne Housing Authority then hit upon a plan by which 
it said it would be able to makethe fund available without attempting the 
sale of bonds or the appropriation of city funds. 

For construction of tlie house evolved at Purdue University it was 
estimated the materials would cost $900 and this estimate was sound. 



THE CARPENTER 



Despite the protests of organized labor, the Authority secured, through 
some channel WPA labor for construction and supervision, so that neither 
of these items is included in the publicized cost. Funds for the project 
were supplied by Fort Wayne lending institutions on a blanket mortgage 






-•^^ 



BED ROOM 
IZ'0'k7T 



I 



Vo 



u 



PORCH 
8'0'i^O^ 
ROB. 




\, 



LIVIN&ROOM 



SINK AND KITCHEN 
'^O^H^MtK 20'0'kIZ'O" 

H,W.TANK 



CL 




BEDROOM 
lZ'OVl'&' 




PORCH 
lO'O'kfO'O" 



One of the fifty flat-roofed houses erected by the Fort Wayne Housing Authority. 
The house does not meet building code requirements and was put up by WPA 
labor. 



of 4^ per cent interest rate, amortizing in 20 years and guaranteed by the 
FHA, It was proposed that owners of slum dwellings should deed their 
properties over to the Authority in return for one dollar and exemption 
from taxation while the house remained on the site. 



THE CARPENTER 




Above is the house private enterprise says it can build for $1,528, pay prevailing 
wiiges and recognize all building codes sidesteijped in fifty houses erected by the 
Foii) Wayne Housing Authority. 



6 THE CARPENTER 

The owner was to be given a contract under which he could reclaim 
his lot and the house would be moved to some other location. After five 
years the lot owner could reclaim without cost; before that he would be 
required to pay the cost of the removal in gradually reducing amount, 
the highest cost being $150 for the removal of the house during the first 
year. 

Thus far none of the so-called slum houses have been razed, most if 
not all of them have been rented to new tenants and are still occupied 
and all of the first batch of Authority houses have been constructed on 
vacant property. 

"The line formed on the right," said Mr. Hall, "when we announced 
our plan." 

It's easy to understand why it would. 

These houses, designed to replace sub-standard houses can only be 
placed in the same class. 

They are constructed on flat, concrete slabs, four inches thick, rein- 
forced with four-inch mesh and placed on eight inches of gravel. 

Side walls and interior partitions are of uniform size and construc- 
tion. They are 4x8 foot frames of 2x4 lumber with %-inch plywood nailed 
and glued on the outside and -l-inch plywood nailed and glued on the 
inside. Space between the faces is filled with rockwool bats. Panel con- 
necting rods are bolted through plates at the corners. Horizontally 
through the upper aad lower parts of the panels are placed paper tubes to 
receive steel tie rods which hold the sections together, without fouling 
the insulation as the rods are inserted after the panels have been placed 
upright. The only fastening of the frame to the concrete slab is by means 
of vertical rods from the roof corners to the slab. The bottoms of the 
panels are laid on the concrete slabs with only a piece of building paper 
between. Panels are splined on the sides. Windows are regular six-light, 
8x10 sash, set sideways to slide horizontally on metal guides. There is 
no trim, and the frame is formed by allowing the pl3^wood on both sides 
to overlap the panel frame. Tacked on the outside is bronze screen cloth. 
Door stops are -J-inch stock, and the door sills are i-inch stock. Windows 
are minus hardware except hooks to hold them to the plywood wall 
when closed. 

Roof panels use 2-k6 framing, four feet wides and 16 and 24 feet long, 
filled with rockwool. These are fastened together in much the same way 
as the wall panels and covered with a gravel-covered flat roof. 

In one end of the combination living room, dining room, kitchen is 
an enameled iron sick and a fuel oil heating stove, the latter connected 
to a water heating coil extending through the wall at a 30-gallon hot 
water storage tank in a corner of the 4x8i foot bathroom. In the bathroom 
is a leg stand tub, a water closet and an enameled iron lavatory. The soil 
pipe is exposed and a flimsy midget medicine cabinet is above the lava- 
tory. 

The plumbing does not comply with the Fort Wayne plumbing code. 
Any question as to why is met with silence. 

According to the Federal Housing Administration, the establishment 
of high plumbing standards in the American home — vital to national 
health — is a paramount objective of its huge building program. 

FHA publicity releases, declare its officials are adamant in their in- 
sistence that local plumbing codes be rigidly adhered to before insurance 
of the mortgage on the home is approved. This insistence even goes so 



THE CARPENTER 7 

far that in instances where no local ordinances pertain, the strict specifi- 
cations set up by the United States Bureau of Standards are required. 

Investigations have proved that faulty plumbing causes many epi- 
demics as well as cases of individual illnesses. 

Since there is no basement, attic or other storage space except a small 
closet in each bedroom, washing implements and other accumulations are 
set on the outside of the house on a porch level with the ground. 

Light fixtures are short drop-cords. The baseboard is a plain 2x4 with 
a beveled edge. Floors are bare concrete except for such covering as the 
tenant may place over them. 

From the inside of several houses daylight can be seen through the 
open cracks on all four sides of the outside doors. 

Rain has been known to come under the front door and drift in between 
the wall panels in the space between the panel and the concrete slab. 

Many of the tenants believe they are paying plenty ($2.50 weekly) 
for what they are getting and the houses are little better than those they 
left. 

Even by closing ofif both bedrooms the houses were difficult to heat. 
The information was volunteered that the floors of the unheated bedrooms 
take the place of a refrigerator to keep butter and milk cool. 

R. R. Johnson, secretary of the Ninth District Indiana Lumber and 
Builders' Supply Association, had this to say about the project: 

"The first family to move into one of these houses came from outside 
of the city limits, from a house that was for sale, and that was rented to 
another famil}^ the next week. The second family moved from a trailer, 
and placed the trailer on the new site. With one family a non-resident 
and the other moving in from a trailer I can't see the connection between 
these houses and Fort Wayne's clearance. The point is that aside from 
all the structural and sanitary deficiencies of these houses there are no 
so-called slum houses being torn down and apparently not too much 
vigilance is being exercised to move people out of undesirable city 
houses. 

"From what I know of FHA, man}^ of the requirements it lays down 
for an insured mortgage have been violated in these houses, and yet the 
mortgages are insured by it. The first few were indiscriminately spotted 
with little regard to whether they harmonized with other buildings in 
the communities afifected. One batch of them has been put on a mud flat. 
There is nothing within a 100 feet of them that even approximates a 
street, let alone a paved street. 

"On a lot owned by a single holder five of them have been built on a 
terraced slope. Along one side is a cinder driveway while the approach 
from a gravel road is over a 60 foot scene of mud in the wet season. 

"Stepping stones of concrete block are provided for nimble and agile 
visitors to negotiate the muddy route from the road to the houses. No 
financial institution in the world would loan money on these houses on a 
20-year amortization plan without insurance on the risk. 

"The first protest came from the Associated Building Contractors on 
the ground that the Authority was not taking out building permits and not 
complying with the building codes and ordinances. Finally an oral prom- 
ise of compliance was secured in the event that any more of the houses are 
built. In one section of town the protest from property owners was so vig- 
orous that the Authority has agreed not to erect any more there. Contrac- 
tors, material men and others in Fort Wayne interested in building would 
not be so greatly agitated about these fifty houses if they knew that the 



? THE CARPENTEB 

activity would stop there. These will not hurt the city much. Poor con- 
struction by unskilled workmen, non-conformity with building codes and 
use of untried materials and methods are bound to result in rapid depre- 
ciation and simply add to the number of sub-standard houses we have." 

Discussing- the housing project, one of the men connected with the 
Authority said : 

"Last year this city had $80,000 worth of public hospitalization. We 
would like to relieve some of that." 

Ill-housing was blamed for a large part of that figure. 

Certainly the houses put up by the Authority won't do much to reduce 
it, unless drafts, poor heating and poor sanitation etc., are the most recent 
methods of keeping people out of hospitals. 

A prominent Fort Wayne business man makes the following state- 
ment about the housing authority : 

"Social justice demands the right of man to opportunities that will 
provide him with proper shelter, and these rights are no less than those 
of adequate food and clothing. If our economic system fails in the crea- 
tion of these opportunities, it is the duty of the state to supply the defi- 
ciency. There is, therefore, no need for apology on the part of the Fort 
Wayne Housing Authority for providing- shelter through the subsidy 
of public funds if such is necessary and therefore no need of withhold- 
ing from the public the whole truth of the cost. and practibility of this 
departure from conventional home construction. The publicity we have 
had definitely does not tell the whole story and is being interpreted in a 
manner indicating that the building industry is incapable of adjusting 
itself to modern, improved methods, or as unduly exploiting the public. 

"It might be difficult to convince any experienced member of the 
building industry of the permanence of these houses beyond a period of 
five years or thereabouts, but if FHA will recognize them as having a 
life span of 20 years or more, and the public wants them, the building 
industry will soon prepare itself to turn them out in quantities and at a 
price less than the total cost of the homes now being built by the Housing 
Authority. 

"Anyone having experience getting an FHA approved loan knows 
that a house of the type we are discussing would never get beyond the 
preliminary application stages. 

"The danger of the Fort Wayne plan as I see it is that the newly 
constructed dwellings are not replacing sub-standard units and that they 
will result in further depreciating them. Such units, are, for the greater, 
sub-standard because their owners consider the returns from them as in- 
sufficient to properly maintain or improve them and further reduction of 
the income will aggravate the present situation. 

"A continuation of the Fort Wayrue Plan cannot help but further re- 
duce this income. 

"It is my observation that our sub-standard homes still have consid- 
erable life in them, and need only minor repairs, a good job of painting, 
and modern plumbing and heating facilities to make them much more live- 
able and attractive than those new inventions. 

"I would not hesitate to enter into a blanket contract to so condition 
95 per cent of the recognized sub-standard houses of our community for 
$900 each and for that sum I would furnish both labor and material at 
prevailing prices. Under such a plan complete slum clearance is possible 
at considerable salvage of existing values, and a minimum expenditure 
of public funds. Of course, I would, under my plan, expect to clear the 



THE CARPENTER 9 

premises of broken down fences, sheds and lean-tos that more than any- 
other factor contribute to the unsightliness of the neighborhood. If under 
such a plan the tenants would contribute some time to landscaping of the 
premises they occupy, neighborhoods would be created that no one of the 
lower income group need be ashamed to live or rear his family in." 

Fred Wehrenberg, of the Standard Lumber and Supply Co., had this 
to say about the authority's houses and methods : 

"We don't attack these places from the standpoint of taking people out 
of slums and shacks. That would be excellent, but no such result has hap- 
pened. It doesn't wreck the shacks. It doesn't even take people out of 
them. If the FHA will give us the same leeway that it gave the x\uthority 
and banks will loan to us we will build better houses for less money. Let 
the FHA play with us on the same terms. If it will insure loans for us on 
the same conditions we can beat these houses in both size and quality. 

"As for the announced time of one hour and forty minutes required 
to set one of the houses up, we have it from one of the crew that set up a 
shell in that time that the men were carefully rehearsed and timed before- 
hand and when they got ready to give their demonstration they were fully 
trained and all pieces were laid out exactly right for them. I saw another 
crew take all afternoon to put up two corners." 

Mr, Wehrenberg was referring to the Authoritv's publicity releases 
which had declared that it took only one hour and forty minutes to set up 
one of the houses. 

It requires at least a day to lay the concrete slabs, and a half day in 
the plant to fabricate the panels, according to the Authority's statements 
for public consumption and the rehearsed hour and forty minutes to erect 
the shell. 

The actual time required to lay the roof, make utility connections, in- 
stall plumbing, paint the interior and exterior is omitted in the publicity 
that would have the public believe that it is possible to build and sell a 
house for $900 that can be set up ready for occupancy in one hour and 
forty minutes. This does not include about $600 for labor. 

Now let's see what private enterprise can do in the way of low-cost 
conventional housing with standard materials and skilled labor in Fort 
Wayne. 

Says Paul E. McGill of the Allen County Lumber Company who pro- 
duces a plan and photograph of his type of low cost housing erected by a 
local contractor : 

"The floor plan has two bed rooms, one of which does not have access 
to the bathroom without entering through the other. 

"I understand this does not come up to FHA requirements. But that 
is the only requirement violated, and in view of what the authoritv has 
got away with, this deficiency is negligible. 

"In one of the houses this contractor built, the living room and front 
bedroom were reversed and the front bedroom was called a dining room, 
leaving the house with one bedroom. This is a very nice arrangement for 
a family not requiring a second bedroom. 

"In order to get some accurate cost information on these houses I con- 
sulted the contractor who built them and he gave a figure of $1,528 which 
he says is sufficient to reproduce them as they are. I have checked his 
itemized figures, and I am satisfied that this figure would be ample. It is 
anticipated that prevailing wage scales would be paid and that materials 
would be furnished from regular local retail stocks." 



10 THE CARPENTER 

"The houses were built in compliance with local codes and ordinances. 
Walls are regular construction, plastered. Roofs are asphalt shingles. 
Foundations are poured concrete to the frost line, and extending 12 inches 
above grade. Floors are best grade yellow pine on wood joists. 

"Walls are stud type with |-inch ship lap sheathing, clear red wood 
beveled siding and plaster over f-inch gypsum lath. Window and door 
frames are factory made white pine, and doors and sash are white pine. 
Electric wiring is according to code with all outlets controlled by switches 
and fitted with standard fixtures. Standard type plumbing fixtures in- 
clude, tub, lavatory, bowl and kitchen sink. Baseboard, door and window 
trim are wood." 

From every standpoint the privately built house is far better than 
the Authority's. Certainly it offers a better investment for the govern- 
ment and better protection for the taxpayers' money, protection that must 
come from sound construction made possible by skilled labor and due 

regard for building codes and ordinances. 

• 

Low Cost Home Program Gaining 

PRIVATE industry's bid for the nation's small homes market — in 
which it finds itself in keen competition with Uncle Sam — appears 
headed for success, on the basis of activity reported to date in the 
1939 National Small Homes Demonstration. 
Contending that private enterprise is equipped to build and sell homes 
that meet the needs and means of the family in the small income bracket, 
the National Retail Lumber Dealers Association and the National Lumber 
Manufacturers Association are collaborating in this country-wide pro- 
gram to foster the building of homes purchasable on terms of less than a 
dollar a day. 

Nearly 4,000 retail lumber dealers, builders, and financing agencies 
have evinced their active participation in the program to date. 

Approximately 5,000 sets of "ready to build" plans have been purchased 
from the National Small Homes Demonstration, setting forth details. 
Nearly 14,000 manuals, available to the industry and individuals, have 
been requested. 

Officials of the 1939 demonstration are confident the building industry 
and, consequently, other allied industries, shortly will reflect a revival 
unprecedented in recent years as a result of stimulated demand for build- 
ing materials. 

Launched in January, the 1939 National Small Homes Demonstration 
is based on a carefully weighed belief that livable, attractive and durable 
small homes could be built for less than a dollar a day, generally below 
what the modest family budget now allows for rent. 

Allowing for regional cost variations a group of experts from all 
branches of the building industry and government agencies came to the 
firm conclusion such homes could be built and might be bought, on easy 
terms, over a period of years through Federal Housing Administration 
finance plans or through private banks and loan associations. 

Two basic plans, one for a two-story home and one for a one-story 

home, were drawn. Each is capable of six major variations and within 

each plan are potentialities for changes to suit the individual taste. 

• 

Demand the Union Label 



THE CARPENTER 11 

SOME EARLY HISTORY OF THE BROTHERHOOD 

(Now that SO many of our Local Unions are holding soth 
Anniversary celebrations, the General Secretary is called 
upon to give information when the Local celebrating was 
organized, when chartered, list of charter members if pos- 
sible, amount paid by the Local Union to the General Office, 
benefits paid by the General Office to the Local Union for 
death, disability, pensions and other causes, and last but not 
least the Local Unions originally chartered and in continu- 
ous affiliation up to the present time. This is all very inter- 
esting matter. However, it takes a lot of time and research 
work to go through records of half a century. We have given 
the information asked for as concisely as possible. We be- 
lieve our members would like to read it — Editor). 

FOR many years previous to 1881, no national or international union 
of carpenters existed. The men of the trade found it necessary to 
organize in their home towns in ordel- to protect themselves against 
long hours of work, low wages and unsatisfactory working condi- 
tions. The records show that at that time there were carpenters' unions in 
Cincinnati, Cleveland and Toledo, Ohio; Buffalo, New York; Washing- 
ton, D. C. ; Boston, Massachusetts; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Kansas 
City, Springfield and St. Joseph, Missouri; Denver, Colorado; Detroit, 
Michigan; New Haven and Bridgeport, Connecticut; Paterson, New 
Jersey; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Louisville, Kentuck\^ ; Indianapolis, 
Evansville, Terre Haute, Indiana ; Baltimore, Maryland ; Omaha, Ne- 
braska; two unions in Chicago, Illinois, one known as the Benevolents, the 
other as the Protectives. The Benevolents were organized on a branch 
system, that is, they had branches in dift'erent parts of the city. The Pro- 
tectives were organized on a centralized system. The total membership 
of both unions numbered 1,600. 

In New York City, "The United Order of American Carpenters and 
Joiners" organized May i, 1871 held sway and had several lodges in dif- 
ferent parts of the city with a membership of 5,000. 

In St. Louis, Missouri, three unions existed since 1878. They were 
later chartered by the state and were known as Unions No. i, 2 and 3 
with a total membership of 400. Other carpenters' unions were organized 
elsewhere, but did not take any interest outside of their own territory. 

Early in 1881, the three carpenters' unions in St. Louis had under 
consideration the advisability of organizing a Carpenters and Joiners 
National Union, but as they were isolated and alone thc}^ did not know 
how to go about that project so as to get the Carpenters' Union else- 
where interested. Finally on yVpril 24, 1881 they elected a committee of 
five to be known as "The Provisional Committee of the Carpenters and 
Joiners National Union," Gustave Luebkert, Chairman, and P. J. McGuirc. 
v^ecretary. This committee was authorized and empowered to make ar- 
rangements for the holding of a convention in some centrally located city 
for the purpose of organizing a National Carpenters' Union. 

In order to get in touch with other Carpenters' Unions the Provisional 
Committee decided to publish a small journal under the caption "The 
Carpenter," 



12 THE CARPENTER 

The first issue appeared in May, 1881. On the front page we find the 
following- statement : 

"For years the carpenters and joiners of the United States have been 
either disorganized or banded together in isolated local unions; no under- 
standing between them, with one scale of wages in one city, and often a 
lower scale of wages in adjoining cities. 

"We must have a National Union embracing every competent carpenter, 
and founded on a basis as broad as the land in which we live. Single- 
handed we can accomplish very little, but united there is no power or 
wrong we can not defy. 

"A National Union will bring an understanding between the various 
cities and will lead to uniform and higher wages generally. 

"We appeal to you to help us organize a National Union of Carpenters 
and Joiners. The St. Louis unions, impressed with the necessity of such a 
movement, have elect